With new researches, explanations
provided but the basic principles of
behaviorism appeared not satisfy all
learning scenarios. New theories came
into view which maintained some of the
behaviorist concepts but excluded
others, and added new ideas which later
came to be associated with the
cognitive views of learning. The neo-
behaviorists, then, were a transitional
group, bridging the gap behaviorism
and cognitive theories of learning.
6. “ The stimuli which are allowed
in are not connected by just
simple one-to-one switches to
the outgoing responses. Rather
the incoming impulses are
usually worked over and
elaborated in the central
control room into a tentative
cognitive like map of the
7. A new stimulus ( the sign)
becomes associated with
already meaningful stimuli (the
significant) through a series of
pairings; there was no need for
reinforcement in order to
8. Tolman’s Key Concepts
Learning is always
goal – directed
more than merely
respond to stimuli;
they act on
9. Tolman’s Key Concepts
on rats concluded
that Organism or
Individual to be
exact learned the
location and will
select the shortest
or easiest path to
Ex. Going to school everyday.
10. Tolman’s Key Concepts
remains or stays
with the individual
Learning that is
manifested at once.
Ex. A 2 yr. old handling remote
for the first time.
11. Tolman’s Key Concepts
The Concept of
Variables that are not
readily seen but serves as
determinants of behavior.
Learning is mediated or
influenced by expectations,
representations, needs and
other internal or
Ex. Experiment on Rats - Hunger
12. Tolman’s Key Concepts
Essential for Learning
Reinforcement is not
essential for learning,
although it provides an
Ex. Rats acquired knowledge of
the way through maze in the
absence of reinforcement.
14. Activity 2
Reading a News Article
10-Year-Old Boy in Texas Hangs
Himself After Watching
26. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF
SOCIAL LEARNING THEORY
1. People can learn by observing the
behavior of the others and the outcomes
of those behaviors.
2. Learning can occur without a change
3. Cognition plays a role in learning.
4. Social learning theory can be
considered a bridge or a transition
between behaviorist learning theories
and cognitive learning theories.
27. HOW ENVIRONMENT AND
People are often to reinforced
for modeling the behavior of
others. Bandura suggested
that the environment also
This is in several possible ways:
32. CONTEMPORARY SOCIAL LEARNING
PERSPECTIVE OF REINFORCEMENT
1. Contemporary theory proposes that both
reinforcement and punishment have
indirect effects on learning.
2. Reinforcement and punishment influence
the extent to which an individual exhibits a
behavior that has been learned.
3. The expectation of reinforcement
influences cognitive process that
33. COGNITIVE FACTORS IN
1. Learning without performance
(through observation and actual imitation)
2. Cognitive processing during
3. Expectations (consequences)
4. Reciprocal causation (person, behavior and
5. Modeling (live models and symbolic models)
34. BEHAVIOR THAT CAN BE
LEARNED THROUGH MODELING
Many behaviors can be learned at least
party, through modeling.
Aggression can be learned through
Moral thinking and moral behavior
are influence by observation and modeling.
Moral judgment regarding right and
wrong which can, in part, develop through
46. EFFECTS OF MODELING
1. Modeling teaches new behaviors.
2. Modeling influences the frequency
of previously learned behaviors.
3. Modeling may encourage
previously forbidden behaviors.
4. Modeling increases the frequency
of similar behaviors.