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SMWCon Fall 2013 OWL Wiki Forms


We describe OWL Wiki Forms (OWF), a Semantic MediaWiki extensions that maps any Semantic Web ontologies to a Semantic Forms-based semantic wiki. This enables quick start-up of semantic wikis for given knowledge domains. OWF's initial input is a list of URIs for online files containing Semantic Web ontologies, which are structural models for data on the Semantic Web. The resulting wikis export data entered in their forms-based interface in the semantic Web format RDF. This RDF export conforms to the input ontologies by using their URIs.

OWF builds upon Semantic MediaWiki and Semantic Forms. It provides a special page on which the user enters URI's to Semantic Web ontology files online. OWF then analyses the structure of these ontologies to automatically generate new pages with which end users can annotate and then browse data conforming to these ontologies. The types of pages it generates are category, template, property and form pages, relying primarily on Semantic Forms. Any subsequent RDF export from the wiki, including via a SPARQL endpoint for the wiki, uses the URI's of the input ontologies.

To tailor beyond this domain-specific default interface, OWF takes a layer style specification approach similar to that of CSS. We implement this layering in the Semantic Web style format Fresnel, which defines browsing interfaces to Semantic Web data. OWF's implementation of Fresnel is comparable to Page Schemas. Both Fresnel and Page Schemas provide declarative definitions in standardized syntaxes of Semantic Forms interfaces for given data models. While Page Schemas uses XML to define Semantic Forms interfaces directly, Fresnel uses RDF to define general semantic browser interfaces, from which OWF generates Semantic Forms code.

OWF extends these two approaches with default and layered style sheets for Fresnel. Our technique automatically generates from any given ontologies Fresnel code that defines a default target interface for data using those ontologies, similar to Page Schemas' generation of interface specifications from database schemas. Hand-written Fresnel code can then cascade over this default interface style to let the user fine-tune it, similar to the layered approach in CSS. Our approach processes the source ontologies and the default and fine-tuning Fresnel to generate an assistive browse-and-annotate wiki interface. The result is the quick initialization and facilitated maintenance of distributed and accessible interfaces for collaborative input of data on the Semantic Web.

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SMWCon Fall 2013 OWL Wiki Forms

