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State of art of Mechanisation of Underground mines
State of Art of Mechanisation ofUnderground Mines in SCCL MD. Suresh Kumar Addl.Mgr. Proj.Plng The Singareni Collieries Company Limited
World Coal Scenario World Coal Production: 6186 MT Major Producers of Coal in 2010 include: PR China 3162 Mt USA 932 Mt India 538 Mt Australia 353 Mt South Africa 255 Mt Russia 248 Mt Indonesia 173 Mt Kazakhstan 105 Mt Poland 77 Mt Colombia 74 Mt SOURCE – International Energy Agency, 2010.
Coal in World Energy Market SOURCE – IEA- 2010.
Coal Mining in India Brief Review • Geological reserves: The total geo- reserves are estimated as 250.09BT of non-coking and 33.47BT coking coal (As per MoC report as on 1.4.2011) • Extractable reserves: 172.1 BT non- coking (85% in total) and 29.8 BT coking coa. • Singareni has 22.016 Bt total reserves including 9.436 Bt proved (as on 31.03.2010). • Coal deposits spread over 27 major coalfields, and are mainly confined to eastern and south central parts of the country. • The lignite reserves stand at a level around 38.93 Billion tonnes, of which about 82% occur in the states of Tamilnadu & Puduchery.
Coal Demand Report of Various Agencies Source : Working Group on coal & lignite
Coal Production in India - Demand for Coal is high and there is always a shortage. - Shortage is to be bridged by imports. 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 Production 457.082 492.94 531.617 572.37 (MT) (anticipated) Imports (MT) 49.794 59.000 54.000* 81.34 (anticipated) Source – MoC * Coal insights
SCCL- at a glance Singareni at a GlanceMines Under Ground - 36 : Opencast - 14Manpower (as on 30-09-2011) 67,104Targetted Production(2011-12) 53.4 Million tonnesTargetted Production(2010-11) 51.3 Million tonnesActual Production(2010-11) 51.33 Million tonnesOutput per manshift(Mines+Depts)(2010-11) 2.90 TonnesMajor consumers Power,Cement and others 2004- YEAR 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09 2009-10 2010-11 05 COAL 50.43 35.30 36.14 37.71 40.60 44.54 51.33 (MT) OB 101.65 114.99 139.86 140.73 184.64 247.05 215.65 (MCum
Future challenges for SCCL1. Depleting Opencast Reserves • The present trend of coal production is 90:10 towards opencast. • The mechanised Longwall faces produces hardly 4 % of total underground coal production in 2009-10. • In future the reserves beyond 300m have to be exploited through underground methods. • For getting bulk production, we need to take up mining in deep seated reserves either by Longwall or Continuous miner technology. • With higher Stripping Ratio, the cost of production is also increasing in opencast mining. • Land Acquisition becomes critical and invoking R&R problems. • Forest Clearance from MoEF and Land diversion also becoming critical and time taking.
Status of existing mines and depletion of OC property1. Depleting Opencast Reserves… Maximum number of existing OC mines are closing between 14th five yr plan period. The closing OC projects are: • RG OC-1 • MOCP. RG-I • KTK OC sector-1 • GK OC. KGM • JVROC-1exp (SB-1) • Koyagudem OC-2 • JK-5 OC. YLD • BHBL OC-II Ext Source: Road Map-2011 Proj. Plng. Dept. SCCL
Future challenges for SCCL2. Working of deep mines • Depth of operation of our mines has already crossed 300m depth line. • New UG projects such as ADRIYALA, KLP were planned upto 600m and are under implementation. • Future projects such as SHANTHIKHANI, KK6&7 are being planned beyond 650m. • SCCL is facing strata control issues at VK-7, PVK, Adriyala where working have crossed 400m dpth. Cross gradient3. Working of steep mines in coal roof • Seam gradient of KTK, SRP mines, RKP mines are ranging from 1 in 2.8 to 1 in 3.8. • New Projects are to be planned in steep gradients at Shanthikhani, Sharavanapally- I&II, KK 6&7 etc., • Intermediate technologies such SDL and LHD are not suitable in steep gradients. • Movement Shuttle cars/Ram cars restricted by steep gradient in CM faces. • Cross gradient problem hinders smooth working of Road headers Continuous miners.
