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  1. 1. MUSTARD Brassica juncea L. Group No: 04
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Native to temperate regions of Europe • More than 350 genera • One of the first domesticated crops • Major cultivating countries are Nepal, Canada, Myanmar, China & United State
  3. 3. SCIENTIFIC CLASSIFICATION Kingdom: Plantae (unranked): Angiosperms (unranked): Eudicots (unranked): Rosids Order: Brassicales Family: Brassicaceae Genus: Brassica
  4. 4. MORPHOLOGY Flowers • Mostly perfect flowers • Actinomorphic • Four sepals & four petals • Six stamens • Ovary superior • Mostly two fused carpel • One to many ovules • One pistil
  5. 5. Leaves • Opposite • No stipules • Net venation
  6. 6. Fruit • Seed pods • Many are slender and long Seed • Small round seeds • Usually about 1 or 2 mm in diameter • May be colored from yellowish white to black
  7. 7. MAJOR GROWING AREAS • Remained as a subsidiary crop in the wet, and intermediate zones of SL,& also in some areas of dry zone • Mainly cultivated districts are; ⁻ Badulla ⁻ Puttalam ⁻ Anuradhapura ⁻ Rathnapura ⁻ Nuwara Eliya ⁻ Kurunegala ⁻ Matale
  8. 8. FORMS OF MUSTARD & USES • Mustard oil • Mustard powder • Mustard cream • Mature seeds
  9. 9. • Culinary uses Used as a condiment, as an ingredient in mayonnaise, vinaigrette, marinades, and barbecue sauce, a popular accompaniment to hot dogs, pretzels, and bratwurst • Medicinal uses Sore Throat Relief, Chest Decongestant, Muscle Relaxing Bath, Relief for Tired Feet ,Backache-Treating Bath • Cosmetics production • Agrochemical production
  11. 11. Climate • Mustard is a cool season crop that can be grown in a short growing season • Seedlings are usually somewhat tolerant to mild frosts after emergence, but severe frosts can destroy the crop • Moisture stress caused by hot, dry conditions during the flowering period frequently causes lower yields
  12. 12. Soil • Mustard can be raised on variable soil types with ; ⁻ Fertile ⁻ Well-drained ⁻ Loamy soils • Soils prone to crusting prior to seedling emergence can cause problems
  13. 13. • Crop will not tolerate waterlogged soils since growth will be stunted • Dry sand and dry sandy loam soils should also be avoided • Seedlings are usually somewhat tolerant to mild frosts after emergence, but severe frosts can destroy the crop • Seed will germinate at a soil temperature as low as 40°F
  15. 15. • Propagation • Crop Rotation • Seed Bed preparation • Fertilization • Irrigation • Weeding • Pest & Disease Management • Harvesting & Processing
  16. 16. PROPAGATION • Propagation- through seeds • Seeds can be sown directly into the ground • Germination will take place within 10 days
  17. 17. SEED BED PREPARATION • seedbed should be; - firm - moist -Uniform - free of weeds and previous crop residue - close to the surface • Seedbed preparation depends on the production system
  18. 18. CROP ROTATION • Three important considerations with respect to mustard in a crop rotation are; 1. Disease control 2. Protect soil 3. Moisture management
  19. 19. Seeding Date • Planting should occur as early in the season as the environmental conditions allow • An earlier seeding date is allowed; o To benefit from the moisture in establishing a good canopy before weeds emerge o To avoid heat stress during summer that causes flower or pod abortion o To reduces the risk of damage from fall frosts that can reduce crop yields and quality
  20. 20. Seeding Rate •For brown and oriental mustard : 4.5 - 6.7 kg/ha and for yellow mustard : 7.8 - 11.2 kg/ha •Do not seed mustard deeper than 37 – 50 mm (1 ½ - 2 inch) deep
  21. 21. Irrigation • The mustard crops are usually grown on conserved moisture received during monsoon rain-fed crops • Adequate soil moisture & aeration are important for both seed germination & nematode hatching
  22. 22. • The soil is usually very dry and irrigation is required immediately after crop is planted • For sprinkler irrigation systems, water can be applied immediately after planting to promote rapid germination
