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In contrast to block codes, Convolution coding scheme has an information frame together with previous m information frames encoded into a single code word frame, hence coupling successive code word frames. Convolution codes are most important Tree codes that satisfy certain additional linearity and time invariance properties. Decoding procedure is mainly devoted to correcting errors in first frame. The effect of these information symbols on subsequent code word frames can be computed and subtracted from subsequent code word frames. Hence in spite of infinitely long code words, computations can be arranged so that the effect of earlier frames, properly decoded, on the current frame is zero.

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- 1. CONVOLUTION CODES Difference between block codes and convolution codes.: Block code: Block of n digits generated by the encoder in a particular time unit depends only on block of k input massage digits within that time unit. Used mainly for error detection as data are transmitted in blocks. Convolution code: Block of n digits generated by the encoder in a particular time unit depends not only on block of k input massage digits within that time unit but also on the previous (N-1) blocks of message digits (N>1). Mainly used for error correction.
- 2. TREE CODES and TRELLIS CODES • Input stream broken into m segments of ko symbols each. • Each segment – Information frame. • Encoder – (Memory + logic circuit.) • m memory to store m recent information frames at a time. Total mko information symbols. • At each input, logic circuit computes codeword. • For each information frames (ko symbols), we get a codeword frame (no symbols ). • Same information frame may not generate same code word frame. Why?
- 3. TREE CODES ko ko ko ko ko ko ko Logic no Encoder Constraint Length v = mko Information Frame Codeword Frame •Constraint length of a shift register encoder is number of symbols it can store in its memory. • v = mko
- 4. TREE CODES – some facts/definitions! Wordlength of shift register encoder k = (m+1)ko Blocklength of shift register encoder n = (m+1)no (no,ko)code tree rate = ko/no =k/n. A (no,ko) tree code that is linear, time invariant and has finite Wordlength k = (m+1)ko is called (n,K) Convolution codes. A (no,ko) tree code that is time invariant and has finite Wordlength k = (m+1)ko is called (n,K) Sliding Block codes. Not linear.
- 5. Convolution Encoder • One bit input converts to two bits code. • ko =1, no= 2, Block length = (m+1)no =6 • Constraint length = 2 , Code rate = ½ + ++ Shift RegisterInput Encoded output
- 6. Convolutional Encoder- Input and output bits Incoming Bit Current state of Encoder Outgoing Bits 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 1
- 7. Convolutional Encoder- Input and output bits Incoming Bit Current state of Encoder Outgoing Bits 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 0 1 1 1 0 1
- 8. Convolutional Encoder - State Diagram Same bit gets coded differently depending upon previous bits. Make state diagram of Encoder. 2 bits encoder – 4 states.
- 9. Convolutional Encoder - State Diagram 01 10 1100 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1
- 10. Convolutional Encoder - Trellis codes/Diagram 4 Nodes are 4 States. Code rate is ½. In trellis diagram, follow upper or lower branch to next node if input is 0 or 1. Traverse to next state of node with this input, writing code on the branch. Continues… Complete the diagram.
- 11. Convolutional Encoder - Trellis Diagram 00 10 01 11 00 11 States
- 12. Convolutional Encoder - Trellis Diagram 00 10 01 11 00 11 States 00 00 00 11 11 01 10 00 10 01
- 13. Trellis Diagram – Input 1 0 0 1 1 0 1 Output – 11 01 11 11 10 10 00 00 10 01 11 00 11 States 00 00 11 11 01 10 00 10 01 00 00 00 11 10 10 00
- 14. Convolutional Encoder - Polynomial description Any information sequence i0, i1, i2, i3, …can be expressed in terms of delay element D as I(D) = i0 + i1 D + i2 D2 + i3 D3 + i4D4 + … 10100011 will be 1+ D2 + D6+ D7
- 15. Convolutional Encoder - Polynomial description • Similarly, encoder can also be expressed as polynomial of D. • Using previous problem, ko =1, no= 2, – first bit of code g11(D)= D2+D+1 – Second bit of code g12(D)= D2+1 – G(D) = [gij(D)]= [D2+D+1 D2+1] cj(D) = ∑i il(D)gl,j(D) C(D) = I(D)G(D)
- 16. Convolutional encoder – Example Find Generator polynomial matrix, rate of code and Trellis diagram. i ab +
- 17. Convolutional encoder – Example k0 = 1, n0 = 2, rate = ½. G(D) = [1 D4+1] Called systematic convolution encoder as k0 bits of code are same as data.
