NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR USE-VALUES?
For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution
Carst...
1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980
2. Relations of Production as Relations...
At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into
conflict with the existing relation...
 Means of production are owned and used
only by capitalists
 There is a production of capital and of
consumption goods
...
 J. Schumpeter: Means of the
Production of Culture
 M. Weber: Carrier of meaning
Multiple Rationalities
 K. Marx:
 Mea...
 R. Williams: the “long
revolution” and “media
as means of production”
 S. Hall: “relative autonomy”
 …..
 K. Marx:
 ...
C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
Relations of Production as
Relations of their Time
Relations of Production as
Relations of their Time
Von Wertschöpfung zu ….
Quelle: Schlussbericht der Enquete Kommission “...
1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980
2. Relations of Production as Relations...
Relations of Production as
Relations of their Time
1997:
2.308.500 €
2013:
1.006.000 €
C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspec...
Music: anytime, anywhere
C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980
2. Relations of Production as Relations...
▪ Production
▪ Music ‘homecasting’ from ‘ordinary’ people
▪ More possibilities to create and maintain social relations
▪ N...
▪ Production
▪ Monetize everything and immediately (Music)
▪ Limiting access to tools & facilities
▪ Commercial networks (...
Prosumer-
Networks
Cultural & Social
Values
Articulation Layer
Media (Means) /
Texts
Markets
Economic Value
(Internet-Pros...
 How to understand these two media developments and their
relation?
 Can we speak of a music economy with two articulate...
1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980
2. Relations of Production as Relations...
Finance/Crowdfunding
C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
Music: anytime, anywhere
C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
New Perspectives for Use-Values? For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution
New Perspectives for Use-Values? For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution
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New Perspectives for Use-Values? For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution

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How can we understand the new freedoms that digitally networked media (social media) have opened up? The presentation employs social theory from Marx to Weber and Schumpeter to analyze new music networks that use YouTube as a means of production and how YouTube is gradually taking back some freedoms in processes of economization.

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  • Use value arises for people with opportunities to “produce” something that is of value for them. This value is calculated in proportion to the positive and negative freedom in the use of means the constraints that restrict these freedoms.
    We are interested in his relationship of freedom and constrain and whether and how it changes in the context of implementation, dissemination and development of new media as means of production.
    First, I explain how Marx and others helped us to develop our perspective, we then explain the example of the development of YouTube and music networks in Berlin and Mannheim. We design a new (old) perspective for more use-values and civic prosperity.
  • Gebrauchswert ergibt sich für Akteure durch Möglichkeiten, Mittel für die Produktion von etwas zu gebrauchen, das für sie von Wert ist. Dieser Wert ergibt steht in einem Verhältnis zu den positiven und negativen Freiheiten bei der Verwendung dieser Mittel sowie zu den Zwängen, denen diese Verwendung unterliegt.
    Dieses Verhältnis und wie es sich verändert interessiert uns in diesem Vortrag im Kontext der Einführung, Verbreitung und Entwicklung von Medien.
    Wir werden diese Argumentation zuerst historisch und im Hauptteil des Vortrags am Beispiel von YouTube. Anschließend entwickeln wir vor diesem Hintergrund neue Perspektiven für Use-Values.
  • Gebrauchswert ergibt sich für Akteure durch Möglichkeiten, Mittel für die Produktion von etwas zu gebrauchen, das für sie von Wert ist. Dieser Wert ergibt steht in einem Verhältnis zu den positiven und negativen Freiheiten bei der Verwendung dieser Mittel sowie zu den Zwängen, denen diese Verwendung unterliegt.
    Dieses Verhältnis und wie es sich verändert interessiert uns in diesem Vortrag im Kontext der Einführung, Verbreitung und Entwicklung von Medien.
    Wir werden diese Argumentation zuerst historisch und im Hauptteil des Vortrags am Beispiel von YouTube. Anschließend entwickeln wir vor diesem Hintergrund neue Perspektiven für Use-Values.
  • Gebrauchswert ergibt sich für Leute durch Möglichkeiten, Mittel für die Produktion von etwas zu gebrauchen, das für sie von Wert ist. Dieser Wert ergibt in einem Verhältnis zu den positiven und negativen Freiheiten bei der Verwendung dieser Mittel und der Zwänge, die diese Freiheiten einschränken.
    dabei durch etwas zu gebrauchen abzüglich der Zwänge, die diese Freiheiten einschränken. Uns interessiert im Vortrag dieses Verhältnis und wie es sich im Hinblick auf die Einführung, Verbreitung und Entwicklung von Medien verändert.
    Wir werden diese Argumentation im Hauptteil des Vortrags am Beispiel von YouTube entfalten, bevor wir vor diesem Hintergrund neue Perspektiven entwickeln.
