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‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١-
‫א‬W 
 ...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢-
‫א‬‫א‬W...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٣-
١K١‫א‬ 
 ...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٤-
...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٥-
‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٦-
 
٣ J...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٧-
 J‫א‬‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٨-
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٩-
 J‫א‬‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٠-
 J‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١١-
‫א‬‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٢-
 
 J‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٣-
 
 
 
 
 ...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٤-
١K٣K٣...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٥-
FRelaysE...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٦-
‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٧-
 
‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٨-
 ...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-١٩-
‫א‬Relays
...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢٠-
 ‫א‬ ...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢١-
‫א‬‫א‬...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢٢-
 
‫א‬F١ J٣...
‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬
‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
-٢٣-
‫א‬F١٤E...
أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية
أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية
أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية
أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية
أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية
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أساسيات الحماية الكهربائية

  1. 1. ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ١
  2. 2. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١- ‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   
  3. 3. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢- ‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ١.‫א‬‫א‬K  ٢.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٣.‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬٩٠K٪    ‫א‬‫א‬W    ‫א‬‫א‬W   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  4. 4. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٣- ١K١‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬    ، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬Internal faults ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬short circuits‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬open circuit‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  5. 5. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٤- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬fault ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬??‫א‬??‫א‬ ‫א‬??K‫א‬‫א‬????‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬??‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬????faultK    ١K٢ J‫א‬‫א‬Faults and fault types  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬balanced 3 phase   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J‫א‬‫א‬   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬faults‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬insulation failure‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،
  6. 6. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٥- ‫א‬،‫א‬، ‫א‬،KKKK   J‫א‬lighting‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K    ١K٢K١‫א‬‫א‬Types of faults ١ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬Short circuit faults     J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Open conductor faults     J‫א‬Winding faults   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ٢ J‫א‬W   Jsingle fault    J  multiple  fault  ‫א‬ simultaneous  faults ‫א‬‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K 
  7. 7. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٦-   ٣ J‫א‬W  Jtemporary faults ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬permanent faults‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K  ٤ J‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬Transmission line faults   J‫א‬‫א‬Underground cable faults   J ‫א‬‫א‬Generator faults   J‫א‬  Motor faults     J‫א‬Transformer faults     J‫א‬‫א‬Bus bar faults     J‫א‬‫א‬Short Circuit Faults  ‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬  single phase to ground fault     JPhase to phase fault     J‫א‬  Two phase to ground fault 
  8. 8. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٧-  J‫א‬‫א‬Symmetrical fault  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Three phase fault  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K     J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Open Circuit Faults  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬       J‫א‬         J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬unbalance‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K     J‫א‬Winding Faults  ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬EW   Jphase to phase fault   J‫א‬phase to earth fault  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬inter‐turn short circuit 
  9. 9. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٨- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K     J‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬Power System Component Faults ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    K١ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Over-head lines  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٨٥٪‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬  ‫א‬auto-reclosers‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬interlock‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    K٢ J‫א‬‫א‬Underground Cables   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  10. 10. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٩-  J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬joints  ‫א‬TerminationsK   J‫א‬‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    K٣ J‫א‬Power Transformers  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  ١ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ٢ J‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   JW   J‫א‬،   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،   J‫א‬‫א‬،   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    K٤ J‫א‬‫א‬Generators Faults ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬   J‫א‬ 
  11. 11. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٠-  J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬K   J‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K    K٥ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Three phase motor Faults  ‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬single phase ‫א‬K    K٦ J‫א‬‫א‬Bus bars Faults  ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  12. 12. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K    ١K٣ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Damage due to electric faults ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W  ١ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ٢ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ٣ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ١K٣K١ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Damage due to short-circuit  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K     J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬overheating  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F E،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬١٠٠٠‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬٤٠٠ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  13. 13. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٢-    J‫א‬‫א‬Electromagnetic forces   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬٢٠‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ٤٠٠‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ K    ١K٣K٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Damage due to overvoltage  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Switching overvoltage   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬overvoltage due to sudden change in  load   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬overvoltage due to load loss   J‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬     overvoltage due to parallel resonance  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬lightingK ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬F١{١E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬5 – 100 kA 20 µs – 3 ms     