- 18. Convolutional encoder – Example Find Generator polynomial matrix, rate of code and Trellis diagram. k2 k1 n1 n2 n3 ++
- 19. Convolutional encoder – Example • k0 = 2, n0 = 3, rate = 2/3. • G(D) = g11(D) g12(D) g13(D) • g21(D) g22(D) g23(D) = 1 0 D3+D+1 0 1 0
- 20. Convolutional encoder – Formal definitions Wordlength k = k0 maxi,j{deg gij (D) + 1]. Blocklength n = n0 maxi,j{deg gij (D) + 1]. Constraint length v = ∑ maxi,j{deg gij (D)]. Parity Check matrix H(D) is (n0-k0) by n0 matrix of polynomials which satisfies- G(D) H(D)- 1= 0 Syndrome polynomial s(D) is (n0-k0) component row vector s(D) = v(D) H(D)- 1
- 21. Convolutional encoder – Formal definitions Systematic Encoder has G(D) = [I | P(D)] Where I is k0 by ko identity matrix and P(D) is ko by ( n0-k0) parity check polynomial given by H(D) = [-P(D)T |I] Where I is ( n0-k0) by( n0-k0) identity matrix. Also G(D) H(D)T = 0
- 22. Convolutional encoder – Error correction lth minimum distance dl* is smallest hamming distance between any two initial codeword segments l frames long that are not identical in initial frames. If l=m+1, then (m+1)th minimum distance is minimum distance of the code d* or dmin.. Code can correct “t” errors in first l frames if dl* ≥ 2t+1
- 23. Convolutional encoder -Example m = 2, l = 3 d1*=2, d2*=3, d3*=5… comparing with all ‘0’s. d* = 5 t = 2
- 24. Convolutional encoder – Free Distance Minimum distance between arbitrarily long encoded sequence. ( Possibly infinite) Free distance is dfree = maxl[dj] It can be minimum weight of a path that deviates from the all zero path and later merges back into the all zero path. Also dm+1 ≤ dm+2 ≤ …≤ dfree
- 25. Convolutional encoder – Free Length Free length nfree is length of non-zero segment of smallest weight convolution codeword of nonzero weight. dl = dfree if l = nfree.
- 26. Convolutional encoder – Free Length Here Free distance = 5 Free length = 6 00 10 01 11 00 11 00 00 11 11 01 10 00 10 01 00 00 00 11 10 10 00
- 27. Matrix description of Convolution encoder - Example
- 28. Matrix description of Convolution encoder - Example Generator polynomials are: g11(D) = D + D2 g12(D) = D2 g13(D) = D + D2 g21(D) = D2 g22(D) = D g23(D) = D
- 29. Matrix description of Convolution encoder - Example Matrix G0 has coefficients of D0 i.e. constant s: Matrix G1 has coefficients of D1 : Matrix G2 has coefficients of D2 :
- 30. Matrix description of Convolution encoder - Example Generator matrix is only the representation of a convolution coder. It is actually not used to generate codes. 1 0 0 1 0 0
- 31. Matrix description of Convolutional encoder - General Generator matrix is only the representation of a convolution coder. It is actually not used to generate codes.
- 32. VITERBI DECODING Advantages: Highly satisfactory bit error performance High speed of operation. Ease of implementation. Low cost.
- 33. VITERBI DECODING • Given Trellis Diagram of rate 1/3. • Transmitted word – 000000000000000000000… • Received word – 010000100001…
- 34. VITERBI DECODING Procedure: Divide the incoming stream into groups of three. 010 000 100 001… Find hamming distances between first group with two options at first node. Called Branch Metric. Take second group and continue with second node. Find total hamming distance called Path Metric. At any node if two branches meet, discard branch with higher Path Metric. Continue…
- 35. VITERBI DECODING • First group - 010 • d(000,010) = 1 BM1 = 1 • d(111,010) = 2 BM2 = 2
- 36. VITERBI DECODING • Second group – 000 • Branch Metric and Path Metric(circled) are found. • At each node three compare total path metric.