  • We will approach the empirical analysis of YouTubes Music Economy from to points of view. A Cultural Studies point of view that emphasises practices of meaning making and relationship building in networks of prosumers.
    And the point of view of political economy that emphasises questions of ownership, labour and value.
    For the first point of view - the networks of YouTubers - we draw on a study where we’ve interviewed eleven musicians that use YouTube for their activities. You can see some of them on the sheet behind me.
    They have been questioned on their careers, their practices and their values on using youtube to produce music and to build relations with other musicians and fans. This second part draws on the work of Christian Fuchs and Sebastian Sevignani on Digital Labour and the Internet-Prosumer-Commodity.
    Cultural analysis does not have to be either utopist or critical. For example Raymond Williams Study on Television explicitly recognized the processes of the capitalist institutionalization of new forms of media. He recognized both the possible democratic potential of new media to allow for more diverse dealing with meanings and the dangers of capitalist institutionalization. As such, both new freedoms as well as constraints are very visible when looking at what's happening in the ongoing development of YouTube.
  • To get a hold of these new freedoms and constraints we have used Marx skeleton of commodity production. The concrete forms Production, Distribution and Consumption that are the relations of production of a society.
    Regarding the Production/Distribution: We have already made clear that we think, that the distribution of the means of production is broader than in previous forms of capitalism. This also accounts for resources, which on YouTube are very often existing videos that get remixed. It is also knowledge on how to operate with software. One of the YouTubers we’ve interviewed created tutorial videos for a music production software called Ableton Live. YouTube also is very interested in freeing resources through unlicensed material and it’s copyright violation software Content-ID. They encourage rights holders not to delete violations but to monetize them through advertisements or leave them alone so they can stay as a resource for cultural production. So people here have more diverse possibilities to produce meaningful texts themselves by which they create communities that are very important for young people as personal, sometimes professional networks of their own - this is not new.
    Production: Networks! So this music economy - which is not necessarily a monetary economy - is a networked economy. Its networks of people that produce cultural things. For YouTubers to gain relevance it is central here to work collaboratively.
    One reason for this lies in the attention. If YouTubers Collaborate they call it cross-promotion. Several similar videos - like parodies or cover versions - will be produced. Or they organize guest appearances. This helps to create flows of attention that shift from video to video through the channels of the YouTubers that are collaborating.
    The other reason lies in the exchange of cultural and social capital within these networks. One of the YouTubers we’ve interviewed for example produces a lot of soundtracks for well known YouTubers for free. Through this he gained access to the networks of these YouTubers and accumulated social capital - networks of his own with movie and game-producers - so that his network is increasingly international. More and more he can transform this social capital into money by producing for brands or game-producers.
    Circulation & Consumption: On YouTube there is a lot more freedom to circulate and consume music than ever before in music culture. This seems to be an ongoing process where sharing music is increasingly less material: From Vinly to Mixtapes, to mp3 and so on.
    Circulation and Consumption then almost can not be separated anymore: The Use-Value is for a big part its exchange value and its value of distinction and belonging. There is some truth to ideologies like Sharing is Caring. Like in a gift culture, Music users, through sharing, performatively produce communities and other forms of relationships from which they have more to choose from.
  • But how about the critical part of empirical analysis? Where are the new constraints? Mediakraft for example is a new kind of organization that establishes new kinds of constraints with YouTube by creating some freedoms for only very few YouTubers and restraining access for others. Mediakraft ist what’s called a Multi Channel Network. MCNs contract a lot of YouTubers and integrate them into a bundle of services for YouTubers and Advertisers. Mediakraft was funded with 16.5 Million Euros last year.
    MCNs coach YouTubers on how to produce better video. Better here also means to produce a ‘Safe content environment’ for Brands. Practices like cross-promotion here are rationalized. So not only one music video is being produced and then over time organically covered by others, but network members are encouraged to produce high quality covers or parodies to be released very closely to the original. This maximises the impact from the start and allows to monetize covers that are made by people from outside the network.
    MCNs also have professional production studios and licences from and relationships with YouTube to get better analytics and statistics than the average user. The YouTubers that we've interviewed told us, that they also handle licence issues with copyright owners and get better and direct support from YouTube in case of technical or legal issues.
  • To get a hold of these new freedoms and constraints we have used Marx skeleton of commodity production. The concrete forms Production, Distribution and Consumption that are the relations of production of a society.
    Regarding the Production/Distribution: We have already made clear that we think, that the distribution of the means of production is broader than in previous forms of capitalism. This also accounts for resources, which on YouTube are very often existing videos that get remixed. It is also knowledge on how to operate with software. One of the YouTubers we’ve interviewed created tutorial videos for a music production software called Ableton Live. YouTube also is very interested in freeing resources through unlicensed material and it’s copyright violation software Content-ID. They encourage rights holders not to delete violations but to monetize them through advertisements or leave them alone so they can stay as a resource for cultural production. So people here have more diverse possibilities to produce meaningful texts themselves by which they create communities that are very important for young people as personal, sometimes professional networks of their own - this is not new.
