HE in Pakistan Assignment by Asma Shaheen Khattak.pdf
1. Assignment No. 01
HIGHER EDUCATION IN PAKISTAN
(Reg. No: IER420222002)
Dr. Muhammad Nisar
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION & PSYCHOLOGY
Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000
Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
2. First Education Conference 1947
The first education conference was held in Karachi, from 20 November 1947 till 01
December 1947 and it was convened under the supervision of Qaid-e-Azam. Personally,
he was unable to attend the conference due to illness but he sent a written message for
the attendees of the conference which described the very clear future pattern and
guideline for our education system.
Before a day on 27th November 1947 in Karachi, Qaid-E-Azam gave a message
to the nation:
“I am glad that the Pakistan Educational Conference is being held tomorrow in
Karachi. I welcome you all to the capital of Pakistan and wish you every success in your
deliberations, which I sincerely hope will bear fruitful and practical results”.
“You know that the importance of education and the right type of education cannot
be over-emphasized. Under foreign rule for over a century, in the very nature of things,
I regret, sufficient attention has not been paid to the education of our people, and if we
are to make any real, speedy and substantial progress, we must earnestly tackle this
question and bring our educational policy and program on the lines suited to the genius
of our people, consonant with our history and culture, and having regard to the modern
conditions and vast development that have taken place all over the world.”
“There is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend upon the
type of education and the way in which we bring up our children as the future servants
of Pakistan. Education does not merely mean academic education, and even that appears
to be of a very poor type. What we have to do is to mobilize our people and build up
the character of our future generations. There is an immediate and urgent need for
training our people in the scientific and technical education in order to build up our
economic life, and we should see that our people undertake scientific, commerce, trade
and particularly, well-planned industries. But do not forget that we have to compete
with the world which is moving very fast in this direction. Also, I must emphasize that
greater attention should be paid to technical and vocational education.”
“In short, we have to build up the character of our future generations which means
the highest sense of honour, integrity, selfless service to the nation, and sense of
3. responsibility, and we have to see that they are fully qualified or equipped to play their
part in the various branches of economic life in a manner which will do honour to
Pakistan.” (Qaid-E-Azam – Karachi – 26th November 1947)
That event was the first step for the formulation of the future educational policy
of newly born Pakistan and Qaid-E-Azam showed his great concerns for the educational
conference by sending his message for the foundations of educational policy, in which
“... the importance of education and the type of education cannot be over-emphasized
... there is no doubt that the future of our State will and must greatly depend upon the
type of education we give to our children and the way in which we bring them up as
future citizens of Pakistan ... we should not forget that we have to compete with the
world which is moving very fast in this direction.”
Qaid-e-Azam delivered his concerns regarding the future of education in
Pakistan in four aspects:
1. The Education system of Pakistan should suit every type of student.
2. It should be aligned and constant with our cultural and historical values.
3. It should inculcate a high sense of honour and integrity in students.
4. It should include the latest techniques and emphasize on modern science and
The 1st Education Minister Mr. Fazal Ur Rehman explained that the aims of
education in a democratic society must be holistic. He suggested that the socio-political
element entails “citizenship training” and proposed three dimensions of education:
“The possession of a vote by a person ignorant of the privileges and responsibilities
of citizenship…is responsible for endless corruption and political instability. Our
education must… [teach] the fundamental maxim of democracy, that the price of liberty
4. is eternal vigilance, and it must aim at cultivating the civil virtues of discipline, integrity,
and unselfish public service (Ministry of Interior (Education Division, 1947). He also
noted that education must serve to make all members of the body politic citizens of
Pakistan, “no matter what political, religious or provincial label one may possess”
(Ministry of Interior (Education Division, 1947). Thus, the educational conference
envisioned an educational system that would prepare citizens with the knowledge and
dispositions needed to create a benevolent educated society.