- 37. VITERBI DECODING • Third group – 100 • At each node three compare total path metric. • Discard longer Path and retain Survivor.
- 39. Assignments: 1. Design a rate ½ Convolutional encoder with a constraint length v = 4 and d* = 6. Construct state diagram for this encoder. Construct trellis diagram. What is dfree for this code. Give generator matrix G.
- 40. • 2 ) For given encoders each, construct Trellis Diagram. Find k0, n0, v, m, d* and dfree. Find G.
- 41. • 3) Write k, n, v, m and Rate R for this coder. • Give Generator polynomial matrix G(D), generator matrix G and Parity check matrix H. • Find d*, dfree, nfree. • Encode 101 001 001 010 000
- 42. CONVOLUTION CODES – using Code Tree M1, M2, M3, M4 are 1 bit storage elements feeding to 3 summers as per design of the code. v1, v2, v3 are commutator pins, to be sampled one after the other. M1 M2 M4 I/P data stream b1 MSB in first M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 43. v1 = s1. v2 = s1 ⊕ s2 ⊕ s3 ⊕ s4 v3 = s1 ⊕ s3 ⊕ s4 I/p stream enters registers one by one with MSB going in first. As each bit enters, logic summer gives 3-bit O/p v1v2v3. Enough zeroes to be added so that last bit leaves m4. M1 M2 M4 I/P data stream b1 MSB in first M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 44. Code generated by combining outputs of m stage shift registers, through n EX-OR’s . No of bits in message stream = L. No of bits in output code = n (L + m). M1 M2 M4 I/P data stream b1 MSB in first M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 45. Input stream m=1 0 1 1 0 L = 5, n = 3, m = 4 Code bits = 27 Rate of code = 1/3 CODE bo = 111 010 100 110 001 000 011 000 000 M1 M2 M4 I/P data stream b1 MSB in first M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 46. Code depends on No of shift registers m. No of shift summers n. No of shift input bits L. Manner in which all are connected. M1 M2 M4 I/P data stream b1 MSB in first M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 47. Code Tree • Code words = 2kL where – – L = length of information sequence – k = number of bits at each each clock • L+m+1 tree levels are labeled from 0 to L+m. • The leftmost node A in the tree is called the origin node. • 2k branches leaving each node in first L levels for an (n,k,m) code – called Dividing part of the tree. • Upper branch leaving each node in dividing part of tree represent input ui =0/1 while lower branch represent input ui= 1/0. • After L time units, there is only one branch leaving each node. • This represents input 0 for i= L, L+1, …L+m-1 with encoder returning to all zero state.(Tail of tree)
- 48. Code Tree 2kL Rightmost nodes are called terminal nodes. Each branch is labeled with n outputs . Each of 2kLcodewords of length N is represented by a totally distinct path through the tree. Code tree contains same information about code as the trellis diagram or state diagram. Tree better suited for operation of sequential decoding.
- 50. Decoding the convolution code EXHUSTIVE SEARCH METHOD : With no noise Start at A. Take first n-bit s and compare with two sets of n- bits connected to A. If input matches with a n-bit set of tree for which we have to go up the tree, decoded data first bit is “0”. If input matches with a n-bit set of tree for which we have to go down the tree, decoded data first bit is “1”. Go to nodes B, C etc and repeat the process to decode other bits.
- 51. Decoding the convolution code • EXHUSTIVE SEARCH METHOD : With noise • Each input message bit effects m x n bits of the code • = 4X3 = 12 bits. • At node A , we must check first 12 bits only. • 16 such unique 12-bit combinations from A. • Compare first 12 bits with 12 combinations and select best match. • If it takes up the tree at A, first bit decoded to “0” • If it takes down the tree at A, first bit decoded to “1”. • Discard first 3 bits of input code and repeat the same at B comparing next 12 bits with next 16 combinations…..and so on.