    Production: Networks! So this music economy - which is not necessarily a monetary economy - is a networked economy. Its networks of people that produce cultural things. For YouTubers to gain relevance it is central here to work collaboratively.
    One reason for this lies in the attention. If YouTubers Collaborate they call it cross-promotion. Several similar videos - like parodies or cover versions - will be produced. Or they organize guest appearances. This helps to create flows of attention that shift from video to video through the channels of the YouTubers that are collaborating.
    The other reason lies in the exchange of cultural and social capital within these networks. One of the YouTubers we’ve interviewed for example produces a lot of soundtracks for well known YouTubers for free. Through this he gained access to the networks of these YouTubers and accumulated social capital - networks of his own with movie and game-producers - so that his network is increasingly international. More and more he can transform this social capital into money by producing for brands or game-producers.
    Circulation & Consumption: On YouTube there is a lot more freedom to circulate and consume music than ever before in music culture. This seems to be an ongoing process where sharing music is increasingly less material: From Vinly to Mixtapes, to mp3 and so on.
    Circulation and Consumption then almost can not be separated anymore: The Use-Value is for a big part its exchange value and its value of distinction and belonging. There is some truth to ideologies like Sharing is Caring. Like in a gift culture, Music users, through sharing, performatively produce communities and other forms of relationships from which they have more to choose from.
  • Building on these Ideas we have developed a model that understands the two economies, that we have described up until now, as two articulated economies that constitute the music culture around YouTube.
    In the network economy, (Top Layer) value resides within the possibilities of creating networks through videos, where social and cultural capital can be exchanged. For the market economy, the bottom layer, the value lies within the internet-prosumer-commodity that is being created through watching the videos produced in the top layer. The articulation of Layer 1 and Layer 2 is thus being mediated by the production of videos, comments and so on by using media as means of production. This is an articulation layer.
    Thus we see the value produced through the labour of the prosumers that generate data and produce videos, comments and likes not only exploited but split up and distributed. In the network layer, value is being circulated in the networks of the prosumers and accumulated as social and cultural capital while in the market layer it is exchange value and the accumulation of economic capital. The importance of this model and the logic of articulation is, that in a capitalist context, these two layers - these two economies - are mutually constitutive. One cannot exist without the other as we need media like YouTube to create these network economies while YouTube needs the Internet-Prosumer-Commodity.
  • The question is: What can we learn from these two paradigms and is there a possibility of integration? Most importantly: Can we try to get a better picture of the relations of these new freedoms and constraints. Can we see not one or the other but their interaction, their entanglement?
    Our starting point for this was the notion of Christian Fuchs and Sebastian Sevignani, that on Facebook the use-values that are produced by Facebook-Users - their Comments, Likes etc - develop a double character: One part of the Value gets to be accumulated by Facebook as the value of the Internet-Prosumer-Commodity that can be exchanged. The other part - which is more informational thus less suited to be exchanged - circulates with the social networks of users and is a source of their own value creation.
    Gibson-Graham, two very smart feminists, argue for marxists to develop a language of economic difference that expands our terminological imagination of multiple economies. They usually try not to think of value as being exploited - as one class exploits all of the produced values of another - but as a distribution of produced value between several classes.
    The other is Halls term of articulation that he developed on the basis of Marx introduction into the Grundrisse. This term allows to think of a totality - like a society - as an articulation of several moments that can be differentiated. The relations of production of one society are then always articulations of its moments of production, distribution, exchange and consumption.
