2. • plant body is gametophyte, independent, dominant,
autotrophic, either thalloid or foliose, containing a rootless
• vascular system is absent
• function of stem is performed by axis
• function of leaves is performed by phylloid.
• function of roots is performed by rhizoids.
• cells are also capable to absorb moisture directly from the
ground or atmosphere. thus it can survive on moist soil.
• they contain chlorophyll for the synthesis of food by
• rhizoids may be unicellular, ,unbranched (e.g.
marchantia, anthoceros, or may be multicellular and
branched (e.g. funaria)
• scales are present in some members which are violet
coloured multicellular single cell thick. they protect the
growing point and help to retain moisture.
• cuticle is present and stomata are absent.
• water and food is transported from cell to cell. however in
some bryophytes a few cells in groups of 2-3 are present
for conduction of water and food. these cells are known
as hydroid and leptoid respectively.
• they are terrestrial but
recquire external water to
complete their life cycle.
hence they are called
amphibians of plants.
liverworts are very small characterized by
undifferentiated leaves, flattened stems and 1 celled
membrane bound oil bodies within their cells which is not
present in other members.(it shows evolutionary connection between green
algae and liverworts because both have oil membrane bodies to store neutral lipid as food.)
• they are named after the characteristic of long horn-like
sporophyte that develops.
• gametophyte is flat, green bodied plant.
• for example:
• geen, clumpy plants found in moist environment.
• mosses are characterized by the presence of 1 cell wide
leaves attached that is used to the stem for water and
• mosses are ale to absorb considerable amount of water.
• they are used for insulation, water absorption and a
source of peat.
• for example: mosses, funariia.