Continuous Miners World status • CM technology becomes core & integral part of UG mining world wide. • Being deployed for gate roads preparation for Longwall mining • Deployed for Room & pillar mining (dev & extraction)• There are 1400+200 CM and MB are available.• Avg of 1.5 MTPA is being achieved per Continuous miner• World coal mines demand 160 CMs / year• Machine survives 3 rebuilds or 10yrs. Courtesy: Golabal CM/BM sensus. RWTH. Aachen.Germany
Continuous Miners Indian status • The first CM was introduced at Chirimiri Anjana Hill Mine, (SECL) supplied by Joy in May 2002 • The complete system, supplied by Joy Mining Machinery Ltd, included a 12CM15 continuous miner, two shuttle cars, a feeder breaker, a mobile roof bolting machine and electrical distribution system. • Coal production in Chirimiri recorded as highest of average of more than 50000 TPM • This is proved and successful mechanised de-pillaring in India. • In the present technological transformation, with considerable awareness and training it is possible to produce 4 to 6 LTPA in Indian mining condition. Present 1. Anjana Hill Mine, Chirimiri (SECL) in May, 2002. 2. Tansi Mine (WCL) in June, 2003. Continuous 3. VK No: 7 Incline, Kothagudem (SCCL) in Aug, 2006. miner Projects 4. Jhanjra Under ground Mine (ECL) in June, 2007. in India 5. GDK 11A Incline (SCCL) in Dec, 2008.
Continuous Miners Limitations Can not work in steep seams. Workability in deeper deposits yet to be proved. Can work in 2- 4.5m thick seams only. Reserves lost in bord & pillar extraction with CM. Cavability of roof rock heavily affects performance of CM in caving panels. Strata control issues are not fully satisfactory.
Longwall Mining Brief Review• India as a general rule followed the world trend of mechanisation in coal mining during 1970s.• In 1975. ‘Project Black Diamond’ envisaged introduction of 130 Powered Supports Longwall (PSLW) faces by the year 2000.• The first fully mechanized self- advancing PSLW face was ntroduced in Moonidih mine in Jharia Coalfield in 1978.• Subsequently more mines were planned with PSLW in 80s, namely, East Katras • First long wall in SCCL was introduced (BCCL), Seetalpur, Dhemo- Main, Jhanjra, khottadih (all at GDK-7 incline in 1983. in ECL ),Patharkhera (WCL) • In the process about 30 PSLW sets had and Churcha (SECL). been imported from different sources in different countries like, UK, Poland, Russia, Germany, France and China.
Why Longwall Mining ?Emerging requirement of SCCL is: Bulk production from UG Safe mining operations Conservation of coal Environmental protection Reduction of drudgery on workmen, supervisors and officers.Longwall mining is a method, whichcan fulfill all the above conditions inunderground mining.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology1. Suitable for thin seams Thin seams in Mandamari Shaft 4.5m Blocks • Power Support Longwall with coal plough can work in 0.6m seams. • Longwall from 0.6m thick 1.7m seams are producing 0.6m LW face in West Virginia. USA 1.5MTPA in West Virginia, USA. 2.0m
Supremacy of Longwall Technology2. Proven Technology for thick seams • Seams around 6m are being worked with Longwall technology. • 6m Longwall faces are extensively being operated in China.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology2. Proven Technology for thick seams2 : LTCC• Australia and China have started LTCC for thick seam mining.• Basically involves an additional AFC to transport top coal falls behind the Shields.• When compared to other thick seam mining techniques it ensures a high recovery rate and productivity.• The Chinese industry had reported averages of 15,000 to 20,000 TPD from an LTCC face.• 9m thick seams using a 3m operating height Longwall and A new semi-automated 300m long LTCC with 5 MTPA face production. face was installed at the Xing long zhuang• Presently around 70 LTCC faces Colliery of the Yankuang Group, in are operating in China. Shandong Province, (started in August, 2001) is producing around 7MTPA.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology3. Safest UG mining method• Power Shields are fail- safe supports for men and machineries in LW face.• Gate roads (Main gate& Tail gate) are well supports by 30/40T Hydraulic props upto abutment zone.• Men are not exposed to bad roof conditions and goaf edges.• Strata control issues are more scientifically dealt with.• No ventilation problems in Only 3 avoidable fatal accidents LW faces. reported so far in 30 years of LW experience in SCCL.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology4. Scientific approach in Strata management 2.CPR-continuous pressure measurement in 3.RCI- Remote 1.Leg Pressure Gauge to Supports Convergence Indicators measure Load on Supports for measuring convergence remotely