  • New Perspectives for Use-Values? For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution

    1. 1. NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR USE-VALUES? For an Empirical Understanding of Digital Labour with Media as Means of Producution Carsten Winter University of Music, Drama and Media, Hanover Lorenz Grünewald University of Applied Sciences of Media, Communication and Management, Berlin 5th ICTs and Society-Conference: The Internet and Social Media at a Crossroads: Capitalism or Commonism? Vienna, 04.06.2015
    2. 2. 1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980 2. Relations of Production as Relations of their Times: OECD, Media and Music Economy 3. Digital Media as Means of Production: The Media Industry old and new – YouTube 4. YouTube as a Means of Contemporay Music Culture and Economy 5. New Perspectives for Use-Values: Neue Netzwerke in Städten Agenda
    3. 3. At a certain stage of development, the material productive forces of society come into conflict with the existing relations of production or – this merely expresses the same thing in legal terms – with the property relations within the framework of which they have operated hitherto. From forms of development of the productive forces these relations turn into their fetters. Then begins an era of social revolution. The changes in the economic foundation lead sooner or later to the transformation of the whole immense superstructure. 1859 (Preface to) A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy K. Marx
    4. 4.  Means of production are owned and used only by capitalists  There is a production of capital and of consumption goods  Goods are traded exclusively on Markets A new social more complex understanding of creating value … circulation/ markets allocation & exchange value capitalists/ owners of means of production & labor-value working class ordinary people consumption & use-value finance Relations of Production / Skeleton of commodity production C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    5. 5.  J. Schumpeter: Means of the Production of Culture  M. Weber: Carrier of meaning Multiple Rationalities  K. Marx:  Means of production are owned and used only by capitalists  There is a production of capital and of consumption goods  Goods are traded exclusively on Markets A first new cultural (more complex) understanding of creating Value … circulation/ markets allocation & exchange value capitalists/ owners of means of production & labor-value working class ordinary people use & use-value finance Relations of Production / Skeleton of commodity production C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    6. 6.  R. Williams: the “long revolution” and “media as means of production”  S. Hall: “relative autonomy”  …..  K. Marx:  Means of production are owned and used only by capitalists  There is a production of capital and of consumption goods  Goods are traded exclusively on Markets circulation/ Markets allocation & exchange value capitalists/ owners of means of production & labor-value ordinary people use & use-value finance Relations of Production / Skeleton of Media Communication cognition/ Knowledge/ media perception & attention value A new empirical understanding of creating value with media … C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    7. 7. C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values? Relations of Production as Relations of their Time
    8. 8. Relations of Production as Relations of their Time Von Wertschöpfung zu …. Quelle: Schlussbericht der Enquete Kommission “Kultur in Deutschland”, 2007: 347. … kultureller Wertschöpfung? Schöpferischer Akt Produktion Weiter- verarbeitung Vertrieb Kulturgüter und Dienstleistungen Unterstützende Dienstleistungen Quelle: Porter 1999/1985, 66 C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    9. 9. 1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980 2. Relations of Production as Relations of their Times: OECD, Media and Music Economy 3. Digital Media as Means of Production: The Media Industry old and new – YouTube 4. YouTube as a Means of Contemporay Music Culture and Economy 5. New Perspectives for Use-Values: Neue Netzwerke in Städten Agenda
    10. 10. Relations of Production as Relations of their Time 1997: 2.308.500 € 2013: 1.006.000 € C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    11. 11. Music: anytime, anywhere C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    12. 12. 1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980 2. Relations of Production as Relations of their Times: OECD, Media and Music Economy 3. Digital Media as Means of Production: The Media Industry old and new – YouTube 4. YouTube as a Means of Contemporay Music Culture and Economy 5. New Perspectives for Use-Values: Neue Netzwerke in Städten Agenda
    13. 13. ▪ Production ▪ Music ‘homecasting’ from ‘ordinary’ people ▪ More possibilities to create and maintain social relations ▪ Networked Music Economy ▪ Circulation/Allocation ▪ Sharing without owning ▪ (Organzing) Perception ▪ Links, Shares, Embeds … ▪ Consumption/Use ▪ Everytime @ everyplace ▪ More choices for subjectivation New Freedoms and Constraints in the YouTube Music Economy C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    14. 14. ▪ Production ▪ Monetize everything and immediately (Music) ▪ Limiting access to tools & facilities ▪ Commercial networks (MCNs) ▪ Circulation/Allocation/Perception ▪ Privileging business-partners ▪ Intransparent sharing algorithms (e.g Pay for exposure on Facebook) ▪ Consumption ▪ Ads & Internet-Prosumer-Commodity ▪ New: Subscriptions New Freedoms and Constraints in the YouTube Music Economy C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    15. 15. Prosumer- Networks Cultural & Social Values Articulation Layer Media (Means) / Texts Markets Economic Value (Internet-Prosumer- Commoditiy) New Perspectives for Use-Values? C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    16. 16.  How to understand these two media developments and their relation?  Can we speak of a music economy with two articulated economies/layers?  The double-character of use-value (Fuchs & Sevignani 2012)  Distribution of value vs. exploitation (Gibson-Graham 2006) New Perspectives for Use-Values? C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    17. 17. 1. Marx 1759/1777, Schumpeter 1912, Weber 1917, Williams 1961/1974/1978, Hall 1980 2. Relations of Production as Relations of their Times: OECD, Media and Music Economy 3. Digital Media as Means of Production: The Media Industry old and new – YouTube 4. YouTube as a Means of Contemporay Music Culture and Economy 5. New Perspectives for Use-Values: Neue Netzwerke in Städten Agenda
    18. 18. Finance/Crowdfunding C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?
    19. 19. Music: anytime, anywhere C. Winter/L. Grünewald: New Perspectives for Use-Values?

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