- 52. Decoding the convolution code EXHUSTIVE SEARCH METHOD : With noise Discard first 3 bits of input code and come to node B. Repeat the same at B comparing next 12 bits with next 16 combinations…..and so on. Disadvantages: Although it offers low probability of errors, we have to search mXn code bits in 2m branches. Lengthy. Errors tend to propagate . If incorrect direction is chosen at a node due to more errors. No coming back.
- 53. Decoding the convolution code- SEQUENTIAL DECODING METHOD Sequential decoding was first introduced by Wozencraft as first practical decoding method for convolution code. Later Fano introduced new version of sequential decoding called Fano’s algorithm. Then another version called the stack or ZJ algorithm was discovered independently by Zigangirov and Jelinek.
- 54. Wozencraft SEQUENTIAL DECODING METHOD : With noise n bits at a time are considered at a node. At node A. we move in the direction of least discrepancies and decode accordingly. No of discrepancies are noted. Move to node B and repeat. At every node compare no of discrepancies with already decided maximum permissible errors. If current error exceed decided value at any node, traverse back one node and take the other direction. Repeat the process.
- 55. Number of message bits decoded Total no of discrepancies at a node or errors while decoding Discard level (1) (4) (3) (2) Correct Path
- 56. SEQUENTIAL DECODING METHOD Advantages: Works on smaller code blocks. Faster. Although trial and error and retracing involved, still gives better results at smaller time.
- 57. ASSIGNMENT find code tree. M1 M2 3 bit input M3 v1 v2 v3 Code output bo Commutator
- 58. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm • Let input data stream length is L with k bits entering simultaneously in each of L. • Information sequence length = kL • 2kL code words of length N = n(L+m) for (n.k,m) code where – Number of memory element = m – Number of summer = n • Code tree has L+m+1 time units or levels. • Code tree is just expanded version of trellis diagram in which every path is totally distinct from every other path. • Method searches through the nodes of tree to find maximum likelihood path by measuring “closeness” called metric.
- 59. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm Example: (3,1,2) convolution coder has generator matrix as G(D) = [1+D, 1+D2, 1+D+D2] Let L=5. n=3, k=1, m=2 L+m+1=8 tree levels from 0 to 7. The code tree is-
- 61. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm For binary input and Q-ary output DMC, bit metric - M(ri|vi) = log2[P(ri|vi) / P(ri)] – R Where P(ri|vi) is channel transition probability, P(ri) is channel output symbol probability, R is code rate. The above includes length of path in metric. Partial path metric for first l branches of a path v – M([ri|vi]l-1) = ∑j=0 l-1 M(rj|vj) = ∑i=0 nl-1 M(ri|vi) Where M(rj|vj) is branch metric of jth branch and is computed by adding bit metric for the n bits on that branch. Combining above two-
- 62. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm M([ri|vi]l-1) = ∑i=0 nl-1 log2P(ri|vi) - ∑i=0 nl-1 P(ri) – ∑i=0 nl-1 R A binary input Q-ary out put DMC is said to be symmetric if – P(j|0) = P(Q-1-j|1), j=0,1,2…Q-1 e.g. Q=2, P(j|0) = P(1-j|1), For symmetric channel with equally likely i/p symbols, o/p symbols are also equally likely. Then- P(ri=j) = 1/Q , 0≤j≤Q-1 e.g. Q=2, P(0)=P(1)=1/2. M([ri|vi]l-1) = ∑i=0 nl-1 log2P(ri|vi) – nl log2(1/Q)– nlR = ∑i=0 nl-1 log2P(ri|vi) + nl(log2Q – R)
- 63. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm M([ri|vi]l-1)= ∑i=0 nl-1 log2P(ri|vi) + nl(log2Q – R) First term is metric for Viterbi algorithm. Second term represents a positive bias (Q≥2, R≤1), which increases linearly with path length. Hence longer paths with larger bias are closer to ‘End of tree” and more likely to be Maximum Likelihood path. Called Fano Metric as first introduced by Fano.
