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Basic_electronics (2).pptx

  2. CONTENTS • Resistor • Capacitor • Inductor • Diode • Transistor
  3. Resistor • A resistor is a two-terminal passive electronic component. It is an electrical component that limits or regulates the flow of electrical current in an electronic circuit. Resistors can also be used to provide a specific voltage for an active device such as a transistor. • Symbol:
  4. Conti……. • S.I unit is ohm • Symbol of ohm (Ω) • Notation for resistance O- for ohm K- for kilo ohm M- for mega ohm
  5. Types of resistor • Fixed type resistor • Variable type resistor
  6. Combination of resistor • series combination • parallel combination
  7. Conti…… • Series combination
  8. Conti…. • Parallel combination
  9. CONTI…. • In series the current remains same • In parallel the voltage remains same
  10. Color coding table
  11. Why we use resistor? • Limiting of current • Limiting of voltage • Power dissipation
  12. Capacitor
  13. • A capacitor is a device for storing electric charge • A capacitor is a passive electronic component consisting of a pair of conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator).
  14. CAPACITANCE • This is a measure of a capacitor's ability to store charge. • A large capacitance means that more charge can be stored. • Capacitance can be measured using formula: q = C V where C = capacitance, q= charge, V = potential difference. • Unit of Capacitance is Farads(F).
  15. Combination of capacitors • Series combination • Parallel combination
  16. Series combination • When capacitors are connected in series, the capacitance decreases. • In Series, total capacitance is given by the formula: 1/Ct= 1/C1+1/C2+………
  17. Parallel combination • When capacitors are connected in parallel, the capacitance increases. • In Parallel, total capacitance is given by the formula: Ct= C1+ C2+………Cn
  18. Types of capacitor • Polarized capacitor • Non polarized capacitor
  19. Non Polarized capacitor • The capacitor which do not have a polarity
  20. Polarized capacitor • The capacitor which have a polarity
  21. Polarized Capacitors
  22. Mica capacitor
  23. Electrolytic capacitor
  24. Paper Capacitor
  25. Film Capacitor
  26. Non-Polarized Capacitors
  27. Electrolytic Capacitor (N.P)
  28. Ceramic capacitor
  29. Plastic capacitor
  30. Features • Capacitor offers low impedance to AC. • It offers high impedance to DC. • Reactance of capacitor is given by: Xc =1/2π fc where π =22/7
  31. Applications • Blocking DC Voltage • Adjusting Frequency • Use to generate a time delay application
  32. Inductor
  33. • The main characteristic of an inductor is its ability to resist changes in current and store energy in the form of a magnetic field. • An inductor produces these magnetic fields only when there is a current flowing through an inductor
  34. Inductance • Inductance is the property of an inductor • Inductance is the ability to oppose any change in current which is flowing through an inductor whether it be in magnitude or in direction. • It oppose rate of change of current • Common symbol: (L) • Unit of inductance is Henry (H)
  35. Types of inductor • Laminated core inductor • Air core inductor • Ferrite core inductor • Toroidal core inductor • Colour ring inductor/fixed inductor • Wireless charging coil
  36. Laminated Core Inductor
  37. Air Core inductor
  38. Ferrite Core Inductor
  39. Toroidal Core Inductor
  40. Colour ring inductor
  41. Wireless Charging Coils
  42. Features • Changes electrical energy to magnetic energy and stores it. • Current flows to generate a magnetic field • Dc can pass through but ac cannot pass through at higher frequencies
  43. Applications • Used in transformer • Sensor • Radio frequency • Energy storage • Motors
  44. Diodes
  45. Diode • Diode is an electronic component which permits the flow of current in one direction only. • Today diodes are made up of semiconductor material, therefore they are often called semiconductor diodes or crystal diodes.
  46. Why we use it? • Diodes are used for rectification. • Diodes are used in electrical meters for there protection. • Diodes are used in wave shaping circuits. • Diodes (LED) are used in display.
  47. Material • Diodes are semiconductor devices. • Silicon(Si) or germanium(Ge) are used.
  48. Types • PN junction diode • Zener Diode • Light Emitting Diodes (LED) • Photo Diodes
  49. PN Junction Diode • This diode is made by p-type & n-type material. • This PN junction diode works in forward bias i.e. anode is connected to positive terminal & cathode is connected to negative terminal.
  50. Symbol
  51. How can we recognize? • There is a silver band on the one side of diode which is cathode (negative) terminal of the diode & the other side is anode (positive) terminal.
  52. Zener Diode • Zener Diode works in reverse bias. • Symbol of zener diode:
  53. How can we recognize zener a diode? • There is black band which is negative terminal & other one is positive terminal.
  54. Light Emitting Diode (LED) • Light Emitting Diode (LED) operates in forward bias. • It emits light when connected in circuit. • Symbol of LED:
  55. How can we recognize LED? • The shorter lead of the LED is negative terminal & longer one is positive, also on the negative terminal there is a flat spot when we see from the top.
  56. Photo Diode • Often known as Photo detector. • Photo Diode operates in reverse bias. • Light falls on the PN junction of the photo diode which creates electron-hole pair in the depletion layer which causes flow of current. • Current depends upon the light intensity • When light incident on the photodiode then current flows in the circuit.
  57. Physical view of Photo diode:
  58. Working of Photodiode Photodiode
  59. LDR(Light Dependent Resistor) • A light dependent resistor is a semiconductor electrical device that has a very high resistance to the flow of electrical current in t absence of light. • When light strikes the device, it lowers its resistance, allowing electrical current to flow through it and on to other devices or electrical circuits.
  61. TRANSISTOR • A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals. It is made of a solid piece of semiconductor material, with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. • Device with three terminals where one terminal can be use to control the flow of current through the other two terminals.
  62. Conti…. • The three terminals are Emitter, Base and Collector
  63. Types of transistor • Junction transistor • Field effect transistor
  64. Junction transistor • Transistor are of two types: 1-> n-p-n A straight switch 2-> p-n-p A inverted switch
  65. n-p-n as a switch • When base of n-p-n is connected with logic high voltage then it short circuit emitter and collector (SWITCH ON). • When base of n-p-n is connected with logic low voltage then it open circuit both emitter and collector (SWITCH OFF).
  66. Circuit diagram to show a switching RB M VCC Logic 0 Logic 1 or GND Logic transistor Motor 0 off stop 1 on run
  67. p-n-p as an inverted switch • When base of p-n-p is connected with logic high voltage then it open circuit emitter and collector (SWITCH OFF). • When base of p-n-p is connected with logic low voltage then it short circuit both emitter and collector (SWITCH ON).
  68. Practically used • As a switch • As an amplifier • For realizing logic gates
  69. Relays • Electro-mechanical switch • A relay is an electrically operated switch • Relays uses an electromagnet to operate a switching mechanism mechanically • Electromagnetic relay consists of a coil of wire wrapped around a soft iron core, an iron yoke which provides a low reluctance path for magnetic flux, a movable iron armature, and one or more sets of contacts
  70. Buzzer • An audio signaling device • May be mechanical, electromechanical, or piezoelectric • Typical uses of buzzers and beepers include alarm devices, timers and confirmation of user input such as a mouse click or keystroke • Used as output device in alarm systems
  71. Microphone • Called as mic or mike • An acoustic-to-electric transducer or sensor • Converts sound into an electrical signal • Used in applications such as – Telephone – tape recorders, – karaoke systems, – hearing aids, – motion picture production, – live and recorded audio engineering, – television broadcasting – computers for recording voice, – speech recognition, – non-acoustic purposes such as ultrasonic checking or knock sensors
  72. IC’S
  73. • L293D • 555 • LM358 • IC 7805(voltage controlled)
  74. L293D IC Vcc EN1 EN2 12V
  75. Truth table
  76. Conti…. • L293D is a dual H-Bridge motor driver. • So with one IC we can interface two DC motors which can be controlled in both clockwise and counter clockwise direction • If you have motor with fix direction of motion then you can make use of all the four I/Os to connect up to four DC motors. • L293D has output current of 600mA. • Moreover for protection of circuit from back EMF output diodes are included within the IC.
  77. Interface motor with IC L293D EN1 EN2 12V VCC
  78. 555 IC
  79. • The 555 Timer IC is an integrated circuit (chip) used in a timer application, pulse generation and oscillator applications. • It works only on falling edge of the incoming signal
  80. Operating modes: • It has three operating modes: 1) monostable 2) Bistable 3) Astable
  81. Monostable mode • In this mode, the IC has only one stable state voltage triggering pulse output time voltage
  82. Bistable mode • In this mode, the IC has two stable state
  83. Astable mode • In this mode, the IC not having a single stable state
  84. LM358 • The LM358 IC consists of two independent operational amplifiers which were designed specifically to operate from a single power supply over a wide range of voltages. • It have two op-amp • Single power supply
  85. LM358 IC
  86. Internal circuit
  87. Features • It have two op-amp • Single power supply • Supply range 3v-32v • Eliminate need of dual supply
  88. IC 7805 • It is a voltage regulator integrated circuit. • It designed to automatically maintain a constant voltage level • It works on a negative feedback
  89. IC 7805
  90. Features • Output current range up to 1A • Output voltage 5V • Input voltage range up to 12V • Short circuit protection
  91. THANKS :)

Hinweis der Redaktion

  1. Its name indicates it definition means transferring of resistance from one point to other point.