2. ORGANIC FARMING/ ECOLOGICAL
“Production of crop, animal and other products without
application of harmful chemicals like synthetic chemical
fertilizers & pesticides, genetically modified or transgenic
species or antibiotics & growth enhancing steroids.”
Organic agriculture is a production system that sustains the
health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological
processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions,
rather than the use of inputs with adverse effects. Organic
agriculture combines tradition, innovation and science to
benefit the shared environment and promote fair relationships
and a good quality of life for all involved...
Organic farming consist of several principles & practices,
given by the standards of International Federation of Organic
Agriculture Movements (IFOAM).
3. AIM BEHIND ORGANIC FARMING
Production of food of high quality in sufficient quantity.
Minimization of all forms of pollution.
Processing of products using renewable resources.
Production of biodegradable organic products.
Consideration of the wider social & ecological impact of
the organic production.
Maintenance of long term fertility of soil.
Maintain the genetic diversity of the plants & wildlife
Promotion of healthy use & proper care of water, water
resources, all life therein.
Development of a valuable & sustainable aquatic
Organic farming methods combine scientific knowledge of ecology
and some modern technology with traditional farming practices
based on naturally occurring biological processes.
Organic farming methods are studied in the field of agroecology.
Organic farmers are restricted by regulations to using natural
pesticides and fertilizers. An example of a natural pesticide is
pyrethrin, which is found naturally in the Chrysanthemum flower.
The principal methods of organic farming include
1. crop rotation
2. Green manures and
4. biological pest control
5. mechanical cultivation
6. These measures use the natural environment to enhance
5. EFFECT OF ORGANIC FARMING
Improve in biodiversity: Organic farming encourages Crop
diversity. The science of agroecology has revealed the
benefits of polyculture (multiple crops in the same space),
which is often employed in organic farming. Planting a variety
of vegetable crops supports a wider range of beneficial
insects, soil microorganisms, and other factors that add up to
overall farm health. Crop diversity helps environments thrive
and protects species from going extinct.
Helps to improve soil quality & microbial biomass:
Organic farming relies heavily on the natural breakdown of
organic matter, using techniques like green
manure and composting, to replace nutrients taken from the
soil by previous crops. This biological process, driven
by microorganisms such as mycorrhiza, allows the natural
production of nutrients in the soil throughout the growing
season, and has been referred to as feeding the soil to feed
6. Weed management: Organic weed management
promotes weed suppression, rather than weed
elimination, by enhancing crop competition
and phytotoxic effects on weeds.
Organic fertilizers have lower nutrient content & release
of nutrient is slow. So they are more effective for long
Biofertilizers contain microbial inoculants of living cells
like bacteria, algae, fungi alone or combination which
increases crop productivity.
Organic farming can act as on plant growth directly
through the production of phytohormones or indirectly
through nitrogen fixation or production of bio control
agents against soil borne phytopathogens for better yield.
Organic farmers use a number of traditional farm
tools to do farming. Due to the goals
of sustainability in organic farming, organic farmers
try to minimize their reliance on fossil fuels. In the
developing world on small organic farms tools are
normally constrained to hand tools
and diesel powered water pumps.
Vermin composted with coir pith & coir pith composted
with microorganisms were used as a growth medium for
growth of Andrographis paniculata.
Asparagus racemosus grown through organic farming
using organic manures showed high antioxidant activity &
increase in total polyphenol content.
Organically grown Thymus vulgaris was found to contain
highest value of thymol.
Treatment of Ocimum basillicum roots with rhizobacteria
results in increased growth & volatile oil.
Organic farming of Geranium results in increase in fresh
weight & oil percentage.
Increase in herbage, essential oil content & dry matter
yield in Java citronella.
9. INTEGRATED PEST MANAGEMENT(IPM)
“The method of cultivation of plant by consideration
of all the factors that can provide to the plant
efficient use of environmental resources for higher
quality & quantity.”
Biofertilizers are microorganisms which bring about
nutrient enrichments of soil by enhancing the
availability of nutrient to crops.
A culture medium made up of vermuculite,
peatmoss, & pearlite is quite suitable for the
application of biofertilizers.