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# Tutor l1 setting out

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Setting out basic masonry structures

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### Tutor l1 setting out

1. 1. Contribute to Setting Out
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3. 3. SETTING OUT For measuring when setting out, builders may use a 30 metre setting out tape. The tape measure can be either made of fabric or metal. With constant use and pulling the tape tight a fabric tape could tend to stretch which could give an incorrect reading. Wipe all tapes clean after use and to maintain a metal tape, lightly lubricate it with oil
4. 4. SETTING OUT A 90 DEGREE ANGLE (SQUARE) For ease of construction and to keep building costs to a minimum the majority of buildings are made up of a collection of squares and rectangles. Squares and rectangles all have angles/corners at 90 degrees. There are several ways to set out or check a right angle on site.
5. 5. BUILDERS SQUARE Never presume that the square is accurate. It may have been made faulty or damaged through use or neglect. To check a square for accuracy lay it on a flat surface and draw round the 90 degree end. Totally reverse the square and place it on the lines you have just drawn. If the square follows the lines, it is accurate, if it shows different it is faulty.
6. 6. 3:4:5 METHOD This method is also known as Pythagoras. A triangle having sides measuring 3m, 4m & 5m, creates a perfect 90 degree angle, at the corner. By using this method builders are able to set out a square corner using just a tape measure. A B C 3m 5m 90 degrees 4m
7. 7. SETTING OUT OTHER ANGLES 90 degree angles, and other angles, can also be set out using optical equipment, such as a Site Square or a Theodolite. Nowadays it is quite commonplace to use equipment incorporating a laser beam and setting out buildings can now be achieved with the use of satellite navigation.
8. 8. SET OUT A 45° / 135° ANGLE (FROM POINT A) EQUIPMENT REQUIRED = STRAIGHT-EDGE / BUILDERS SQUARE CHALK OR PENCIL / TAPE MEASURE. 1.EXTEND WALL LINE XA TO B. 2.MEASURE ANY DISTANCE FROM A (600mm) TO FIND POINT B. 3.DRAW LINE BC AT 90° TO LINE XB (USE BUILDERS SQUARE OR 3:4:5 METHOD) 4.MEASURE FROM B TO C (600mm) – same distance as in Step 2. 5.JOIN POINTS A TO C. 6.LINE AC CREATES A 45° ANGLE WITH LINE BX & ALSO CREATES A 135° AT THE ANGLE AT CAX SETTING OUT OTHER ANGLES C 135° 45° A X B IN A SQUARE ALL THE ANGLES ARE 90°. BY DRAWING A LINE FROM CORNER TO CORNER THE ANGLES HAVE BEEN HALVED.
9. 9. SET OUT A 60° / 120° ANGLE (FROM POINT A) EQUIPMENT REQUIRED = STRAIGHT-EDGE / CHALK OR PENCIL / TAPE MEASURE / TRAMMEL SET COMPASS OR LINE STEP 1 1. EXTEND LINE XA. USING A COMPASS SET AT ANY DISTANCE ((600mm) OR A PIECE OF LINE AND CHALK SCRIBE AN ARC TO CREATE POINT B. STEP 1 1. EXTEND LINE XA. USING A COMPASS SET AT ANY DISTANCE ((600mm) OR A PIECE OF LINE AND CHALK SCRIBE AN ARC TO CREATE POINT B. X A C B
10. 10. STEP 2 PLACE COMPASS POINT ON B, WITH COMPASS SET TO SAME DISTANCE, AND SCRIBE AN ARC, INTERSECTING THE PREVIOUS ARC TO CREATE POINT C X BA
11. 11. STEP 3 DRAW A LINE FROM A TO C. THIS LINE CREATES A 60° & A 120° ANGLE TO THE BASE LINE BY JOINING B TO C CREATES AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE. THIS SHAPE HAS ALL 3 ANGLES EQUAL TO 60° 120° 60° BAX C
12. 12. THE BUILDING LINE This is an ‘imaginary’ line, determined by the Local Authority Highways Department. This line is usually a measurement taken back from a point on the highway – maybe the centre of the nearest road, the kerb line of the pavement, or a manhole in the roadway. Its’ function is for any possible future road widening; therefore to make sure that any new construction will be far enough back from the highway. Any infringement of this measurement could result in fines or legal proceedings to remove any construction in front of this set measurement. Contacting the Highways Dept. will position this line. Consider that if the construction faces more than one roadway, there could be more than one Building Line measurement required.
13. 13. ROADWAY KERB LINE MEASURED BACK FROM KERB LINE BUILDING LINE No permanent part of the construction may overstep the Building Line. You may build up to the Building Line, behind it, but NOT INFRONT of it. THE BUILDING LINE