- 64. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm Example: For BSC(Q=2) with transition probability p, find Fano metric for truncated codeword [v]5 and [v’]0. Also find metric if p=0.1. [v]5 is shown in code tree by thick line. 2 bits in error out of 18. M([r|v]5)= 16log2(1-p) + 2log2p + 18( 1-1/3 ) = 16log2(1-p) + 2log2p + 12 M([r|v’]0)= 2log2(1-p) + log2p + 3( 1-1/3 ) = 2log2(1-p) + log2p + 2 If p=0.1, M([r|v]5)= 2.92 > M([r|v’]0)= -1.63
- 65. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm For BSC with transition probability p, the bit metrics are M(ri|vi) = log2[P(ri|vi) / P(ri)] – R = log2 P(ri|vi) - log2P(ri) – R P(ri) = ½. M(ri|vi) = log2 p- log2 2 – R M(ri|vi) = {log2 2p - R if ri≠ vi = log2 2(1-p) – R if ri= vi }
- 66. The Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm • Example : If R = 1/3 and p = 0.10, find M(ri|vi) • M(ri|vi) = {-2.65 if ri≠ vi • = 0.52 if ri= vi } • The metric table is shown below. • Metric table is usually scaled by positive constant to approximate values to integers. Scaled table is -
- 67. Stack Algorithm – ZJ Algorithm - Method An ordered list or stack of previously examined paths of different lengths is kept in storage. Each stack entry contains a path along with its metric. Path are listed in stack in order of decreasing metric. At each decoding step, top path of stack is extended by computing the branch metrics of its 2k succeeding branches and adding these to metric of top path to form 2k new paths, called successors of the top path. Top path is then deleted from the stack, its 2k successors are inserted and stack is rearranged in decreasing order of metric values. Algorithm terminates when top path is at the end of tree.
- 68. The Stack Algorithm Step 1 : Load the stack with the origin node in the tree, whose metric is taken to be zero. Step 2: Compute the metric of the successor of the top path in the stack. Step 3: Delete the top path from the stack. Step 4: Insert the new paths in the stack and rearrange the stack in order of decreasing metric values. Step 5: If the top path in the stack ends at a terminal node in the tree, stop. Otherwise returning to step 2. When the algorithm terminates, the top path in the stack is taken as decoded path. Make flowchart for the stack algorithm.
- 69. The Stack -more facts In the dividing part of the tree , there are 2k new metrics to be computed at step 1. In the tail of the tree, only one new metric is computed. For (n,1,m) codes, size of stack increases by one for each decoding step except at tail of tree, where size of stack does not increase at all. Since dividing part of tree is much longer than tail (L>>m), the size of stack is roughly equal to the number of decoding steps when algorithm terminates.
- 70. The Stack – Flow chart
- 71. The Stack Algorithm -Example • Consider the earlier R=1/3 code tree and apply stack algorithm. Assume a code word is transmitted over a BSC with p=0.10 and the following sequence is received. Using metric table, show content of stack stepwise and decode correct word. • r = (010, 010, 001, 110, 100, 101, 011 • Take first n=3 bits at first dividing part and compare with two branches to find toe branch matrics. • 010 with 111 at upper branch (1) gives 2 discrepancies and 1 match. • From table branch metric = 2X (-5) + 1X1 = -9 • 010 with 000 at lower branch (0) gives 1 discrepancy and 2 match. • From table branch metric = 1X (-5) + 2X1 = -3
- 72. -Example • Step 1 path and path metric arranged in decreasing order in stack above. • Top path is extended to two parts and 2nd set 010 is compared with 111(1) and 000(0). Branch metric added to previous path metric. • Upper branch – 1 match and 2 discrepancy. • Path metric = -3 + (1X1 + 2X(-5)) = -12 path(01) • lower branch – 2 match and 1 discrepancy. • Path metric = -3 + (2X1 + 1X(-5)) = -6 path(00) • Table modified with new path metric in decreasing order. • Procedure continues.
- 73. The Stack Algorithm -Example
- 74. The Stack Algorithm -Example The algorithm terminates after 10 decoding steps giving final decoding path and information sequence as – C= (111, 010, 001, 110, 100, 101, 011) u = (11101) Ties in the metric values are resolved by placing the longest path on top. This sometimes, has the effect of slightly reducing the total number of decoding steps.