It was stated in the conference as:
“In the sphere of higher education which seeks to create a class of the elite that will
determine the quality of our civilization and will direct and plan our national life, so
there is an urgent need for drastic reform. We must do all we can to prevent the present
aimless drift of all and sundry to high schools and colleges and the colossal wastage
which the absence of any selective principle involves. The purveyors of knowledge in
the form of cheap degrees. They are essentially homes for the promotion of learning
and have a vital role to play in raising the moral and intellectual tone of society and of
unfolding before it endless possibilities of human development. hope that through the
establishment of an inter-university board or any other coordinating agency our
universities will not only raise their existing standards of scholarship but also through a
frequent interchange of teachers, the institution of inter-university extension lectures,
and discussion of the common problem make a worthy contribution in all departments
of human knowledge” (Govt. of Pakistan, 1947).
The Chairman of the conference formed the following Sub-Committees to come
up with the recommending guidelines in each sector:
1. Scientific Research and Technical Education Committee.
2. Adult Education Committee.
3. University Education Committee.
4. Primary Education Committee.
5. Secondary Education Committee.
6. University, Primary and Secondary Education.
5. 7. Women’s Education Committee.
8. Committee for scheduled caste and backward classes education.
9. Cultural Relations Committee.
10.Joint meeting of the committees on the university education, scientific research
and technical education and cultural contacts.
11.Joint meeting of the committees on University Education, Women’s Education
and Primary and Secondary Education.
The reports of various committees were submitted for finalization on 29th November
1947, which recommended the following stages for the execution of an educational
program as first 5 years to be devoted to planning, recruitment of teachers and training.
In the 6th year, about 500,000 people were to be made literate with an annual increase
of 300,000 thereafter.
The major recommendations of the conference were:
A) Free and compulsory education in Pakistan.
B) Education should be teamed with Islamic values.
C) Emphasis on science and technical education.
The main emphases in that conference were on immediate actions to improve literacy
rate and it produced a strong philosophy of as well as a number of ambitious
recommendations indicating the future goals of education in Pakistan. Unfortunately,
the policies formulated in that conference were not implemented properly due to various
reasons including the increased number of immigrants and other administrative
problems of newly born Pakistan and British colonial system was continued which
proved a major setback in our education system, many of its recommendations remained
in documentary form only for the lack of institutional or economic resources and
leadership to pursue them.
6. Report of the Commission on National Education 1959
Commission on National Education, 1959 known as the Sharif Commission after its
chairman S. M Sharif. Apart from the Chairman, there were ten other members:
• Raziuddin Siddiqui (Member, Atomic Energy Commission of Pakistan)
• Col. MK Afridi (Vice-chancellor, Peshawar University)
• B.A Hashmi (Vice-chancellor, Karachi University)
• Momtaz Uddin Ahmed (Vice-chancellor, Rajshahi University)
• AFM Abdul Haq (President, Board of Secondary Education, Dhaka)
• AF A Husain (Professor, Dhaka University)
• A Rashid (Principal, Engineering College, Dhaka)
• RM Ewing (Foreman, Christian College, Lahore)
• Col. Mohammad Khan (Director of Army Education)
• Brig. S Hamid Shah (Director of Organization. GHQ).
The Commission on National Education was appointed by a resolution adopted by the
government on 30th December 1958. The main reason was that the existing system of
education was not adequate to meet the requirements of the nation. It was inaugurated
by the President, Mohammad Ayub Khan on January 5, 1959. Addressing on the
occasion the President stressed the need for a reorganization and re-orientation of the
existing education system, which would better reﬂect our spiritual, moral and cultural
values and to meet the challenges of the growing needs of the nation in the ﬁeld of
science and technology. The Commission analyzed all the previous reports and the
prevailing situations of the country and the reforms movements in other societies and
submitted and comprehensive report to the Government after one-year 1960.