Supremacy of Longwall Technology4. Scientific approach in Strata management- Gate Roads measurements Vibrating Wire Load cell Stress cells Read-out unit Tell Tale Extensometer Mechanical Load cell
Supremacy of Longwall Technology5. Scope for sustaining developments• Countries like US, Australia involved in continuous R&D works and technological development in the field of Longwall mining.• As a result:• Face Length is increased from 100m to 400m.• Panel Length is increased from 1 KM to 3 KM.• Single Gate road development modified to triple entries.• Production levels are enhanced to 7MTPA per face.• Support capacity has been increased from 300T to 2000T. Advancement in Eqpmt capacities• Entire operations of LW faces are automated.• Men transport becomes speedy using FSVs.• Equipment shifting from one face to other becomes sofisticated and mechanised.• Equipment capacity is increased to multifold.• Power of Shearer, AFC, BSL and Belts tremendously increased.• Operating voltage increased to 1.1 KV to 3.3KV• It gives scope for further technological developments.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology6. Scope for continuous Research and Development ( R&D)2 Leg/ 4 Leg Frames 6 Legs Chock Shield-675T 4 Leg IFS Chock Shield-800T 2 Leg IFS Shield-1100T
Supremacy of Longwall Technology7. Advantages of 2-Leg Shield supports Anti topple Face frogs • Support Resistance : 110-120T/m2 • Support capacity : 1000-1150T • Base width : 1.7 or 1.8m • Advancing Ram : 60T capacity. Base lifting ram • Face frogs • Anti skid + Anti topple • Base lifting rams. • Resultant force is closure to face. Anti skid Base 1.7/1.8m
Supremacy of Longwall Technology8. Advantages of 2-Leg Shield supports Roof Bolting Practice in underground mines-needs ‘ Review & Policy’ Workshop on Strata Control- Planning issues
Supremacy of Longwall Technology9. New Generation Longwalls: LW Automation• Highly sophisticated Longwall faces are being operated in US and Australia.• Operations of Shearer and Supports are automated with radio active control.• It works with much more higher efficiency than human efficiency.• Batch control is possible. • Assured positive setting pressure. • Speed of support advance is compatible with shearer speed.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology 10. Face Automation Power Support Automation-Sensor units involves: Mining Engineering Electrical Engineering. Electronics Engineering. Communication Engineering. Software Engineering.
Supremacy of Longwall Technology11. World Longwall ProductionHigh productive mines:1. Oaky North (NSW) - 8MTPA2. Newland North - 7MTPA.3. Kestrel&Moranbah North - 5MTPA
Potential GR Blocks for future Mechanisation Expecte Geo. Ext. TOTA Fores Proposed Annual d year of Depth Life in Reser Reser L t Land Name of Mine Technolog Capacity coal Range Years ves ves AREA Reqm y (MT) Producti (m) (MT) (MT) (Ha) t (Ha) on KK-7 INC LW 1.5 27 2026-27 55.1 32.64 489.48 49.22 92-606 KTK 3 inc LW 1.5 12 2016-17 31.63 13.73 377.95 18.44 56-590 SRAVANAPALLI (dip side) LW 2.0 29 2028-29 120 48 630 315 350-600 550.7 RKP SB-I UG LW 2.0 16 2022-23 97.56 39.84 588.67 129-573 5 517.5 RKP SB-II& NW EXTN UG LW 2.0 17 2025-26 141.03 42.24 657.16 222-623 3 LAXMIDEVIPET UG LW 1.5 22 2027-28 60.76 28.91 925.8 135 35-368 87.37 Mallayyapalli block LW 3.0 32 2019-20 291.25 1350 83.25 160-650 5 Jallaram UG CM 1.7 36 2015-16 157.61 58.57 549 157.4 155-603 KK-6Inc(MM SB sec-C,D) CM 1.2 21 2026-27 69.93 19 357.76 88.25 176-544 RKNT SB (dipside) CM 1.5 16 2027-28 40 16 400 400 300-600 RAMPUR SHAFT CM 1.0 32 2016-17 122.27 32.2 900 640 337-585 PROJECT KOYAGUDEM 2 INCLINE CM 1.0 16 34.98 10.5 306.33 134.6 140-220 Source: Road Map-2011 Proj. Plng. Dept. SCCL
Conclusion.. • Future of above ground lies below ground. • Opencast reserves are depleting and cost of production increasing. • Cost of production of existing UG mines is Rs. 2537(2010-11) and OC is Rs.1142. • The above figures likely to increase still when our depth operation increases. • Mechanisation plays vital role to get bulk production and to make UG projects viable. • Bulk production from UG mines is possible only by introducing Continuous miners and Longwall faces in more numbers. • The future projects of SCCL are being planned beyond 400m and it exceeds 650m where seams are thin, geologically disturbed, highly complicated. • Performance of Continuous Miners are yet proved in such conditions. • Longwall is a proven technology world wide for all types of complicated seams. • It is safe, perfectly engineered technology and it gives scope for further technological developments and adventures. • Hence SCCL is planning for Longwall technology in deeper deposits at various capacities.