- 75. The Stack Algorithm –Example -2 Let received code is r=(110, 110, 110, 111, 010, 101, 101) Solution: This sequence terminates after 20 steps and gives— C = (111, 010, 110, 011, 111, 101, 011) u= (11001)
- 76. The Stack Algorithm -Example
- 77. The Stack Algorithm -Example
- 78. The Stack Algorithm Vs Viterbi Algorithm A decoding step for the Viterbi algorithm is the “compare and select operation” performed for each state in the trellis diagram beyond time unit m. It requires 15 computations to decode the required sequence in example 1 as compared to only 10 computations in Stack algorithm. This advantage of Stack algorithm over Viterbi, is more prominent when fraction of error is not too greater than channel transition probability. 2 out of 21 bits are in error. 2/21 =0.095 ≈ p=0.10. If sequence is too noisy, stack algorithm requires too many computations as compared to again 15 of Viterbi.
- 79. The Stack Algorithm Vs Viterbi Algorithm Most important difference between sequential decoding and Viterbi decoding is that the number of computations performed by a sequential decoder is a random variable while computational load of the Viterbi algorithm is fixed. Very noisy sequence may requires larger number of computations in Stack algorithm as compared to Viterbi. As very noisy sequences occur very rarely, average number of computations performed by a sequential decoder is normally much less than fixed number performed by Viterbi algorithm.
- 80. The Stack Algorithm- Limitations • Limitation 1: • Decoder tree traces random path back and forth through the code tree, jumping from node to node. • Hence Decoder must have an input buffer to store incoming blocks of sequence waiting to be processed. • Speed factor of decoder is ratio of computation speed to speed of incoming data in branches received per second. • Depending on speed factor of decoder, long searches can cause input buffer to overflow resulting in loss of data or Erasure. • Buffer accepts data at fixed rate of 1/(nT) branches per second where T is the time interval allotted for each bit. • Erasure probabilities of 10-3 are common in sequential decoding.
- 81. The Stack Algorithm- Limitations • Average number of computations and erasure probability are independent of encoder memory ak. • Hence codes with large K and large free distance may result in undetected errors being extremely unlikely. • Major limitation then is Erasures due to buffer overflow. • Can be actually beneficial!! • Erasures usually occur when received sequence is very noisy. • It is more desirable to erase such frame than decode it incorrectly. • Viterbi will always decode- may result in high errors. • Seq. Dec. -ARQ system can help in retransmission of erased frames. (Advantage)
- 82. The Stack Algorithm- Limitations Limitation 2: Size of stack is finite. Stack may fill up before decoding is complete. Remedy: Typical stack size is 1000 entries. The path at the bottom of stack is pushed out of stack at next entry. The probability that a path on the bottom of the stack would ever recover to reach the top of the stack and be extended is so small that the loss in performance is negligible.
- 83. The Stack Algorithm- Limitations • Limitation 3: reordering stack after each decoding step. • This can become time very consuming as no of entries increase. • Severely limit decoding speed. • Remedy: Stack –bucket algorithm by Jelinek. • Contents of stack are not reordered after each step. • Range of possible metric values is quantized into a fixed number of intervals. • Each metric interval is assigned a certain number of locations in storage , called a bucket. • When a path is extended, it is deleted from storage and each new path is inserted as the top entry in the bucket which includes its metric value.
- 84. The Stack Algorithm- Limitations • No reordering of paths within bucket is required. • The top path in the top nonempty bucket is chosen to be extended. • A computation now involves only finding the correct bucket in which to place each new path. • Which is independent of previously extended path. • Faster than reordering an increasingly larger stack. • Disadvantage: it is not always the best path that gets extended but only a very good path. i.e. a path in the top nonempty bucket or the best bucket. • Typically if bucket quantization is not too large and received sequence is not too noisy, best bucket contains the best path. • Degradation from original algorithm is very slight. Fast.
- 85. The FANO Algorithm • Sacrifices speed w.r.t.stack algorithm but no storage required. • Requires more time as it extends more nodes than stack . • But stack reordering absent, hence saves time. • Decoder examines a sequence of nodes in the tree from origin node to terminal nodes. • Decoder never jumps from node to node as in stack al.. • Decoder always moves to an adjacent node- – Either forward – to one of 2k nodes leaving present node, – Or backward to the node leading to present node. • Metric of the next node to be examined can be computed by adding (or subtracting) metric of connecting branch to metric of present node.
