3. Table of contents
What is Team Effectiveness?
Team Effectiveness using the scaled
Aspects of excellent team.
Maxims of team management
What does Team Effectiveness
Four strategies to improve Team
Clarify your team mission
Set team goals!
Create a plan
Conduct progress reviews.
Team effectiveness model
• Defining “Team”
– Teams generally consist of two or more people
• Are interdependent
• Exist for a purpose/task
• Are mutually accountable to achieve that
• Perceive themselves as a social entity
– Groups versus Teams?
• As noted previously (e.g., tutorials),
ability to work in teams is essential
in most modern organisations
– Advantages of teams?
– Disadvantages of teams?
7. Types of Teams
• Departmental Teams
• Self-directed or
• Advisory teams
• Task force or project teams
• Skunkworks (team who
research & develop projects
• Virtual teams
• Communities of practice
(share their knowledge &
8. WHAT IS TEAM EFFECTIVENESS?
Team effectiveness refers to the system of
getting people in a company or institution
to work together effectively.
Characteristics of an Effective Team
Effective teams operate in an environment
in which there is two way trust in an
environment of open and honest
11. - 11 -
Teamwork Represents Values that:
• Encourage listening and
constructively to the
views expressed by
• Give others the benefit
of the doubt
• Provide support
• Recognize the interests
and achievements of
John R. Katzenbach and Douglas K. Smith, “The Discipline of Teams”, Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1993, pp. 111-120
12. - 12 -
Characteristics of Losing Teams
• Dominated by one individual
• Compromise between two
• Engage in groupthink
• Not all team members
13. - 13 -
• Clear time frame and agreed upon goals
• Get facts and do analyses before making
• Divide responsibilities
• All team members contribute
• Challenge and play devil’s advocate
14. Team Effectiveness:
Potential for Process Gains
• Potential advantages of using teams
– As a whole, team has more knowledge, ability, effort
than any single team member
– Diversity of views, knowledge, experience can lead to
innovation, fewer errors
– Potential for constructive conflict – task conflict
focused on issue and not personalised
– Can increase individual motivation and engagement
15. Team Effectiveness:
Potential for Process Losses
• Potential disadvantages
of using teams
– Individuals better/faster at
– Development and
– Potential for destructive
conflict – personalised or
– Teams often don’t utilise
all available knowledge
• Drive to defend
• Time constraints
• Evaluation apprehension
• Pressure to conform
16. Team Effectiveness:
Potential for Process Losses
• Social loafing can occur where people exert less
effort when working in a team/group
• Tips to reduce social loafing
– Keep group size small
– Increase identifiability and accountability
– Specialise tasks to make individual efforts
– Set clear, challenging goals
– Increase involvement and engagement
– Increase identification with the group
17. TEAM EFFECTIVENESS USING
THE SCALED COMPARISON
Team Effectiveness is a proven and practical
diagnostic tool for assessing team effectiveness
and improving work group performance.
Team Effectiveness gives the team a very precise
and reliable consensus as to what team members
see going well and what needs improvement.
18. • Team Effectiveness helps team members to very
quickly pinpoint the gap between where they are and
where they need to be.
• With Team Effectiveness, all team members participate
in team improvement through a sharing of their views
about team performance and needed improvement.
• Unlike other diagnostic tools, Team Effectiveness
works with teams as small as 5 to 7 members.
TEAM EFFECTIVENESS USING THE SCALED COMPARISON
19. ASPECTS OF EXCELLENT TEAM
Balance and Coverage are two of the most
important aspects of excellent teams:-
• Whenever team is out of balance, it is vulnerable.
• Great teams need coverage across key positions
with strong individual players.
20. BOEHM’S PRINCIPLES
• The principle of top talent : Use better and fewer people
• The principle of job matching : Fit the tasks to the skills
and motivation of the people available.
• The principle of career progression : An organization
does best in the long run by helping its people to self-
21. • The principle of team balance : Select people
who will complement and harmonize with one
• The principle of phase out : Keeping a misfit on
the team doesn’t benefit anyone.
22. FACTORS AFFECTING TEAM EFFECTIVENESS
• The right mix of skills:- Bringing together the
people having different skills that complement
• The right motivation:- Team effectiveness is
directly related to the interest that team is
having on the project.
• The ability to solve conflicts without
compromising the quality of the project.
23. WHAT DOES TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MEASURE?
Team Effectiveness assesses all of the major
components of effective work groups, employing
multiple statements for each of a number of basic
elements. Some of the elements are :-
• Structural Elements
• Positive Interdependent Behaviors
24. • Structural Elements
– Shared Team Vision
– Clear Team Goals
– Clear Team Roles
– Effective Leadership
WHAT DOES TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MEASURE?
• Positive Interdependent
– Effective Decision Making
– Encouragement of Innovation
– Effective Conflict
– Natural Collaboration
– Effective Meeting
25. Team Processes
• What happens when
our team members get
• One major issue is
– How do teams develop
and change over time?
26. Team Processes: Development
• Tuckman’s Model of Group Development (1965)
Is this a good model for the teams you’ve
experienced? Does it fit all teams?
