2. The Vijayanagar Empire (1336-1646
• Harihara and Bukka are the founders of
the Vijayanagar City in 1336 A.D. on the
southern banks of Tungabhadra
• They made Hampi as the capital city.
• They served under Vira Ballala III, the
3. • Vijayanagar Empire was ruled by four
important dynasties and they are:
4. Harihara I
• In 1336 A.D. Harihara I became the ruler
of Sangama Dynasty
• He captured Mysore and Madurai.
• In 1356 A.D. Bukka-I succeeded him
5. Krishnadeva Raya (1509-1529
• Krishnadeva Raya of the Tuluva dynasty
was the most famous king of the
• According to Domingo Paes, a
Portuguese traveller “Krishnadeva Raya
was the most feared and perfect king
there could possibly be”.
6. Krishnadeva Raya‘s Conquests
• He conquered Sivasamudram in 1510A.D
and Raichur in 1512A.D
• In 1523 A.D. he captured Orissa and
• His empire extended from the river
Krishna in the north to River Cauvery in
the south; the Arabian Sea in the west to
Bay of Bengal in the east
7. His Contributions
• An able administrator.
• He built large tanks and canals for
• He developed the naval power
understanding the vital role of overseas
• He maintained friendly relations with the
Portuguese and Arab traders.
8. • He increased the revenue of his
• He patronized art and architecture.
• It was during his period the Vijayanagar
Empire reached its zenith of glory.
• Krishnadeva Raya was a great scholar.
9. • Ashtadiggajas: A group of eight scholars
adorned his court and they were:
• Allasani Peddanna – the author of
Manucharitram, he was also known as
• Nandi Thimmana – the author of
• Madayagari Mallana
11. Battle of Talikota (1565 A.D.)
• The successors of Krishnadeva Raya were
• The combined forces of Ahmednagar,
Bijapur, Golconda and Bidar declared war
on Vijayanagar during the rule of Aliya
• Aliya Rama Raya was defeated. He and
his people were killed mercilessly.
• Vijayanagar was pillaged and ruined.
13. • Naik – a Governor who administered each
• The provinces were divided into districts and
the districts were further divided into smaller
units namely villages.
• The village was administered by hereditary
officers like accountants, watchmen, the
weights men, and officers in charge of forced
14. The Army
• The army consisted of the infantry,
cavalry and elephantry.
• The commander-in-chief was in charge of
15. Revenue Administration
• Land revenue was the main source of
• The land was carefully surveyed and
taxes were collected based on the
fertility of the soil.
• Major importance was given to
agriculture and in building dams and
16. Judicial Administration
• The king was the supreme judge.
• Severe punishments were given for the
• Those who violated the law were levied.
17. Position of Women
• Women occupied a high position and
took an active part in the political, social
and literary life of the empire.
• They were educated and trained in
wrestling, in the use of various weapons
of offence and defence, in music and fine
18. • Some women also received an education
of high order.
• Nuniz writes that the kings had women
astrologers, clerks, accountants, guards
19. Social life
• The society was systemized.
• Child marriage, polygamy and sati were
• The kings allowed freedom of religion.
20. Economic conditions
• Controlled by their irrigational policies.
• Textiles, mining, metallurgy perfumery,
and other several industries existed.
• They had commercial relations with, the
islands in the Indian Ocean, Abyssinia,
Arabia, Burma, China, Persia, Portugal,
South Africa, and The Malay Archipelago.
21. Contribution to Architecture and
• The Hazara Ramasami temple and Vittalaswamy
temple was built during this period
• The bronze image of Krishnadeva Raya is a
• Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada literature were
• Sayana wrote commentaries on Vedas.
• Krishnadevaraya wrote Amuktamalyada in Telugu
and Usha Parinayam and Jambavathi Kalyanam in
22. The decline of the Empire
• The rulers of the Aravidu dynasty were weak
• Many provincial governors became
• The rulers of Bijapur and Golconda seized
some areas of Vijayanagar.
30. • The Deccan region was a part of the
provincial administration of the Delhi
• In order to establish a stable
administration in the Deccan, Mohammad
bin Tughlaq appointed amiran-i-sada/
Sada Amir, who were the administrative
heads of hundred villages.
