• Electrical energy storage medium
• veryimportant and delicate part of standalone solar PV
• To deliver the energy to the load when there is
• while in the case of grid connected PV systems, we do not require any
• In standalone PV systems, batteries are delicate because the misuse or non-
optimal use of batteries can reduce their life significantly.
• These days, as the cost of solar PV modules are decreasing; the cost of
battery is becoming a significant part of the overall solar PV system cost.
• cost perspective
Basics of Batteries
4. • A simple analogy can be drawn between battery as electrical
energy storage medium and water tank as water storage
medium. We all know the water tank is used to store large
quantity of water and we can use water from tank when
needed. Water storage tanks come in different shapes like
cylindrical and cuboid and different storing capacities like
500 litres, 1000 litres, 10,000 litres, etc. The quantity of
water to be stored determines the size of water tank to be
used. Similarly, depending on the electrical energy
requirement, size of the battery (charge storage capacity) and
its terminal voltage is determined.
5. • Batteries used in solar PV systems require frequent
charging or refilling of charge. Again an analogy can be
drawn with regular refilling of water tank in our house. The
water tanks in our houses and commercial buildings need
to be refilled on regular basis. As per the usage of water,
the level of water decreases in the tank and after sometime
the tank becomes empty. To avoid disruption to the
continuous supply of water, the tank has to be refilled as
soon as it gets empty. This process of emptying water
from tank and refilling the tank is repeated frequently,
almost on daily basis.
6. Similar to water tank, batteries are the tanks for storing electrical charge or
electrical energy. Alternatively, batteries are ‘charge storage tanks’. Also,
similar to the emptying and refilling cycle of water tank, the electrical
energy of batteries gets emptied (while in use) which we need to refill again.
This refilling of electrical energy in batteries is technically known as
“charging”. Actually, during the charging process, electrical energy supplied
from outside to the batteries get converted into chemical energy. The process
of consumption of electrical energy from batteries is technically known as
“discharging”. During the discharging process, chemical energy stored in
batteries gets converted into electrical energy which is supplied to
appliances. In this way, the working of batteries typically consists of two
processes; charging and discharging. Single charging and single discharging
process together is called charging –discharging process
7. What is a battery?
It is something that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
They produce current via redox reactions:
◦ Red=reduction (gaining electrons)
◦ Ox=oxidation (losing electrons)
Batteries are essentially Voltaic Cells. In a battery the basic electrochemical
unit is referred to as cell. A number of galvanic or voltaic cells connected in
series or parallel or both depending on the desired terminal voltage and charge
Oxidation: Reductant Product + e– (Loss of electrons)
Reduction: Oxidant + e– Product (Gain of electrons)
8. Components of a Battery Cell
1. Anode :-It is the electrode at which oxidation reaction occurs
2. Cathode:- It is the electrode at which reduction reaction occurs
3. Electrolyte:- It is a medium which provides conductivity to ions
between anode and cathode.
4. Separator:-it is used to separate the cathode and anode from
each other to avoid short circuiting.
What are the different components ofa battery cell ? Explain in
9. How Does a Battery Work?
Explain the working of Battery
11. Types of Batteries
• 1. Non-rechargeable
batteries batteries, and
• 2. Rechargeable batteries or
What are the different types of battery Explain Differentiate between primary
and secondary battery /Non - rechargeable and chargeable battery
Explain Non-rechargeable batteries or primary batteries
/Rechargeable batteries or secondary batteries.
Difference Between Primary Cell and Secondary Cell
Primary Cell Secondary Cell
Have high energy density and slow in
discharge and easy to use
They have smaller energy density
There are no fluids in the cells hence it
is also called as dry cells
These are made up of wet cells
(flooded and liquid cells) and molten
salt (liquid cells with different
It has high internal resistance It has a low internal resistance
It has an irreversible chemical reaction It has a reversible chemical reaction
Its design is smaller and lighter Its design is more complex and heavier
Its initial cost is cheap Its initial cost is high
16. Parameters of Batteries
The characteristics of batteries are defined by a set of battery
parameters. These parameters include
• Charge Storage Capacity,
• Terminal Voltage,
• rateat which batteries can be charged and
• the cost of battery,
• the number of times the charging-discharging cycle can be
carried out in a battery lifetime and so on.