- 86. The FANO Algorithm This eliminates the need for storing the metrics of previously examined nodes as done in stack algorithm. But some nodes are visited more than once, asking for re- computation of their metric values.
- 87. The FANO Algorithm –Method • The decoder will move forward through the tree as long as the examined metric value continues to increase. • When metric value dips below a threshold, the decoder backs up and begins to examine other path. • If no path can be found with metric value above threshold, the threshold is lowered and decoder attempts to move forward again with a lower threshold. • Each time a given node is visited in the forward direction, the threshold is lower than on the previous visit to that node. • This prevents looping in the algorithm. • The decoder eventually reaches end of tree, terminating algorithm.
- 88. The FANO Algorithm –Detailed Method • Decoder starts at origin node with the threshold T=0 and the metric value M=0. • It looks forward to search best of 2k succeeding nodes, the one with the largest metric. • If metric of forward node MF ≥ T, the decoder moves to this node. • If END not reached and this node has been examined for the first time, then “threshold tightening” is performed – Increase T by the largest possible multiple of a threshold increment ∆, till it remains below current metric. • If this node is traversed before, no threshold tightening is performed. • Decoder again looks forward to best succeeding node.
- 89. The FANO Algorithm –Detailed Method If MF < T, the decoder then looks backward to the preceding node. If metric of backward node being examined ,MB < T, (B0th <T), T is lowered by ∆ and look forward for best node is repeated. If MF < T and MB ≥ T, decoder moves back to preceding node, say P. If this backward path was already from worst of 2k nodes succeeding node P, decoder again looks back to node preceding node P. If not, decoder again looks forward to the next best of 2k nodes succeeding node P and checks if MF ≥ T.
- 90. The FANO Algorithm –Detailed Method If decoder looks backward from origin node, preceding node is assumed to be -∞ and threshold is always lowered by ∆. Ties in metric values can be resolved arbitrarily without affecting average decoder performance.
- 91. The FANO Algorithm – Flow Chart
- 92. The FANO Algorithm –Flow Chart Origin – T=0, M=0, MB=-∞ Largest MF ≥ T Decoder moves to forward node. If first time, T increased till <T. Otherwise no change in T MF <T Looks backward MF <T MB <T T = T - ∆ Looks forward MF <T MB ≥T Moves to backward node. If current is worst path, looks backward Looks forward
- 93. The FANO Algorithm –Example -No Error. Let C= 111 010 001 110 100 101 011 Let ∆ = 1 Data = 1110100 Step Look MF MB Node Metric T 0 - X 0 0 1 LFB +3 - 1 +3 +3 2 LFB +6 - 11 +6 +6 3 LFB +9 - 111 +9 +9 4 LFB +12 - 1110 +12 +12 5 LFB +15 - 11101 +15 +15 6 LFB +18 - 111010 +18 +18 7 LFB +21 - 1110100 +21 Stop LFB - Look forward to best node LFNB - Look forward to next best node
- 94. The FANO Algorithm –Example -With Error. Let V= 010 010 001 110 100 101 011. Let ∆ = 1
- 95. The FANO Algorithm –Example -With Error. Let V= 010 010 001 110 100 101 011. Let ∆ = 1
- 96. The FANO Algorithm –Example -With Error. Let V= 010 010 001 110 100 101 011. Put∆ = 3
- 97. The FANO Algorithm –Limitations Number of computations depends upon threshold increment ∆. If ∆ is too small, large number of computations required. ∆ can not be raised indefinitely without affecting error probability. If ∆ is too large, T may be lowered below the minimum metric of the maximum likelihood path along with several other paths, making it possible for any of these to be decoded before maximum likelihood path. In addition, number of computations also increase as more “bad” paths can be followed if T is lowered too much.
- 98. The FANO Algorithm –Limitations For moderate rates, Fano algorithm is faster than stack bucket algorithm as it is free from stack control problems. For higher rates, stack bucket algorithm can be faster as Fano algorithm would have additional computational loads . As it does not require storage Fano algorithm is selected in practical implementations of sequential decoding..