14. 14. SETTING OUT A RECTANGULAR BUILDING Setting out is required to locate the position of a building on the ground. The setting out determines the positions of the walls, which in turn determine where the ground is to be excavated and the concrete poured, to create the foundation trenches. EQUIPMENT REQUIRED:- DRAWING / 30M TAPE / 3M TAPE/ STEEL SETTING OUT PINS / LUMP HAMMER
15. 15. STEP 1 AFTER DETERMINING THE POSITION OF THE BUILDING LINE, SET OUT USING STEEL PINS AND BUILDING LINE TO POSITION THE FRONTAGE LINE (AB) OF THE NEW BUILDING STEP 2 DETERMINE ONE OF THE FRONT CORNERS (A) AND SET LINE (AC), SQUARE TO THE FRONTAGE LINE. FRONTAGE LINE C A B D STEP 3 MEASURE THE LENGTH OF THE BUILDING ( A – B) AND ESTABLISH POINT B. STEP 4 ERECT LINE BD, MAKING SURE THE ANGLE AT B IS 90 DEGREES. C A
16. 16. CHECKING THE DIAGONALS STEP 5 MEASURE THE WIDTH OF THE BUILDING, A-C & B-D. POSITION A LINE FROM THESE 2 POINTS TO COMPLETE THE RECTANGLE. D C B A STEP 6 TAKE A MEASUREMENT FROM CORNER TO CORNER (A - D & B - C). WHATEVER A – D MEASURES THEN B – C MUST MEASURE THE SAME. IF BOTH DIMENSIONS ARE THE SAME THAT MEANS THAT EACH CORNER IS PERFECTLY SQUARE. IF DIMENSIONS DIFFER THEN THE SETTING OUT PROCESS MUST BE RE- CHECKED FOR FAULTS. STEP 7 AS A FINAL CHECK, RE-CHECK ALL THE DIMENSIONS FOR ACCURACY DC BA
17. 17. The next process is to erect CORNER PROFILES, set back from each corner. As shown above, timber pegs are driven into the ground and a timber profile board nailed across. SETTING OUT LINE PROFILE BOARD SIZE APPROX. 75mm x 30mm TIMBER PEGS APPROX. 50mm x 50mm STEEL SETTING OUT PIN SETTING OUT LINE
18. 18. CORNER PROFILES Because the steel setting out pins will need to be removed for excavation of the building, each timber corner profile, because it is set back, can remain in position whilst the building foundations are removed/excavated. The setting out lines are extended from the steel setting out pins and the positions of each line marked onto the profile board. When the bricklayer begins to set out the external walls he/she can attach the lines onto the relevant marks, without the need for having to set out the building again.
19. 19. THE POSITIONING OF SETTING OUT PROFILES FOR A TYPICAL BUILDING The setting out profiles are set back from the building so that they will not get hit by machinery working on the excavation. If excavation was to be carried out by hand the profiles could be positioned closer to the works.
20. 20. When the foundation concrete has set the original setting out lines are fastened to the setting out profiles, once again. The bricklayer now needs to transfer the lines positions onto the concrete foundation. This is achieved by carefully plumbing down where the lines travel and marking this onto the concrete. These marks represent the positions of the walls from above ground to below ground. LINES PLUMBED DOWN AND POSITIONS MARKED ON TO THIN SMEAR OF MORTAR. BRICKWORK CAN THEN BE SET OUT, BELOW GROUND LEVEL, IN THE CORRECT POSITION.
21. 21. LEVELLING Initially all four corners of a building will have to be built up to the same level. This is usually firstly achieved for the horizontal damp proof level, which is generally 150 mm, above finished ground level. All buildings have a levelling DATUM point. This datum would be shown on the working drawing and it is quite often the ground floor finished floor level, shown as F.F.L. More often than not this level is usually the same as the D.P.C. level. To find the F.F.L. / D.P.C. level of a proposed new building it may be necessary to transfer a level from a datum elsewhere, possibly a long way away. This would be one of the first tasks to be done on a construction site and a surveyor would set up the SITE DATUM or TEMPORARY BENCH MARK.
22. 22. site datum or temporary bench mark is a point where all levels, either above ground, or below ground are initially taken from. can be a length of steel angle iron set firmly into the ground and surrounded by concrete. to protect the datum from damage, by plant, it would be positioned away from activities and surrounded by a fence. Symbol relating to a datum point
23. 23. For greater distances more accurate devices are required, such as :- DUMPY LEVEL QUICK SET LEVEL TILTING LEVEL (AUTOMATIC) THEODOLITE LASER LEVEL