17. The standard parameters of a battery specified by the manufacturers
□ Battery terminal voltage (in volts),
□ Charge storage capacity (in Coulomb or ampere-hour or
□ Depth of discharge (in percentage),
□ Number of useful charging-discharging cycle (in number),
□ Life cycle (in years),
□ Self discharge (in %), etc
18. Battery Open Circuit Voltage and Terminal Voltage
What is internal resistance of a battery? Explain its effect on terminal
voltage What is difference between ideal and practical voltage source
19. Battery terminal
• Vbattery = Battery voltage or terminal voltage (in
• Vo = Open-circuit voltage (in volts);
• I = Current flow when load is connected to a
battery (amperes); and
• Ri = Internal resistance of battery (ohms).
21. • The battery has its internal resistance due to many factors. A
battery consists of many cells. The factors like
• the contacts within the cells,
• metal plates/electrodes and
• salt bridge/separator,
• even the electrolyte creates someinternal
22. • A battery has an internal resistance (Ri) of 0.6 ohm and an
open circuit voltage (Vo) of 14 V. What is its terminal
potential difference or voltage developed (Vbattery) if it
delivers current (I ) of (a) 5 A, (b) 10 A and (c) 20 A?
23. Terminologies for Battery Terminal Voltage
• Open circuit voltage: It is also called theoretical voltage because
this is the maximum possible voltage at output terminals of battery
when circuit is open.
• Nominal terminal voltage or operating voltage: It is actual voltage
available at the output terminals of the battery on which load can
operate. The standard battery nominal voltages available are 1.5 V, 3
V, 6 V, 12 V, 24 V, 48 V, etc.
• Cut-off voltage: It is a voltage up to which the load can be operated
and below which the battery should be disconnected from the load in
order to prevent it from over-discharge.
Define – Terminal voltage, open circuit voltage, cut-off voltage,
25. Battery Storage Capacity (C)
• The capacity of a battery is the capacity to store the charge in the
battery. It is the product of current (in amperes) it can deliver for
a given time (in hours), i.e.,Ampere × Hour (Ah).
• One ampere-hour (Ah) is the amount of charge delivered when
constant current of one ampere
(A)is used for one hour (h). The capacity of a battery is given by
the expression shown below:
• Capacity (C) = Current (A) × Hour (h)
Explain with example, Storage Capacity (C) of battery
26. • The capacity of non-rechargeable batteries normally varies in few
mAh (milli Ah) to several Ah range.
• The capacity of rechargeable batteries can vary from few Ah to
thousands of Ah.
• The capacity of batteries depends on temperature. The same battery
will have different capacity at different temperatures.
• The capacity is specified at standard test conditions of 25 °C. Hence,
the capacity value measured at installation sites may vary from the
values given by the manufacturer because of the change in temperature
at particular location.
• Therefore, while selecting the battery for a given purpose, temperature
of the location should be taken in account.
• Higher Ah capacity require higher active material to store charge,
therefore size of battery increase.
27. How much current battery can supply?
• in practical, there is no source which can supply an unlimited
amount of current. Similarly, battery is a device that can only
supply fixed amount of current. The current drawn can be
28. • The above expression suggests that, for a given battery capacity, if
the discharge duration is long, we can draw small current from
battery, but if our discharge duration is small, we can draw large
current from battery.
• This is analogues to water tank, from a water tank of fixed
capacity, if we draw water slowly, we can draw water for long
time, but if we draw water fastly then the tank will get emptied
• Thus, by choosing small discharge duration, it is possible to draw a
large amount of current. But drawing large current from battery
must be avoided.
• As large current cause large voltage drop inside the battery
due to internal resistance and terminal voltage available
29. • A 100 Ah capacity battery is discharged in 20 hours in one case
and in 5 hours in other case. Estimate the current that can be
drawn from battery in these two cases.
