2. Prophet Muhammad (SAW)
• The last Prophet of Islam, Prophet
Muhammad (SAW), completely changed the
intellectual outlook of Arabia. Within a span
of 23 years, he transformed the barbarous
and impious Arabs into a civilized and
religious nation. On the demise of the
Prophet, the expansion of Islam was not
3. ‘Imād ad-Dīn Muḥammad ibn Qāsim ath-
Thaqafī (Arabic: القاسم بن محمد الدين عمادالثقفي )
• Umayyad General
• Iraq Governor, Hijaj bin Yousaf
• Married his Daughter Zubaida
• Foundation of Islamic Rule in Subcontinent
4. Causes of Sindh Invasion
• Attacked by Raja Dahir’s forces on Muslim’s ship
• The Arab were imprisoned later on by the Debal
Governor, Partaab Raye
• Refusal of Raja Dahir
• Hijaj sent Muhammad Bin Qasim for this expedition in
• Third Expedition
• Makran Arman Belah(lasbela) Debal
(Karachi) Sadusan (Sehwan), Nerun (Hyd),
Brahamnabad (Shehdad Pur)
• Ar-rur (Rohri,Nawabshah) met by Dahir's forces
• Captured (Multan)
6. Reason for Success
• Superior military equipment
• Troop discipline and leadership.
• The concept of Jihad as a morale booster.
• Religion; the widespread belief in the prophecy of
• The ‘Samanis” the majority of the population was
Buddhist who were dissatisfied with their rulers, who
• Revolt in Umayyad
• Death of Hijaj bin Yousaf
• M.B Qasim Return
• Murdered on way
8. Sultan Mehmood Ghaznavi (November 2, 971
- April 30, 1030)
• Son of Sabuktagin
• Turkish Slave Commander
• Ruled from 997 to 1030
• Dynasty (Afghanistan, Eastern Iran, Pakistan, North East
• 17 expeditions on India
• Started from (Khorsan, Balkh, Herat, Merv) Afghanistan, from
Samanids in 999
• Seistan (Iran) 1000
• Ghandhara (Peshawar) defeats Jaypal 1001
• Multan, Ismail shah & Anandapala
• Expeditions in India against Rajput
• (Ujjain, Gwalior, Kalinjar, Kannauj,iAjmer, Kangra. HP) 1008
• Takes Lahore on his return
• Nehrwala, Kathiawar, Somnath This raid was his last
• Somnath 1025: killing over 50,000 people who tried to
• Sultan Mahmud died on April 30, 1030 at Ghazni
11. Sultan Muhammad Shahabu-ddin Ghori (1150
– 15 March 1206)
• Mu'izzuddīn Muḥammad Bin Sām
• Born in Ghor, Afghanistan
• Brother Ghayassu-ddin
• Ghorid’s Dynasty (Afghanistan, Pakistan, North East
• Multan & Uch 1175
• Attacked Gujrat 1178, defeated by Rajput Bhimdev
• Capture Lahore 1181
• Conquered Sialkot 1181
• Attacked Terrain (Delhi) against Prithvi Raj Chohan
(Rajput) 1191, Loss
• Attacked Terrain 1192 again, become Victorious
• Moved to Ajmer + North Rajasthan
• Attacked Ayodhya temple, capture Delhi 1193
• Made Qutbuddin Aibak his Deputy of Sultanate
• Conquered Bengal 1204
• Murdered by Hindu warrior near Jhelum 1206
14. THE MAMLUK SULTANS
• Qutbuddin Aibak (AD 1206–1210)
• Iltutmish (AD 1210–1236)
• Raziya (AD 1236–40)
• Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246–66 AD)
• Balban (AD 1266–87)
15. Qutbuddin Aibak (AD 1206–1210)
• Brave, faithful and generous.
• Due to his generosity he was known as “Lakh Baksh”.
• High Ranked Soldier in Ghori’s Army (Turkish Slave).
• Ghori died in AD1206.
• The founder of Delhi Sultanate.
• Revolts of Rajputs and Indian chiefs.
• Aibak died of injuries received in a fall from his horse while
playing chaugan ( Polo).
16. Aram Shah (AD 1210-1210)
• Son of Qutbuddin Aibak.
• After death of Aibak a few amirs raised his son Aram Shah.
• Opposition of Turkish Amirs.
• Iltmish come to Delhi.
• Aram Shah proceeded against him at the head of the army from
Lahore to Delhi but Iltutmish defeated him and became the
17. Iltutmish (AD 1210–1236)
• Defiance of other commanders of Muhammad Ghori like Yaldauz,
Qubacha and Ali Mardan.
• He consolidating his position. He defeated Yaldauz in AD 1215 in
the battle of Tarain.
• In AD 1220, when Chenghiz Khan destroyed the Khwarizm expire,
• In AD 1217 he drove away Qabacha from Punjab.
• In AD 1226–27 his son Nasiruddin Mahmud which defeated Iwaz
Khan and brought Bengal and Bihar back into the Delhi Sultanate.
• Also Captured Ranthambore in AD 1226.
• In AD 1231 Iltutmish had established his authority over Mandor,
Jalore, Bayana and Gwalior.
• Iltutmish completed the unfinished work of Aibak.
• He also organised his trusted nobles or officers into a group of
• Financial and administrative control over in India.