7. Objectives of the Commission
The commission on national education outlined the following objectives of our f in
1. Training of manpower educated citizen and competent leadership required for
2. To meet the individual and collective need and aspirations of the people of the
3. To provide individuals full opportunities to develop their skills and for
development of all the vocational abilities needed for the creation of a
progressive and democratize society.
4. Preservations of the ideas which led to the creation of Pakistan and strengthening
the concept of it with the uniﬁed nation.
5. To create a sense of unity and of nationhood among the people of Pakistan
6. Creation of a social welfare state
7. Training of leadership group in engineering the skills of government and
8. Training of scientist engineers, and technicians
9. Availability of the beneﬁt and opportunities of education to all citizens of
10.Development of intellectual abilities and building of the character of the
11.To create among the people a sense of dignity of labour.
12.To inculcate spiritual and moral values.
1. In the view of the Commission, compulsory education at elementary level was
indispensable for skilled manpower and intelligent citizenry. For this purpose, at
least eight years schooling was required. The Commission recommended
achieving 5- year compulsory schooling within the period of 10-years and 8-
years compulsory schooling within a total period 15 years.
8. 2. The main objective of primary education should be to make a child functionally
literate, to develop all aspects of his personality, to equip him with basic
knowledge and skills and to develop in him habits of industry, integrity and
3. The curriculum should be adapted to the mental abilities of the children. It must
be designed to develop basic skills. Teaching methods should be activity
oriented. Religious education should be made compulsory and due emphasis
should be given to teaching of national language. .
4. School buildings and furniture should be simple, inexpensive, and clean and
adapted to local style and material.
5. Training facilities should be provided to teachers to meet the requirements of
compulsory primary education. Refreshers courses should also be arranged for
6. The Commission recommended that land, building, furniture, teaching materials
and residential accommodation for teachers should be provided by the
community and the Government may however, give ﬁnancial assistance to the
7. The administrative recommendations by the commission should be entrusted to
local bodies. It should be organized on district level in West Pakistan and on sub-
division level in East Pakistan.
Objectives of Secondary Education:
1. Secondary education should be recognized as a complete stage in itself and
organized as a separate academic and administrative unit, demarcated clearly in
all respects from university education.
2. Secondary education should bring about the full development of the child (a) as
an individual, (b) as a citizen, (c) as a worker, and (d) as a patriot enable him to
understand and enjoy the beneﬁts of social progress, scientiﬁc discovery and
invention, and to participate in economically useful activities.
9. Duration of Secondary School
Secondary education should properly consist of classes IX to XII but until compulsory
education was extended to the first eight years classes VII to VIII should be considered
a part of secondary education. It will therefore, for the present be divided into three
stages: classes VI to VIII (middle) classes IX-X (secondary) and classes XI-XII (higher
The curriculum at the secondary stage must be based on two principles. First, it must
provide a compulsory core of subjects such as mathematics, science, the national
languages, English etc.., to give every pupil the knowledge he needs to live a useful and
happy life. Secondly, it should provide opportunities for students to take up, in
accordance with their aptitudes and interests, a few elective subjects in the fields of
technical agricultural and commercial studies to prepare them for a definite vocational
career. Every child should acquire a preliminary understanding of some 10 to 12
subjects by the time has completed high schools.
Evaluation and Examination
The system of examination should be organized and the award of certiﬁcates based on
the performance of the students in the public examination conducted by the
Universities/Boards of secondary Education (75% of the total marks) School record,
including the results of habits and general behaviour 25% For private candidates,
separate examinations, called External Examinations, should be held.
Commercially Operated schools
Every school should be registered and provided adequate facilities in respect of
teachers, buildings and equipment.
The cost of running a secondary school has risen 3 to 4 times during the last 30 years
while fees, grants, and private donations have remained practically the same. The
income of a school:
2. The contribution of the management
3. The grant from government
The appropriate proportions would be approximately 60% from fees, 20% from the
management and 20% from government. Schools maintaining better standards in
equipment and staff should be regarded As "special schools" and their grants fixed on
a separate basis. Residential schools should be given ﬁnancial support to enable them
to reduce their fees. They should be treated as "special schools” for the purpose of
grants. Talented and poor students should receive scholarship.