31. How much energy is stored in battery?
• If we know the terminal voltage of the battery and its
charge storage capacity, we can obtain how much electrical
energy is stored in the battery. The electrical energy is
given in terms of the product of charge capacity and
voltage. Thus, energy stored in a battery can be given by
the following expression:
• Energy (watt-hour) = Capacity (Ah) × Voltage (V)
32. • If we have 12 V battery of capacity 500 Ah, then calculate the
power of battery and the amount of energy stored in the
It is given that: Battery terminal voltage (V) = 12 V, Battery
capacity (C) = 500 Ah
Battery discharge duration is not given, here, so, we assume the
battery discharge duration is 10 hours.
Since the battery is discharged in 10 hours, the current drawn
from the battery is:
35. Depth of discharge
• In practical applications, all the charge stored in a battery
cannot be used for running load. Only some percentage of total
charge stored can be used.
• The percentage of total charge that can be used for running the load
is referred as Depth of Discharge (DoD). 50% DoD means that only
50% of the total stored charged can be used.
• 70% DoD means that only 70% of the total stored charge can be
• In general, we want higher DoD for the batteries which are used in
solar PV systems.
36. • normally, deep discharge batteries are preferred for PV applications. In
practice, there is no battery for which the allowable DoD is 100%.
• Normally, the batteries used for SLI (starting, lighting, and ignition, for
instance, our car batteries) applications have small DOD, about 10% to
• The batteries which are used for solar PV applications have high DoD,
about 50%. The Li-ion batteries have DoD of 80% to 90%.
• As the depth of discharge of battery increases (due to use of its
stored charge), the terminal voltage of the battery decreases.
• Fully charged battery will have higher terminal voltage as compared to
• Table shows the voltage level at different DoD level in terms of
What is DoD ? For Solar PV system what range of DoD is preferred?
38. State ofcharge
• Rechargeable batteries have to be often charged for reuse. For
such batteries, the time of charging is decided by the present
values of charge level or present State of Charge (SoC).
• The SoC indicates the level of charge, i.e., percentage of total
charge that is stored at this time in a battery.
• Thus, if 60% of the total charge storage capacity is still there in
the battery then the battery’s SoC is 60%.
40. • The DoD is another way of showing SoC. The DoD is the
inverse of SoC. Both DoD and SoC are expressed in
percentage. Present SoC when subtracted from 100% gives the
present value of DoD. This can be written in the following
• DoD (%) = 100 % – SoC (%)
• or SoC (%) = 100 % – DoD (%)
• For example, suppose a battery after sometime of usage has
SoC 70%. This indicates that its present DoD = 100% – 70% =
30%. As we keep using battery, its DoD percentage increases
and the SoC decreases.
42. Charging/Discharging Rate or C-rating
The discharge and charge current or rate is given in terms
The C-rating is defined as charge or discharge rate given in
terms of capacity of the battery divided by the number of
hours for full charge or discharge.
it is represented as C/X rating, where X is the hours of time
for full charge or discharge.
If X = 1 then C-rating is C/1 or 1C. If X = 10 h then C-rating is
C/10 or 0.1C or if X = 20 h then C-rating is C/20 or 0.05C
43. Higher the number of hours that are required for full charge or
discharge, lower will be the charging or discharging rate/current.
The charge or discharge current for a given C-rating can be obtained
by dividing the Ah capacity of the battery by the number of hours for
full charge or discharge.
For example , a 100 Ah capacity battery with C-rating of 0.1C (10 h
for full charge or discharge), will have a charge or discharge current
of 100/10 = 10 A.
Or 100 Ah capacity battery with C-rating of 0.5C will have a charge
or discharge current of 100/2 = 50 A.
• Self-discharge is defined as the electrical capacity that is lost when a
battery is not being used, i.e., sits on the shelf.
• It is caused by internal electrochemical processes within the cell and is
equivalent to the application of a small external load.
• Self-discharge of batteries should be as low as possible.
• The self-discharge rate of battery increases with increase in temperature
of the battery.
• Therefore, it is recommended to store batteries at lower temperatures
• in order to reduce self-discharge.
• Li-ion cells typically lose 8% of their capacity for the first month. When
stored at about 30°C, the lead-acid battery would lose 50% of the stored
charge in 3 to 4 months while the Ni-Cd battery would lose the same
charge in just 6 weeks.
45. Battery life cycle:
• It is defined as the number of complete charge–discharge cycles
that a battery can perform before its nominal capacity falls below
80% of its initial rated capacity.