29. Team Processes: Development
• Other models suggest that groups don’t go through stages at
all but complex cycles
• Punctuated Equilibrium (Gersick)
– Long periods of little or no development
– Important times (e.g., looming deadlines, halfway point) spur
activity and change
30. • Regardless of model, central processes occur during team
• Team membership formation
– Development of cohesion and bonding to group
– Start to think of team as part of social identity
• Team competence
– Form routines, roles, norms, that improve effectiveness
– Form shared mental models about resources, goals, etc.
Team Processes: Development
31. Team Processes: Cohesion
• Cohesion – attraction to group or task and desire to
remain a member
– Results from both cognitive and emotional processes
• Cohesion increases when
– Members are similar
– Teams are smaller
– Members interact frequently
– Somewhat difficult to enter the team
– Team success
– External competition
32. Team Processes: Cohesion
• Cohesion is generally beneficial
– More motivation
– More willing to share information
– Can resolve conflict effectively
– Better interpersonal relationships within team
– Better performance (if team norms aligned with organisation
• Cohesion can be harmful when
– Team members stop doing above to ‘protect’ group
– Team norms inconsistent with organisation norms
33. Team Processes: Trust
• Trust refers to positive expectations of another person in
situations involving risk
• Three levels of trust
– Calculus-based trust
– Knowledge-based trust
– Identification-based trust
• Based on emotional bond and mutual understanding
• Likely to be present in highly effective teams
34. STRATEGIES TO IMPROVE
The task of building better teams and
improving their effectiveness can be
broken down into four simple and
1) Clarify Your Team Mission
2) Set Team Goals!
3) Create A Plan
4) Conduct Progress Reviews.
36. CLARIFY YOUR
Make sure that your
mission is the team's
reason for being - its
• If your team is
responsible for new
products, your mission
might be to create
innovative products and
services that make the
client's life easier and
more enjoyable -- Or
products and service
that save the client
37. • Every team should have
definite objectives or goals.
• There are some guidelines
for setting up the team
39. SETTING UP TEAM GOALS
1) The goals should support the team's mission or
2) Goals should be measurable. For example, instead of
saying, we want to increase sales this month; a
specific goal should be set. A measurable goal might
be, this month we will increase sales by fifteen
percent over last month's sales totals.
3) Goals should have a date.
43. CREATE A PLAN
A team plan is simply a written blueprint for the team's
• spell's out the team's mission,
• outlines the teams goals, and
• It lays out a strategy for fulfilling the team mission and
reaching the goals.
• It states the responsibilities of each person on the team,
what they do, and how they do it.
• It should outline what each person does, and how he or she
45. ITEMS TO BE COVERED IN TEAM
• Check to make sure the team is effectively
accomplishing its mission.
• Review the team's goals and make necessary
adjustments. This is a great time to keep the
team goals out in front of everyone.
• Set a date for the next Progress Review.
46. • Review the team plan and determine if any
updates or changes need to be made to make
the team more effective. Talk about the things
that are working well, and discuss what areas
need to be improved.
• Clarify responsibilities for each team member
and the actions they need to take next.
ITEMS TO BE COVERED IN TEAM PROGRESS REVIEW
47. TEAM EFFECTIVENESS MODEL
Teams can continuously improve their
effectiveness by focusing on improving their
functioning in five key areas: Goals, Roles,
Procedures, Relationships and Leadership
48. 5 key areas for Team Improvement
• Goals: What the team aspires to achieve
• Roles: The part each member plays in achieving the team
• Procedures: The methods that help the team conduct its work
• Relationships: How the team members ‘get along” with each
• Leadership: How the leader supports the team in achieving
49. • CLEAR
• Solving Problems
• and Making
• Completing Tasks
CLEAR ROLES AND
Tools and Equipment
Mutual respect and trust
Okay with disagreementSTRONG LEADERSHIP
Develop People and
All members responsible
Leaders should have two main concerns: people and production
• High concern for people motivates the team and they become
• High concern for production creates sense of achievement and
“Strong, decisive and
knowledgeable or quiet,
supportive, and cooperative”
53. The Commander
Commanders make and
influence most decisions.
The downside of this leadership
style is that the leader can
demotivate and annoy people.
Often decisions are not optimal
- they don’t consider all
available information, options
and perspectives. This style is
effective in short-term, in long-
term it could be dangerous for
people and projects.
54. The Coach
Coaches tend to be concerned
with growing people,
creating and enabling a
This leader makes decisions
collectively with a team while
explaining rationale behind
decisions. They listen and
Coaches encourages personal
growth and looks to build long-
term capabilities in an effort to
prepare the team and
individuals for independent
The coach is needed when team
lacks focus, expertise and
understanding what should be done
55. The Supporter
They tend to make joint decisions with the team as equals, delegating
majority of decisions to the team.
In addition, the Coach is concerned with the creation of harmony and
balance between team members.
Supporters are needed to
They help remove barriers
and coordinate activities.
The Supporter is an ego-less,
quiet leader and facilitator
56. The Self Organizing Team
A motivated and confident Team
doesn’t need formal leaders.
The team makes most decisions.
could step in and become leader in
and situations. People on these
teams tend to be highly capable,
committed and self-driven.
Teams will transcend through
previous steps and become truly
self-organized after experiencing
victories and failures, growing and
gaining experience together.