A program for Development
Rehabilitation of secondary schools will require enormous funds. The educational
authorities should, therefore, set the immediate target for developing one-half of the
existing schools. Some of the schools should be developed into better type schools. The
value of schools of the residential type ‘should be recognized and every encouragement
given to their development.
The commission was of the view that teachers must be trained properly before entering
teaching profession. Teachers should be paid adequate salary. Teachers from class VI—
X should work for 225 days during the year (excluding vacations). The services of
Education Extension Centers already established to improve the quality of education,
should be fully utilized by the Central and Provincial Government.
The Commission maintained that regulation, control and development of education at
secondary and higher secondary levels (classes IX—XIl) should be entrusted to the
boards of Secondary Education. The territorial jurisdiction of the Boards should follow
the jurisdiction of various universities in the country. New Boards should be set up at
Peshawar, Hyderabad, and Rajdhani and the jurisdiction of the Boards at Karachi and
Dacca, should be extended to include higher secondary (intermediate) stage.
Facilities and Equipment
The commission maintained that effort should be made by educational authorities and
community to provide facilities like classrooms, science labs, workshops, libraries,
garden plots, playgrounds and equipment to achieve the objectives of diversiﬁed
multipurpose secondary school in future.
Higher education as a distinct stage
As envisaged in the Report of the Commission, higher education should be recognized
as a distinct stage and the present intermediate classes should be transferred from the
jurisdiction of the university to Board of Secondary Education, the essence of Higher
Education as viewed by the Commission, was a community of scholarship. The
essentials were not only to set examinations, nor the degree it conferred, but its capacity
to encourage teachers and scholars to engage themselves in research and to pass on to
the next generations the result of their studies.
Duration of Courses
In order to improve the standard at university level, bachelor’s degree courses should
be extended from two to three years. There should be two types of courses at degree
level; the pass course and the honor course. The course leading to degree of MA, M.Sc.
should require at least two years in one subject. The period recommended for PhD is
minimum two years and maximum ﬁve years.
Admission to the degree colleges and universities should be after the completion of the
present intermediate stage covering twelve years of schooling. The universities and
colleges should determine their own requirements of admission on the basis of:
1. The Students performance in higher secondary education.
2. Achievement and accumulative class record during the previous stage ot education.
3. Aptitude for higher education to be determined scientiﬁcally by standardized tests. »
Subject of Study
The Commission recommended that courses and curricula should be revised and
improves periodically, so as to make them updated and to provide for growing needs of
country, particularly in the speciﬁc areas of science and technology. New subjects like
sociology, home economics, public and business administration, journalism etc should
be introduced in universities.
The Commission area of the view that the system of examinations has been criticized
for dominating higher education. The Commission recommended that the system
should be reorganized and the award of degree should be based on the performance of
the students in ﬁnal examination conducted by the university, (75 percent marks) and
record in the periodical test as well as class work (25 percent marks). Students should
obtain pass marks in both assessments. Pass marks should be ﬁxed 40.0 % in each paper
and 50.0 in aggregate. For second division marks should be 60.0 % and for first division
70.0 % of the total marks.
Research in the University
Research was thought one of the essential features of the university education. Not only
it was of national importance in the developing economy, but it also had a further value
as a mean of keeping a teacher active, creative and updated and for enabling him to
stimulate and inspire his students. The Commission therefore recommended building
up strong departments in which both teaching and research would have prominence.
13. The Commission further recommended that each university should set-up a ‘Committee
of Advanced Studies’ to supervise and coordinate the research work in the universities
Fundamental research should be given priority.