• The cycle lifetime in range of 500 to 1500 cycles is typical for
• The ageing process (for instance shedding of active materials
from plates resulting in reduced battery capacity) results in a
gradual reduction in capacity over time.
• After the specified life cycle, the battery continues to work but
• its capacity decreases.
• It implies that the battery can still be used for more number of
cycles but available capacity will be lower.
46. FACTORS AFFECTING BATTERY PERFORMANCE
• Not all the theoretically available energy of a battery can be converted
into electrical energy. In practice, only fraction of a theoretical capacity
can be used; normally rated capacity of a battery is only 50% to 70% of
its ideal capacity. This happens due to several types of losses present
in the battery.
• Battery Voltage Level
• Battery Discharge Current
• Battery Temperature during Discharge
• Choice of a Battery
• Battery Charging and Discharging Methods
47. Battery Voltage Level
When a battery is discharged, its terminal voltage is always lower than the
The cell voltage drops during discharge due to increase in cell resistance
resulting from accumulation of discharge products and increased
48. Battery Discharge Current
• The magnitude of discharge current affects the battery terminal
voltage and its service life.
• As the current drawn from the battery increases, its terminal
voltage decreases due to the increased IR drop.
• Higher discharge current also results in shorter service life. under
higher discharge current, the slope of the discharge curve is
• The discharge and charge current (or rate) is denoted by C-rating.
49. Battery Temperature during Discharge
As the battery temperature reduces, both the voltage and capacity of the
This happens due to the increase in internal resistance and decrease in
chemical activities at lower temperatures.
As the temperature reduces, not only does the available capacity of battery
decrease but also the slope of the discharge curve increases, reducing
available terminal voltage.
This implies that a battery rated as 100 Ah at 25°C will provide less capacity
(<100 Ah) when used at temperature lower than 25°C.
The actual decrease in capacity will depend on the type of battery, its
design, discharge rate, etc.
The battery capacity may also decrease at high temperatures due to
deterioration in chemical activities.
Normally, the best battery performance is obtained between 20°C and 40°C.
50. Choice of a Battery
The choice of a battery depends on the given applications and is
determined by the following factors:
• Nominal voltage and Ah rating;
• Cyclic requirements (deep discharge or shallow discharge): In PV
systems, batteries are required to provide energy whenever sunlight is
not available. It is required to undergo a number of charge/discharge
cycles and may be subjected to deep discharge to meet the load
• Range of operating temperature: Batteries in PV systems may be
subjected to extreme temperature conditions ranging from –30°C to
• Self-discharge rate of the battery; and
• Availability and frequency of recharge.
51. Battery Charging and Discharging Methods
Different methods are used to charge different batteries. A lead-acid battery is one of the
most rugged batteries and can be charged either by constant current or constant voltage
or a combination of the two.
The manufacturer’s data sheet clearly specifies how a particular battery needs to be
A typical charging cycle for a lead-acid battery is shown in Fig.
The battery is first charged with a constant current until
its terminal voltage reaches the float potential value,
VBat(float). Some manufacturers also recommend charging up
to a voltage nominally higher than the float potential
(typically 2.4 V to 2.6 V for lead-acid battery).
Thereafter the battery is charged at VBat(float) as the current
into the battery tapers off. As the current reaches a pre-
defined threshold value, the voltage applied across the
battery is slightly reduced so that small amount of charge
keeps trickling into the battery (trickle charge phase). The
highest voltage applied to a lead-acid battery is
determined by the gassing voltage value.
52. Charging Li-ion battery
A Li-ion battery has a high charging efficiency. It is charged at constant current
(maximum charging current specified in the data sheet) up to the maximum specified
voltage. Subsequently, the battery voltage is held constant as the current reduces. The
charging is stopped when the current has dropped down to 5% of its
rated current value. Trickle charge is
usually not applied
to Li-ion batteries. A typical charging
cycle of a Li battery is shown in Fig.
54. Batteries for Photovoltaic (PV) Systems
• The batteries used for PV systems must be
• allow deep discharge,
• should have long life span,
• easily serviced
• have high capacities and
• low self discharge.