31. • From 1337 the conflict between the
officers in Deccan and Delhi sultanate
accelerated. This led to the
establishment of an independent state in
the Deccan in 1347 with the capital
at Gulbarga in Karnataka.
33. Political History:
• Alauddin Hassan Gangu Bahaman
Shah was the founder of Bahamani
sultanate in the year 1347AD.
• Rivalry with Vijayanagar kingdom over
the fertile region of Raichur doab started
from his period , and continued till the
last of Bahaman rule.
34. • He had frequent conflicts with Warangal
state, reddy kingdoms of Rajhmundry
and Kondavidu. Bahman Shah emerged
victorious in all these expeditions and
assumed the title Second Alexander on
• Mohammed I succeeded Bahman Shah.
35. • His attack on Warangal in 1363
brought him a large indemnity,
including the important fortress of
Golkonda and the treasured turquoise
throne, which thereafter became the
throne of the Bahmani kings.
36. • The next hundred years saw a number of
Sultans one after another, by succession
or usurpation. All of them fought with
their southern neighbour, but without
gaining much territory.
37. • In 1425 Warangal was subdued and their
progress further eastwards was challenged
by the Orissan rulers.
• In the year 1429 Ahmed Shah al wali shifted
capital city from Gulbarga to Bidar.
• The rule of Mohammad III (1463–1482) is
worthy of mention because of his lieutenant
Mohammed Gawan, a great statesman.
38. Mohammad Gawan:
• The Bahmani kingdom reached its peak
under the guidance of Prime minister
Mahmmad Gawan. He was a Persian
• He was well-versed in Islamic theology,
Persian, and Mathematics. He was also a
poet and a prose-writer.
39. • He was also a military genius. He waged
successful wars against Vijayanagar,
Orissa and the sea pirates on the Arabian
• He built a Madarsa at Bidar in Persian
40. • This madarasa was great learning
centre with collection of 3000
manuscripts from all over the world.
• Gawan’s progress was not tolerated by
native Muslim leaders.They made false
allegations. They made Sultan to punish
him with death sentence.
41. • After execution of Gawan Bahamani
Sultanate started to decline.
• After few years Sultanate gradually
broke up into five independent
kingdoms: Bijapur, Ahmadnagar, Berar ,
Golkonda and Bidar.
• The kingdom was divided into four
administrative units called ‘taraf’ or
provinces. These provinces were
Daultabad, Bidar, Berar and Gulbarga
• Every province was under a tarafdar who
was also called a subedar
44. • Some land was converted
into Khalisa land from the jurisdiction of
the tarafdar.( Khalisa land was that piece
of land which was used to run expenses
of the king and the royal household).
• Nobles used to get their salary either in
cash or in form of grant of land or ‘jagir’.
• Bahamani ruler depended for military support on
• There were two groups in the ranks of amirs: One
was the Deccanis who were immigrant Muslims and
had been staying for a long time in the Deccan
region. The other group was Afaquis or Pardesis
who had recently come from Central Asia, Iran and
• Bahamanis were familiar with the use
of gunpowder in warfare.
• Persian ,Arabic and Urdu literature flourished
in this period.Mohammad Gawan wrote
poems in Persian language. Riyaz-ul-Insha,
Manazir-ul-insha are his works.A new dialect
called “Dakhini urdu “ became popular during
this time.The famous sufi saint of
Gulbarga, Khwaja Bande Nawaz Gesu
Daraj wrote in this language.
• They followed Indo-Islamic style of
architecture with some improvisation.
Local materials were used to construct
• The architecture was highly influenced by
48. • Some features of this style are
–Crescent moon at the top of the
• Monuments at Gulbarga: Shah bazaar
mosque, Hafta Gumbaz, Jama maszid etc
• At Bidar : Mohammad Gawan’s madarasa,
solah khamba mosque, Rangeen mahal,
Janata mahal etc
• At Bijapur : Gol gumbaz(built by Mohammad
Adil shah in 1656AD), Ibrahim roza, Bara
Kaman, Anand mahal, Chand Bawdi etc.