Other recommendations in the ﬁeld of higher education, forwarded by Commission,
related to the function of teachers in a university, the selection and promotion of
teachers, co-ordination of higher education, students’ welfare a discipline. A program
of guidance and counseling was also recommended Commission to be organized in the
Technical and Vocational Education
1. Technical education should be an integral part of the educational system.
2. Polytechnics and technical institutes should be established to produce technical
personal of the supervisory cadre in variety of areas.
Salient Features of the Education Policy 1972-80
On December 16, 1971, East Pakistan seceded and became Bangladesh. When the
people’s s party came to power in Pakistan, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto announced the
education policy on March 29,1972. On the order of Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto, the National
Education Policy 1972 will be prepared by the Federal Minister of Education under the
leadership of Abdul Hafeez Pirzada. When the policy was announced, all private entities
were taken into Government custody and many changes were proposed in the other
aspect of the country’s education system.
Aims of the Policy
• Ensuring the preservation and promotion of the ideology of Pakistan.
• Eradicating illiteracy in the shortest possible time.
• Equalizing access to education for females and handicapped person.
14. • Education would be free universal up to class x.
Features of this Policy
1. Promotion of ideology of Pakistan.
2. Universal education.
3. Equality in education.
4. Personality development.
5. Integrated technical and science education.
6. Curriculum based on socio-economic needs of society.
7. Nationalization of educational institution.
Free and Compulsory Education
Education will be made free and universal for all children of the country up to class x.
However, due to our limited resources, this will be achieved in two phases:
• First phase: From 1st
oct, 1972 education up to class VIII free for boys and girls
in all types of school.
• Second phase: Starting from October 1974, free education will be extended to
all school up to class IX and X.
• Compulsory education it will be direct responsibility on parents to send their
children to school on pain of punishment.
• Simultaneously, it entails an immediate obligation on the part of the Government
provide facilitates for their schooling.
From October 1, 1972, education in I - IIIV will be free in all school, Government and
privately managed across the country.
• According to the policy primary education would be universal for boys from
1979 and for from girls 1984.
• Textbook and writing material would be free for primer school children.
15. Secondary and Intermediate Education
• Secondary education would be made free.
• It would ensure that the increase in teaching subject from 5 percent to 33 percent,
and for science subject increase from 23 percent to 30 percent in 1989.
As from the first day of September 1972, all privately – managed colleges shall be
nationalized privately – managed schools will, however, be nationalized within a period
of two year beginning from 1st
• In view of the high prices of textbooks and their non in the local market in some
areas book will be established in universities and colleges.
• Special grants will be provided by university grants commission to universities
and colleges for establishment of book bank.
• Institution of higher education plays an important role in the advancement of
nation. At present only 2% of the population of the relevant age group. Is enrolled
in the institution of higher education in the country, as against 50% in USA and
25% Japan. In Pakistan only 175 per lac of population are undergoing higher
education compared with 3,700 in USA, 2,400 in Canada 1.900 in USSR and
600 in UAR and 217. in India to improve this position, 100,000 additional places
will be created in higher educational institution by 1980. This will cover 3% of
the age group.
• New Universities will be established progressively to cover all parts of the
country. To start with new universities will be established at Multan, Saidu
Sharif and Sukkar. The Jamia Islamia, Bahawalpur will be converted in to a full
• In order to coordinate the program of universities and develop their facilities
without unnecessary duplication and waste, a University Grant Commission will
16. be established. The commission will also serve as a buffer between government
bureaucracy and university administration.
• Military training will be progressively introduced for all students between age of
13 to 17 years (classes ix to xii). The main aim of military training at this age
will be to prepare for national defense by imparting basic military techniques
• And by training young men in use of personal weapons such as refile and pistol
• Arrangements for this training within the educational institution will be made by
borrowing instructors from the armed forces of by recruitment of ex- service
• The existing system of examination is one of the root causes of the general
problems in our education system.
• At present (1972) there are internal examination from class 1st
students are failed or pass on the bases of annual test.