55. • Lead-acid batteries are rechargeable, typically, they have
capacities in the range of 1 to 12000 Ah, they have 500 to
800 charge-discharge cycles and life time is of about 2 to 3
• The lead-acid battery performs very well for a wide range of
temperatures, from –15 °C to 60 °C.
• The replacement and maintenance of lead-acid batteries are
• All these factors make lead-acid batteries a good choice for
56. • There are varieties of lead-acid batteries available. In general,
the lead-acid batteries are classified into two categories:
• 1. Liquid vented
• 2. Sealed or VRLA (Valve Regulated Lead-
Acid) It is of two types:
• □ Absorbed glass mat (AGM) battery
• □ Gel battery (gel cell)
• □ AC to DC converters (Rectifiers)
• □ DC to AC converters (Inverters)
• □ DC to DC converters
59. • For a converter, 1000 watts of power is input and the output is 900
watts. What is the efficiency of the converter? Also, what is the
power lost during conversion?
• It is given that input power to the converter is 1000 watt and
output power is 900 watt,therefore, efficiency is:
• In this case, the power conversion efficiency is 90%, which means
that about 10% of power is lost within the power converter, i.e.,
100 W is lost during conversion.
60. • A power converter has specified input power of 300 watts and
manufacturer specified efficiency is 88%. How much is power loss
within the converter? What is the output power?
• Following values are given:
• Input power to inverter = 300 watt
• Efficiency of power converter = 88%
• Output power = 264 watt
• Output power = Input power – Losses
• or Losses = Input power – Output power
• = 300 – 264 = 36 watt
61. DC to AC Converter (Inverters)
The basic role of an inverter is to change DC power into AC power. The AC
power can be supplied to homes, and industries using the public utility
otherwise power grid, the alternating-power systems of the batteries can
store only DC power. In addition, almost all the household appliances, as
well as other electrical equipment can be functioned by depending on AC
Explain DC to AC Converter (Inverters)
• Input DC power of an inverter is 300 W. Output AC power is
250 W. What is the efficiency of the inverter?
• Input power = 300 W
• Output power = 250 W
• Efficiency of inverter = 83.3%
63. DC to DC Power Converters
DC to DC converters are used for
converting one level of DC voltage (usually raw,
unregulated or un-controlled voltage level) to another level of
DC voltage (regulated or controlled voltage level)
• Sometimes, DC to DC converter is also written as ‘DC/DC’ converters.
Explain DC to DC Power Converters
64. • In DC to DC converter, both input side and output side work on
DC power, i.e., DC current flows at input side and DC current
flows at output side.
• If we know the current and voltage at the input side we can find
out the DC power feed at input side.
• Power remain constant for input and out put side.
65. • For a DC to DC converter as shown in Figure 8.9, a
battery of 25 V is connected and the input current is 4
A. At the output side, a voltmeter shows 50 V across
the load and the output current is 1.8 A. Find
• (i) Power input to the converter
• (ii) Power output by the converter or absorbed by load
• (iii) Power lost in the converter due to losses
• (iv) Efficiency of the converter.
67. Charge Controllers
• Charge controllers, as the name implies, control the flow of charge
from the battery and to the battery.
• They protect the battery by preventing over-charge or deep discharge
of batteries to preserve their life and performance.
• When the battery gets overcharged by solar PV module, a charge
controller will cut it off from the circuit so that no more charging is
• Similarly, if a battery goes into deep discharge (or overdischarge) due
to excessive use of batteries by the load, a charge controller detects
and disconnects the battery from the circuit so that no current can be
drawn from the battery. In this way, a charge controller protects the
69. Maximum Power Point Tracking
• MPPT or Maximum Power Point Tracking is algorithm that
included in charge controllers used for extracting maximum
available power from PV module under certain conditions. The
voltage at which PV module can produce maximum power is
called maximum power point (or peak power voltage).
Maximum power varies with solar radiation, ambient
temperature and solar cell temperature.
Explain Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT)
71. Need for Maximum Power Point Tracking?
• In practice, because of the changing ambient solar radiation, the
I-V characteristics of PV modules change throughout the day.
Therefore, it is not possible to choose a load such that the
operating point is always at maximum power point or close to
maximum power point