  23. 23. • Under gravity irrigation systems, furrows should be put into the field shortly after planting • After the plants emerge, an additional two to three irrigations may be necessary to provide adequate plant growth and to stimulate nematode egg hatching
  24. 24. FERTILIZATION • Adequate nutrient supply increases the seed and oil yields by improving the setting pattern on branches, number of siliquae/plant, and other yield attributes • Recommended dose of fertilizers (RDF) for different zones changes with climate, soil type, time, and type of cropping system followed
  25. 25. • Chemical fertilization • Organic fertilization • Integrated Nutrient Management (INM)
  26. 26. WEED MANAGEMENT • Decline in crop production ranging 15– from 30% • Critical period is 15–40 days • Hand weeding
  28. 28. IMPORTANT PESTS OF MUSTARD • Diamondback moth • Leaf Webber • Mustard saw fly • Leaf miner • Mustard aphid • Painted bug
  29. 29. Diamondback moth: Plutella xylostella Symptoms of damage • Whitish patches due to scrapping of epidermal leaf tissues by young larvae • In later stages larvae bore holes in the leaves • Leaves may be eaten up completely • It also bores into pods and feeds developing seed Management • Installing pheromone trap • Collection and careful destruction of the larvae • For control of grown up larvae apply 5% malathion dust
  30. 30. Leaf webber: Crocidolomia binotalis Symptoms of damage • Newly hatched larvae feed ; -initially on the chlorophyll of young leaves -later on older leaves, buds and pods, make webbings and live within • Severely attacked plants are defoliated • Seeds in the pods are eaten away Management • Spray any one of the insecticides - phosalone ,fenvalerate
  31. 31. Mustard saw fly: Athalia lugens proxima Symptoms of damage • Initially the larva nibbles leaves, later it feeds from the margins towards the midrib • The grubs cause numerous shot holes and even riddled the entire leaves • They consume the epidermis of the shoot Management • Early sowing should be done • Maintain clean cultivation • Severe cold reduces pest load • Collection and destruction of grubs of saw fly • Use of bitter gourd seed oil emulsion as on anti- feedant
  32. 32. IMPORTANT DISEASES OF MUSTARD • Alternaria blight • Bacterial rot • Bacterial stalk rot • Broomrape • Club root • Downy mildew • Mosaic • Phyllody • Powdery Mildew • Sclerotinia stem rot • White rust
  33. 33. Alternaria blight Symptoms • Brown coloured rounded spots appear on all the parts of plant with black outer ring Management • Spraying of dithane M – 45 • Grow disease resistant varieties • Use healthy certified seeds
  34. 34. Bacterial rot Symptoms • Dark colour streaks on stem from the ground level • Gradually these streaks enlarge and girdle the stem • Stem become hollow due to internal rotting • browning of veins and withering of leaves are observed Management • Rotating the mustard crop • Follow complete crop and field sanitation • Spray Streptocycline or Copper oxychloride
  35. 35. Downy mildew Symptoms • Grayish white irregular necrotic patches develop on the lower surface of leaves • The affected inflorescence does not produce any siliqua or seed Management • Varieties of Brassica napus group are resistant to this disease • Destroy the diseased crop debris
  37. 37. • The normal maturation of the crop, wind, and rain do not cause shattering before cutting • great shattering losses when the plants are overripe • Yellow mustard does not shatter readily and can be straight combined if the crop has matured uniformly (10% moisture) and is free of green weeds • Plants should be cut just beneath the height of the lowest seed pods
  38. 38. • Brown and oriental varieties will shatter more readily when ripe and should be swathed • The swathing should begin after the general leaf drop and when the overall field color has changed from green to yellow or brown
  39. 39. • About 75% of the seeds may have reached the mature color of yellow or brown • The remaining green seeds will mature in the swath before combining
  40. 40. GROUP MEMBERS • U.M.C.S Udagedara UWU/EAG/11/0018 • Premasinghe Y.H.G.D.B. UWU/EAG/11/0023 • G.Y.A.D.D Perera UWU/EAG/11/0025
  41. 41. Thank you