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  1. 1. Week 6 A Clash of Civilisation Lucy Kulcsar 17262196
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  7. 7. Week 7 Democracy and its discontents Lucy Kulcsar 17262196
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  13. 13. Week 10 Citizenship and inequality II: Migration Lucy Kulcsar 17262196
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  19. 19. References:  Mahmood, S 2009, 'Religious reason and secular affect: an incommensurable divide?', Critical Inquiry, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 836-62.  Abu-Lughod, L 2006, 'The Muslim woman: the power of images and the danger of pity', Eurozine, 1 September.  Held, D 1996, 'Introduction', in Models of democracy, 2nd edn, Polity Press, Cambridge.  Appadurai, A 2002, 'Deep democracy: urban governmentality and the horizon of politics', Public Culture, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 21-7. Lucy Kulcsar 17262196
  20. 20. References:  Gabrielle A 2013, 'Bikies crackdown: did the Constitution fail Queensland?', The Conversation.  Nash, K 2010, 'Citizenship', in Contemporary political sociology: globalization, politics, and power, 2nd edn, Wiley-Blackwell, Chichester, UK, pp. 132-91.  Portes, J 2013, 'An exercise in scapegoating', London Review of Books, vol. 35, no. 12, p. 7-9. Lucy Kulcsar 17262196

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • Religion is one topic that has influenced numerous moments around the world, it is seen through war on terror and through the rise of politics globally. In this first reading Mahmood describes that separation is not only between churches and the state but argues that it is more in depth through the modes of governance.
    In 2005 a Danish cartoonist shows Mahmood defending values and beliefs, discussing that Islamic extremes will not take over our liberal freedom and institutions. Mahmood believes that we need to defend each person’s ability to have their own belief in religion and standards that are necessary to secular ways of life and conduct.
  • The Danish artist published many cartoons that lead much protest within the Muslim communities. The reason for these protest were due to the exploitation of Muslim governments. Though causing many riots and protests over the world, once again the Danish newspaper printed another cartoon showing the infamous bomb in the Turban. This cartoon depiction was to claim freedom of speech in any country though did not get the right reaction and claimed have the cartoonist allegedly killed. Having again printed another cartoon became to have a different reaction on the community, it finally lead to peaceful demonstrations.
  • Freedom of speech is easily said then done; it’s a constant battle with many countries all over the world especially in the Middle East. Mahmood also argues her focus on politics of religious freedom in the Middle East. That freedom of speech has never been a simple matter to exercise, it can provoke many people with religious or cultural compassions. Mahmood argues that European Governments have a double standard with the treatment of Muslims, also that any form of desecration of Christian symbols would by blasphemy. But the media turn a blind eye to the pictorial depictions of any Muslim desecration.
  •  Traditional values and concepts draw to convey a discourse in contemporary Islam. Mahmood also argues that Muslim constantly are attacked through images created by the media, many of the Muslims find these depictions racist when it comes to their own experience. Many arguments about racialization of Muslims have aggravated the fear among the European people, the fear that European Muslims will recourse hate-speech laws to regulate forms of speech to their own religious sensitivities. We all need to recognize that racism has risen with regards to religion, as a whole people across the world need to support and respect each and every religion.
  • Having images depict certain cultures and religion can lead to many debates, living in the society that is supposed to have equal rights and freedom of speech is a hard concept to convey. Having double standards in any country is not conceived as right or fair, depicting images of any one religion can and has caused much public debate and protests within the Middle East. We as a society need to understand and embrace every religion and cultural difference with open arms and allow other communities to have equal rights. Possessing equal opportunities for everyone gives us all the ability to live in a safe and fair environment.
  • Most people today possess some basic thought of being a democrat. Though many states in today’s society are come into an agreement of being of democratic, it stems to go further back to ancient times of the Greek. In this reading David Held expresses the importance of democracy, how it entails a political community to form some sort of political equality among the people. Though there is much history behind the concept democracy it is a complex and contradictory conceptions. Held argues that the rule or people need to be considered. We need to find what issues is part of the rule that evokes people view and opinion when it comes to democracy.
