Diese Präsentation wurde erfolgreich gemeldet.
Die SlideShare-Präsentation wird heruntergeladen. ×


Nächste SlideShare
Instructional material
Instructional material
Wird geladen in …3

Hier ansehen

1 von 56 Anzeige

Weitere Verwandte Inhalte

Ähnlich wie chapter_12_2.ppt (20)

Aktuellste (20)



  5. 5. Instructional Methods and Material are NOT the same and a clear distinction should be made between them . Instructional Methods are the way information is thought Instructional Material include print and non print media used to transmit information and the accompanying hardware and software needed for delivery.
  6. 6. INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS  Definition: It is a vehicle by which information is communicated  Purposes: to help the nurse educator deliver a message creatively and clearly intended to supplement, rather than replace, the act of teaching and the role of the teacher
  7. 7. GENERAL PRINCIPLES OF EFFECTIVENESS Media should: Change behavior by influencing a gain in cognitive, affective, and/or psychomotor skills Enhance learning—no one tool is better than another Complement the instructional methods
  8. 8. Media should (cont’d): Match available financial resources Be appropriate for physical environment Complement learners’ sensory abilities, developmental stage, and educational level Impart accurate, current, valid and appropriate messages Add diversity and information to learning General Principles (cont’d)
  9. 9. CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Three Major Variables to Consider when choosing instructional material 1. Characteristics of the Learner  Sensorimotor abilities  Physical attributes  Reading skills  Motivational level  Developmental stages  Learning styles
  10. 10. CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL 2. Characteristics of the Media  Print  Nonprint  Models  Audiovisual
  11. 11. CHOOSING INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIAL 3. Characteristics of the Task  Learning domain  Complexity of behavior
  12. 12. THREE MAJOR COMPONENTS OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS 1. Delivery System  Definition : both the software (physical form) and the hardware used to present materials  Examples  Software (physical form) : Power Point slides , DVDs  Hardware : computer, DVD players
  13. 13. COMPONENTS (CONT’D) 2. Content  Definition: actual information imparted to the learner  Selection criteria for content  Accuracy  Appropriateness for skill determination  Readability
  14. 14. COMPONENTS (CONT’D) 3. Presentation  Definition: Weston and Canston (1986) states that the form of the message; in other words how information is presented is the form most important for selecting/developing instructional materials  They describe the form of the message as occurring a long a continuum from Concrete to Abstract including ;
  15. 15. COMPONENTS (CONT’D)  Realia: most Concrete and accurate form of stimuli used to deliver information e.g . An actual woman or mannequin demonstrating breast-self examination  Illusionary representations: Less concrete e.g. real life visual and auditory media such as audiotapes on how to discriminate between normal and abnormal lung sound  Symbolic representations: most abstract types of message /stimuli used for instruction e.g. Audiotapes ,oral; presentation, graphs written text ,handout….
  16. 16. TYPES OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS Written (Printed) Materials
  17. 17. Written (Printed) Materials Advantages  Available to learner in absence of teacher  Widely acceptable, familiar  Readily available  Relatively cheap  Convenient form  Learner controls rate of reading  Content easily altered to target specific audiences
  18. 18. WRITTEN MATERIALS (CONT’D) Disadvantages  Most abstract form of reality  Immediate feedback limited  Proper reading level essential for full usefulness  Less useful with low literate learners or visually or cognitively impaired learners  Inappropriate for illiterate learners
  19. 19. WRITTEN MATERIALS Example of Written Materials ; Commercially Prepared materials These materials includes material that prepared by companies that may or may not produced in collaboration with health professionals ,which raises the questions of how factual the information may be.
  20. 20. WRITTEN MATERIALS  Factors to be considered when using Commercially Prepared materials  Who produced the item? Was there any input by healthcare professionals?  Can the item be previewed?  The price must be consistent with its educational value.
  21. 21. WRITTEN MATERIALS Example of Written Materials ;Instructor Composed Material Educators may choose to write their own instructional material for the purpose of cost saving or the need to tailor content to specific audience.
  22. 22. Guidelines for writing Effective Instructor Composed Material Fit your own institution’s policies, procedures and equipment. Build in answers to those questions asked most frequently by your patients. Highlight points considered especially important by your healthcare team. Reinforce specific oral instructions and clarify difficult concepts.
  23. 23. EVALUATING PRINTED MATERIALS Educator must consider : Nature of the audience Literacy level required Linguistic variety available Brevity and clarity Layout and appearance Opportunity for repetition Concreteness and familiarity
  24. 24. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS  Demonstration materials includes many types of non-print media, such as models and real equipment as well as displays, such as posters ,diagrams, illustrations ,charts bulletin boards …..
  25. 25. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS Advantages Fast way to attract attention, make a point Flexible Portable Reusable Stimulate interest or ideas in observer Can change or influence attitudes Purchasable and/or can be made
  26. 26. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS (CONT’D) • Disadvantages  Take up a lot of space  Time-consuming to prepare—often reused, outdated  May be overused  Unsuitable for large audiences
  28. 28. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS  Models are usually three-dimensional instructional tools that allow the learner to immediately apply knowledge and psychomotor skills by observing ,examining ,manipulating handling ,assembling and disassembling objects while the teacher provides feedback (Rankin & Stealing 2001)
