2. BASIC DEFINATIONS
The sheltered area of the sea in which vessels
could be launched, built, repaired, or could seek
refuge during storm time and provide loading and
unloading facilities of cargo and passengers is called
The enclosed area provided for berthing ships to
keep them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading
and unloading of cargo is DOCK.
It is a sheltered area.
Used for loading and unloading of cargo.
Here vessels are built, refueled, repair, and launched.
It protects ships naturally and artificially from the fury
of the sea.
It is situated along the sea shore or river estuary or lake
or canal connected to sea.
4. Classification of harbour:
Natural harbour :
The harbour which is protected from storms and waves
by the natural land contours.
It consists of part of body of water which is protected
and deep enough for anchorage.
5. ARTIFICIAL HARBOUR:
It is the harbour which is protected from the
storms and waves from both sides by
manmade structures(break waters).
Requires periodic maintenance by dredging.
6. SEMI NATURAL HARBOURS:
These are the harbours which are protected
from storms and waves on one side by natural
land contours and other side by artificial man
7. Classification based on function:
It is used for ships in storms and emergency condition.
It provide good anchorage, safety and easy access from
• COMMERCIAL HARBOUR:
It provides facilities for loading and unloading of cargo.
9. FISHERY HARBOUR:
It is used for loading and unloading of catch . It
should have refrigeration stores with plenty of space for
storing the catch.
• MILITARY HARBOUR:
It is used for accommodating naval crafts and serves
as a supply depot. The layout of this is greatly influenced by
its location .
Docks are enclosed areas for berthing the ships to keep
them afloat at a uniform level to facilitate loading and
unloading of cargo.
Necessary for discharging of cargo.
As ships requires a number of days for discharging
cargo, during which period they need a uniform water
If ship is subjected to a vertical movement by the tides,
great inconvenience will be felt in lifting the cargo
from the ship and special arrangements will be needed
for lifting the cargo.
12. DOCKS ARE CLASSIFIED AS ,
> Wet docks
> Dry docks
• WET DOCKS:
Docks required for berthing of ships or vessels to
facilitate loading and unloading of passengers and cargo
are called as WET DOCKS
They are also known as HARBOUR DOCKS
14. DRY DOCKS :
Dry docks are used for repairs of ships.
It is a long excavated chamber having side walls,a semi
circular end wall and a floor.
The open end of the chamber is provided with a gate and
acts as the entrance to the dock.