  • Though much history is involved when it comes in democracy there is much disagreement for potential areas. From ancient Greeks to the modern world has been much success by ‘the rule of people’; Held takes into account the level of social wealth, whether or not that can be maintained into a democratic society. Also Held asks the questions whether or not can democracies be maintained during times of national emergency or war?
    These questions can are likely to be unsettled and shows how people are still connected with past history events of democracy.
  • David Held expresses has some connection with each other, whether we freely associate ourselves through political parties, association members and clubs. Though in another reading by Appleby she too also has her own insights of how democracy tends to associate rules and regulations to help our society become a safe environment. Appleby expresses that tough new laws have been set out against the bikies of the Queensland. The High Court claims to believe that these laws contain much protection for the Queensland community. Bikies will be sentenced to higher jail sentences of a minimum of 15 years, due to the government wanting protection as a new law.
  • Appleby states how the legislation is the way that Queensland can push laws to come into full effect. This system is heavily relied by the democratic institutions for individual’s own rights and protection. Although these new laws came into action, the public or bikies did not have a say into passing these new laws through. Australia does not have or even contain a bill of rights, which leads into the parliament allowing laws of protection for rights of individuals. Which in practice means that England is still under the hand of England.
  • These readings all express how the importance of democracy is still today part of every community and its country. People all over the world think that many groups such as the bikies are a hazardous group of people who cause illegal practices and constantly break the law. It shows much evidence in these readings that people are always trying to protect the public. Though many of these concepts convey messages of public safety, we need to argue whether or not we can help with public safety. As a community we need to challenge our rights and freedom within a democratically society.
  • Many social movements across the world have helped with transforming the way citizenship is looked at. Not only does it help with identity but transform into equality. Kate Nash expresses how this movement from the early 1940’s created as a classic starting point, eventually became widespread and continued with further discussions in the debate in political sociology. Citizenship is part of history, and helped built many countries all across the world. Australia is one country that has been affected with citizenship, without this we wouldn’t have such a diverse community of people.
  • Nash also takes into account Marshall’s law of citizenship, in a more detailed look. Marshall focuses much emphasis on how its not only represented through history but through socio-economic class. Though equality is not evident its still part of todays society that socio-economic class is one of he main concepts conceived with citizenship. However new social movements like civil rights, gay liberations and anti-racist movements are here to help different types of citizenships. To have a universal community of accepting everyone’s differences is a start in helping this movement of equal rights. It’s a step to embrace different communities and people to come together with the ideas of rights and social agreement.
  • Nash also expresses how cultural politics are the main inspiration of social movements. Historically there were many concepts that didn’t allow much social movement but as we are becoming a modern society so to is the equality of citizenship. Many people who work in poor countries risk their lives as well as families, to cross a boarder for a better life. Though this is illegal you can understand what strengths these people will go to in order to survive. Though coming into another country and having the government help with wages and housing, these people are still victimized through socio-economic class.
  • Johnathan Portes also expresses how immigration is a problem within the British society. He explains how there are two major problems, first is the problem of economic standards and second is social movement. He argues that if there were better policies many of the immigrants would make a meaningful difference. Portes argues that from 1979 these immigrants who are less fortunate then others have taken jobs of lower income, these jobs are more than likely to have any beneficial value or meaning for the future.
  • Another reading by Scott Blinder questions how many Bulgarians and Romanians will come in the UK? This social movement of these migrants has many people not supporting the Bulgarians and Romanians. The UK have also made restrictions for them to work, it means that they are only tied to working in the seasonal Agricultural Workers Scheme. Which in theory means that these people can only work for certain seasons throughout the year. Overall these social movements have sparked much racist comments and reactions over the UK. People need to understand whom difficult it is in other countries, as a society we need to welcome and allow people from all over the world in any country.