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Chapter 1 Section 1 Lecture Notes

Lecture Notes on Understanding Our Past

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Chapter 1 Section 1 Lecture Notes

  1. 1. Understanding Our Past<br />Toward Civilization<br />Section 1<br />
  2. 2. Geography & History<br />Geography is the study of people, their environments and the resources available to them.<br />By showing how people lived in different times and places, geographers have added to our knowledge of human history.<br />Usually geographers draw conclusions from limited amount of evidence.<br />For example:<br />Tons of river mud found in the ruins of an ancient city can indicate that the city was wiped out by a flood.<br />Language and art in widely separated regions may suggest that there was once contact between the two places.<br />2<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  3. 3. Five Themes of Geography<br />Location<br /><ul><li>Location tells where a place is on the surface of the Earth.—You can locate any place on a map using latitude and longitude.</li></ul>Place<br /><ul><li>Geographers describe places in terms of their physical features and human characteristics.—Landforms, bodies of water, climate, soil quality, resources, plants and animal life. </li></ul>Human-Environment Interaction<br /><ul><li>Since the earliest times, people have interacted with the environment.—They have shaped & been shaped by the places in which they lived.</li></ul>3<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  4. 4. Five Themes of Geography (Con’t)<br />Movement<br /><ul><li>The movement of people, goods, and ideas is another key link between geography and history.</li></ul>Region<br /><ul><li>Geographers divide the world into many types of regions.—Some based on physical characteristics or regions may be defined by political, economic, or cultural features.</li></ul>4<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  5. 5. Before History <br />Prehistory is the period of human history before writing was developed.—Because of no writings, scientists study other things to learn about early humans.<br />Archaeology is the study of past societies through an analysis of what people left behind.—These scientists study the tools, pottery, weapons, buildings and household items that people used. <br />Anthropology is the study of human life and culture.—These scientists use artifacts and human fossils to find out how early people lived.<br />5<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  6. 6. Archaeologists & Anthropologists<br />Both of these scientists use scientific methods to help them with their work. (Scientific Method—Educated guessing)<br />Some examples:<br />Learn about what people ate by analyzing the bones, skins, and plant seeds that are found.<br />Determine how old objects are.<br /><ul><li>Use radiocarbon dating: Dates an object by measuring the amount of radioactive carbon C-14 left in it. Up to 50,000 years.
  7. 7. Thermo luminescence dating: Dates objects by measuring the light given off by electrons in the soil around the objects. Up to 200,000 years.</li></ul>6<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  8. 8. Historians Reconstruct The Past<br />Historians study how people lived in the past.—These historians rely heavily on written evidence.<br />About 5,000 years ago, some people in different parts of the world began to keep written records.—That marked the beginning of recorded history.<br />Historians carefully study written evidence, such as letters, tax records, photographs, artwork or film.<br />Historians are like detectives, they must evaluate the evidence and determine if it is reliable.—They try to find answers to questions.<br />7<br />Understanding Our Past<br />
  9. 9. Historians Reconstruct The Past (Con’t)<br />The main responsibilities of historians is to interpret the evidence and explain what it means.—The goal is to determine the causes and effects of events.<br />By explaining why things happened in the past, the historian can help us understand what is going on today and what may happen tomorrow.<br />8<br />Understanding Our Past<br />

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