19. Raziya (AD 1236–40)
• Daughter of Iltutmish.
• Iltutmish nominated her as his successor.
• His brother Ruknuddin Firoz and other amirs revolts after Iltutmish
• Got killed after she was defeated by the nobles.
20. Behram Shah (AD 1240–42) and Masud Shah
• After Raziya’s death, the power of Turk Chiefs (Chahalgani)
increased and they became largely responsible for making and
unmaking of kings.
• After that they removed them.
21. Nasiruddin Mahmud (1246–66 AD)
• Inexperienced and young Nasiruddin
• Grandson of Iltutmish.
• In AD 1246, Ulugh Khan (later known as Balban) placed them
• Position of Naib (deputy).
• Balban poisoned the Nasiruddin.
22. Balban (AD 1266–87)
• Autocratic ruler.
• Ulugh Khan, known in history by the name of Balban.
• Mongols were looking forward for an opportunity for attacking the
Sultanate, the governors of the distant provinces were also trying
to become independent rulers, the Indian rulers were also ready
to revolt at the smallest opportunity.
• Balban killed the many Mewati and in the area around Badayun,
Rajput strongholds were destroyed.
• Balban was not prepared to share power with anyone even he did
not allow any noble to assume great power.
• Appointed spies in every department.
• Re-organised the military department (diwan-i-arz)
• Deploy army to over disturbances in Mewat, Doab, Awadh and
• Secured control over Ajmer and Nagaur in eastern.
• Failed to capture Ranthambore and Gwalior.
• Revolt of Tughril Beg, the governor of Bengal.
• Balban sent his forces to Bengal and had Tughril killed
• Balban maintained a magnificent court. He refused to laugh and
joke in the court, and even gave up drinking wine so that no one
may see him in a non-serious mood. He also insisted on the
ceremony of sijada (prostration) and paibos (kissing of the
monarch’s feet) in the court.
• Balban died in AD 1287
26. THE KHALJIS (AD 1290–1320)
• Jalaluddin Khalji (AD 1290–1296)
• Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296–1316)
27. Jalaluddin Khalji (AD 1290–1296)
• His real name is Firoz.
• Balban’s Ariz-i-Mumalik ( Minister of War)
• After Balban death nobels his grandson Kaiquabad.He was soon
replaced by his son, Kaimurs.
• In AD 1290 Firoz took a bold step by murdering Kaimurs
• Firoz as Jalaluddin Khalji laid the foundation of the Khalji dynasty
at the age of 70 years.
• Polite ruler.
• He avoided harsh punishments, even to those who revolted against
• Many people including his supporters, considered him to be a weak
• Alauddin Khalji murdered his uncle and Jalaluddin Khalji and
crowned himself as Sultan. (AD1296)
29. Alauddin Khalji (AD 1296–1316)
• Jalaluddin’s ambitious nephew and son-in-law.
• Jalaluddin’s Amir-i-Tuzuk ( Master of Ceremonies).
• Reversed all Jalaluddin’s Policies.
• Curb the powers of the nobles and interference of Ulema in the
matters of the state.
• Land tax for their holdings.
• Curbed the excess of wealth owned by some people.
• Made effective Spy system.
• Use of liquor and intoxicants was prohibited.
• The nobles were ordered not to have social gatherings or inter-
marriages without his permission.
• Establish market and market Regulations of Alauddin Khalji.
• Alauddin received daily reports of the market from two other
independent sources, barid (intelligence officer) and munhiyans (
• Alauddin first began his territorial conquest with a campaign
• In AD 1299, an army under two of Alauddin’s noted generals Ulugh
Khan and Nusarat Khan marched against Gujarat. Rai Karan the
ruler of Gujarat fled, the temple of Somnath was captured. Many
slaves were also captured. Malik Kafur was one among them who
later became the trusted commander of the Khalji forces and led
the invasions to South India..
• Alauddin turned his attention towards Rajasthan and they capture
of Ranthambore with loss of to much Khilji’s soldier in AD 1301.
Nusrat Khan lost his life.
• In AD 1303, Alauddin besieged Chittor, another powerful state of
Rajputana. Chittor was renamed Khizrabad .
• Alauddin returned back quickly to Delhi as Mongol army was
advancing towards Delhi.
• In AD 1305, Khalji army under Ain-ul-Mulk captured Malwa. Other
states such as Ujjain, Mandu, Dhar and Chanderi were also
captured. After the conquest of Malwa,
• Alauddin sent Malik Kafur to the South and himself attacked
• In AD 1311, another Rajput kingdom Jalor was also captured.
Alauddin had completed the conquest of large parts of Rajputana
and became the master of North India.
• Determined to conquer south as north India.
• Sent Malik Kafur, a trusted commander of Alauddin who held the
office of the Naib.
• In AD 1306–07, first expendition against Rai Karan and second
against Rai Ramachandra.
• Many of south ruler realized that defeating Malik Kafur would not
be an easy task, hence he agreed to pay tribute to Sultan without
• Kafur returned with 512 elephants, 7000 horses, and 500 mans of
• Sultan honoured Malik Kafur by appointing him Naib Malik of the
empire. Alauddin’s forces under Malik Kafur continued to maintain
a control over the Deccan kingdoms.
• Alauddin died in AD 1316. Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah become
• Qutbuddin Mubarak Shah was soon murdered and Khusrau.