  29. 29. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS MODELS Advantages  Useful when real object is too small, too large, too expensive, unavailable, or too complex  Allows safe, hands-on practice  More active involvement by the learner with immediate feedback available  Readily available
  30. 30. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS MODELS (CONT’D)  Disadvantages  May not be suitable for learner with poor abstraction abilities or for visually impaired  Some models fragile, expensive, bulky, or difficult to transport  Cannot be observed or manipulated by more than a few learners at a time
  32. 32. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS  Displays such as chalkboards, boards, flipchart are two- dimensional objects ,they are useful tools for a variety of teaching purposes to clarify, reinforce or summarize information on important topics and themes.
  33. 33. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS Displays Babcock and Miller (1994) suggested important guidelines when using chalkboards and white marker boards as follows;  Be sure that writing is legible and discernible  Step a side and face the audience after putting notations on the boards to maintain contact with audience  Allow audience time to copy the message  Enlist a good note taker to capture a creative design or record an idea before the board is erased
  34. 34. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS Posters Which poster is more helpful ….!!!
  35. 35. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS  Although they are a type of display material ,posters are being addressed separately because they have become increasingly unique, popular and important educational tools
  36. 36. DEMONSTRATION MATERIALS Posters When using poster the educators must Consider:  Color (opposite spectrum, one color should make up as 70% of the display)  Graphics should be easily interpreted  White space and another background color  Avoid unfamiliar words and symbols  KISS principle (keep it small and simple)  Keep learning objectives in mind for the focus of the display tool  Be sure content is free from spelling and grammar mistake  Balance Titles / Script
  37. 37. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS  Factors in selection  Technical feasibility  Economic feasibility  Social/political acceptability  Instructor familiarity
  39. 39. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS  Technology software and hardware are exceptional aids because many can influence all three domains of learning by promoting cognitive development ,stimulating attitude change, and helps to build psychomotor skills
  40. 40. AUDIOVISUAL MATERIALS  Audiovisual materials can be categorized in to five major types ;  Projected Learning Resources  Audio Learning Resources  Video Learning Resources  Telecommunications Learning Resources  Computer Learning Resources
  41. 41. PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES  Projected Learning Resources such as;  Power Points  Overhead transparencies
  42. 42. PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES  Advantages  Most effectively used with groups  Especially beneficial with hearing-impaired, low- literate learners  Excellent media for use in teaching psychomotor skills
  43. 43. PROJECTED LEARNING RESOURCES (CONT’D)  Disadvantages  Lack of flexibility due to static content of some forms  Some forms may be expensive  Requires darkened room for some forms  Requires special equipment for use
  44. 44. AUDIO LEARNING RESOURCES Audio Learning Resources includes CDs, Digital Sound Files, Radio Advantages  Widely available  May be especially beneficial to visually-impaired, low literate learners  May be listened to repeatedly  Most forms practical, cheap, small, portable
  45. 45. AUDIO LEARNING RESOURCES (CONT’D)  Disadvantages  Relies only on sense of hearing  Some forms may be expensive  Lack of opportunity for interaction between instructor and learner
  46. 46. VIDEO LEARNING RESOURCES Video Learning Resources includes ; Digital Video Files, DVDs, Webinars  Advantages  Widely used educational tool  Inexpensive; uses visual, auditory senses  Flexible for use with different audiences  Powerful tool for role-modeling and demonstration  Effective for teaching psychomotor skills
  47. 47. VIDEO LEARNING RESOURCES (CONT’D)  Disadvantages  Viewing formats limited depending on use of VHS or DVD  Some commercial products may be expensive  Some purchased materials may be too long or inappropriate for audience
  48. 48. TELECOMMUNICATIONS LEARNING RESOURCES Telecommunications Learning Resources includes Television, Telephones  Advantages  Relatively inexpensive, widely available  Disadvantages  Complicated to set up interactive capability  Expensive to broadcast via satellite
  49. 49. COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES In our technological society ,the computer has changed our lives dramatically and has found widespread application in industry, business, schools and homes  Examples of Computer Learning Resources (See chapter 12 page 504)
  51. 51. COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES  Advantages  Interactive potential: quick feedback, retention  Potential database is enormous  Can individualize to suit different types of learners, different pace of learning  Time efficient
  52. 52. COMPUTER LEARNING RESOURCES (CONT’D)  Disadvantages  Primary learning efficacy: cognitive domain less useful for attitude/behavior change or psychomotor skill development  Software and hardware expensive  Must be purchased  Limited use for most older adults, low-literate learners, those with physical limitations
  53. 53. EVALUATION CRITERIA FOR SELECTING MATERIALS  Considerations for Selecting Materials  Learner characteristics  Task(s) to be achieved  Media available
  54. 54. STATE OF THE EVIDENCE  Performance is improved and learner satisfaction increased with visual reinforcement.  Distance learning is an increasingly viable option for learners.
  55. 55. LEARNING PYRAMID ; INFORMATION RETENTION BASED ON THE LEVEL OF ACTIVE LEARNER INVOLVEMENT Source : Adopted from National Training Laboratories. Institutes of Applied Behavioral Science
  56. 56. SUMMARY Instructional materials should be used to support learning by complementing and supplementing your teaching, not by substituting for it.