  14. 14. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٣-                                     10 kA‫א‬400 ΩF‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬E F٢{١E،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W  V =Z*I = 5000*400 = 2000000 V  ‫א‬‫א‬٢‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬‫א‬EK      Current  ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬)١٫١: (‫اﻟﺼﺎﻋﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﻮﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬  Peak current  5‐100 kA  time  1.2   4 µS Lightning  10KA  ‫ﺷﻜﻞ‬)٢٫١: (‫هﻮا‬ ‫ﺧﻂ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺻﺎﻋﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ‬‫ﺋﻲ‬  5 kA 5 kA 
  15. 15. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٤- ١K٣K٣‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Damage due to unbalanced supply voltage    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬W   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K   J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬High impedance fault ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬negative sequence‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬Zero sequence‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K    ١K٤ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    FNormalE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  
  16. 16. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٥- FRelaysE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬AbnormalF‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬KE ‫א‬Normally Open Contact (NOC)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K Normally Closed Contact (NCC)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬F ‫א‬ ‫א‬E   F‫א‬ ‫א‬  E   K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬Primary Relays ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬Secondary Relays ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬Electromagnetic Relays  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K   
  17. 17. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٦- ‫א‬‫א‬Static Relays  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬   (semi-conductors) ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K‫א‬ ‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (slave devices)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬Main Relays ‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Back-Up Relays  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬Selectivity   ‫א‬   F‫א‬E ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬Sensitivity ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬Consistency ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬Operating Time  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  18. 18. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٧-   ‫א‬‫א‬Instantaneous Relays  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E ‫א‬0.1 secK    ‫א‬‫א‬Time-delay Relay ‫א‬‫א‬K    ‫א‬Over Current Relays  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬W    ١K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Definite time-Current Relay  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K    ٢K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Inverse-time-Current Relays   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬( I . t = k)‫א‬‫א‬K  ٣K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  Inverse-definite time Relay   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K   ١K٥ J‫א‬F‫א‬E   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬     F‫א‬  E ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K 
  19. 19. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٨-  ‫א‬، ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬F١W٢E٪‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬“Electric Brain”K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬W  ١K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٢K‫א‬‫א‬K ٣K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٤K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٥K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬Fuses ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬Circuit Breakers
  20. 20. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -١٩- ‫א‬Relays ‫א‬‫א‬Lightning Arrestors  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬  K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬F‫א‬ KE‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬KE ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K    ١K٦ J‫א‬     ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ F‫א‬KE‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Distance Relay type reactance) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ (Cos Φ)‫א‬‫א‬) φSin I V (٢٪ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  21. 21. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢٠-  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ (Potential Transformer) ‫א‬ (Current Transformer)‫א‬W  ١K‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬     ‫א‬K ٢K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ٣K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬      K ‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬  ‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ( Sensing element)   ‫א‬( Control element) K‫א‬  ‫א‬ ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬      ‫א‬ K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K    ١K٧ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬     ‫א‬(Protective Relays)‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬
  22. 22. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢١- ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬F ‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬K   ‫א‬F١٣E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬  K ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬ (Bus-Bars)‫א‬    (Feeders) ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(Trip Coil t.c.)‫א‬‫א‬(auxiliary switch) ‫א‬  K    ‫א‬  ‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬W  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(L/R)‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬(a)‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬(rest)K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K     
  23. 23. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢٢-   ‫א‬F١ J٣E‫א‬‫א‬    ١K٨ J‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬،‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬W‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬W    ١K٨K١ J‫א‬Selectivity   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬ K ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K ‫ﻣﺤﻮل‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺪ‬ P.T ‫اﻟﺘﻴﺎر‬ ‫ﻣﺤﻮل‬ CT ‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ‫ﻗﺎﻃﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺤﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺪاﺋﺮة‬ ‫اﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫اﻟﺘﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺐ‬ ‫ﺗﻮزﻳﻊ‬ ‫ﻗﻀﻴﺐ‬ ‫اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻮي‬ ‫اﻟﺠﻬﺪ‬ ‫ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻣﺮﺣﻞ‬ ‫ﺑﻄﺎرﻳﺔ‬ a b c
  24. 24. ‫א‬٢٦٥‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ -٢٣- ‫א‬F١٤E ،K      ‫א‬F١٤E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬    ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬   ‫א‬   ‫א‬ ‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬   K   ‫א‬  ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K  ‫א‬‫א‬F‫א‬‫א‬E‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬، K‫א‬‫א‬( over lapping)‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬K‫א‬F١٥E ‫א‬   ‫א‬      ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬‫א‬ ‫א‬K‫א‬‫א‬١‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬  GG  ‫א‬‫א‬  ‫א‬ 

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