  1. 1. OWL Wiki Forms (OWF) A Style Language that Generates Wikis from Semantic Web Ontologies Lloyd Rutledge
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  4. 4. Semantic Web (Linked Data Cloud) http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_lYvHgLz4B1w/TTRg3mCss8I/AAAAAAAACEs/lOHsxbkypvo/s1600/lod-datasets_2010-09-22_colored.jpg.png
  5. 5. Linked Data Cloud, 2007
  6. 6. Your wiki
  7. 7. Pagina 11
  8. 8. Overview • Input: Semantic Web ontology (data model) • Output: Semantic wiki with form-based input • Academic results – Mapping of abstract data modeling to interface • Practical results – Efficient quick setup of wiki interface for entering data for a given ontology
  9. 9. Contribution • Mapping from Semantic Web ontologies to default interface style – Uses W3C technology Fresnel for Semantic Web interfaces • Techniques for fine tuning default with additional Fresnel • Mapping from Fresnel to form-based semantic wikis – – • Fine tunable default style facilitates semantic wiki startup This Fresnel implementation adds facilitated data entry Implementation: OWL Wiki Forms (OWF) – Open source MediaWiki extension 13
  10. 10. a b c dbpedia:Tim_Berners-Lee rdf:type foaf:Person ; rdf:type dbpedia-owl:Person ; rdfs:label "Tim Berners-Lee"@en ; foaf:depiction http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3a/Tim_BernersLee_closeup.jpg ; foaf:name "Tim Berners-Lee"@en ; foaf:surname "Berners-Lee"@en ; foaf:homepage http://www.w3.org/People/Berners-Lee/ ; dbpedia-owl:title "Professor"@en ; dbpedia-owl:birthYear "1955-01-01T00:00:00+02:00"^^xs:gYear ; dbpedia-owl:almaMater dbpedia:The_Queen's_College,_Oxford ; dbpedia-owl:occupation dbpedia:Computer_scientist ; dbpedia-owl:birthName "Timothy John Berners-Lee"@en ; dbpedia-owl:residence dbpedia:Massachusetts ; dbpedia-owl:religion dbpedia:Unitarian_Universalism ; dbpprop:birthPlace "London, England"@en ; dbpprop:honorificSuffix "OM, KBE, FRS, FREng, FRSA"@en ; dbpprop:dateOfBirth "8"^^xs:int ; dbpprop:placeOfBirth "London, England"@en ; dbpprop:religion dbpedia:Unitarian_Universalism ; dbpprop:before "First recipient"@en ; dbpprop:nationality "British"@en ; dbpprop:birthDate 1955-06-08 ; dbpprop:title "Professor"@en ; dbpprop:title "Millennium Technology Prize winner"@en ; dbpprop:almaMater dbpedia:The_Queen's_College,_Oxford ; dbpprop:occupation dbpedia:Computer_scientist ; dbpprop:residence "Massachusetts, U.S."@en ;
  11. 11. Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) • Specifies how an XML document should appear – • Mapping from XML to presentation display model Separation of style from content – Reuse of one centralized style for multiple documents • “Cascading” is layered building up of style from general to specific • Default style sheets for HTML – – • And SVG, MathML, etc. Thus default style for a given domain of XML Effectively a default stylesheet for XML – How XML appears on a web browser 15
  12. 12. from OU course T37121 Model-driven development workbook Model-driven development
  13. 13. Model-driven Development concepts • Default/prototype system interface from data model (ontology) • Whole system development driven by development of data model – – • And feedback from default interface guide model development But Semantic Web has more reuse of existing ontologies Various ways of overriding or tailing default interface – In OWF Wiki Forms: • Cascading ontology • Cascading Fresnel • CSS • Wiki templates at standard locations
  14. 14. http://dig.csail.mit.edu/2006/Talks/0724-fresnel/#%2814%29 Domain-independent default for browser (Longwell) With (handmade) Fresnel style
  15. 15. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresnel_lens Fresnel: RDF interface in RDF • Specifies how RDF is display • Separates style from content: like CSS for XML • Also in RDF • Supported by multiple semantic browsers such as Longwell http://www.w3.org/2005/04/fresnel-info/manual/
  16. 16. • Both Fresnel and Page Schemas • declarative definitions • standardized syntaxes • Differences • Page Schemas • uses XML for Forms • data model and style combined • Fresnel • uses RDF for semantic browsers • data model separate • cascaded default style
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  18. 18. OWL Wiki Forms (OWF) architecture
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  22. 22. http://www.zazzle.nl/extrapoleer_dit_t_shirts-235679025157797934 Extrapolation
  23. 23. Constraints vs Inferencing Extrapolation http://www.zazzle.nl/extrapoleer_dit_t_shirts-235679025157797934 • Typical system has interface constraints – “You must enter a speaker for this talk” • Semantic Web is “open” via inferencing – “Every talk has one speaker, so there must be a speaker out there somewhere” • Ramifications for mapping Semantic Web ontologies to SMW & Semantic Forms
  24. 24. Generated default Fresnel code :defaultLenshttpxmlnscomfoaf01Person rdf:type fresnel:Lens ; fresnel:classLensDomain foaf:Person ; fresnel:showProperties foaf:currentProject , foaf:familyName , foaf:family_name , foaf:firstName , foaf:geekcode , foaf:img , foaf:knows , foaf:lastName , foaf:myersBriggs , foaf:pastProject , foaf:plan , foaf:publications , foaf:schoolHomepage , foaf:surname , foaf:workInfoHomepage , foaf:workplaceHomepage .
  25. 25. Range-based autocompletion
  26. 26. Default view {{Informbox Person |familyName=Berners-Lee |firstName=Tim |img=http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/8/83/ Tim_Berners-Lee-Knight-crop.jpg |knows=Conway Berners-Lee, Mary Lee Woods }}
  27. 27. Cascade Fresnel to hide undesired properties :defaultLenshttpxmlnscomfoaf01Person fresnel:hideProperties foaf:currentProject , foaf:family_name , foaf:geekcode , foaf:lastName , foaf:myersBriggs , foaf:pastProject , foaf:plan , foaf:publications , foaf:schoolHomepage , foaf:surname , foaf:workInfoHomepage , foaf:workplaceHomepage .
  28. 28. :imgFormat rdf:type fresnel:Format ; fresnel:value fresnel:image ; fresnel:propertyFormatDomain foaf:img .
  29. 29. A few next steps • Overriding default by extending external ontology on local wiki – – • Local wiki URI’s are subproperties or subclasses of source Desired Fresnel is default from local ontology extension Minimizing non-default style specification – Default for ontology through non-default style to target interface – Evaluate as distance from default to target • – • Standard sort?, “triple distance”? Most widely used ontologies and interface Non-default style layer – Namespace data – Order of properties in boxes: via Fresnel – CSS via Fresnel
  30. 30. Big next step: Extend Fresnel for SMW • Extend Fresnel ontology syntactically/structurally – Keep using Fresnel for as much as it works • Default and tailored works on other Fresnel tools – – • Other namespace: “owfsty:” Subclasses and subproperties Misc. functional extensions – Link lenses to named stylesheets – Extend cascading to complete it – Mirroring OWF constructs for non-inferencing interface-only • • owf:cardinality=1 , owf:minCardinality=1 , owf:maxCardinality=1 New ontology mirrors Semantic Forms etc. components – Maps lens to Forms interface – Structured means to perform this mapping
  31. 31. Ontology Fresnel URIs rdfs:label rdf:Property Class subclassOf domain rdfs: range value is cascading only class label Lens defaultLens classLensDomain [[Imported from::...]] SMW Pagename MW , Label on form and box displays OWF Gets own Property: page SMW Gets own Category: page MW , [[Category:...]] on page MW Gets own informbox (if domain) OWF [[Has default form::...]] on category SF [[Category:...]] on category page MW (Un)assign property to informbox OWF showProperties hideProperties showProperties=rds:seq Sort properties in informbox autocomplete on category=... SF , [[Has default form::...]] on property SF [[Has type::Page]] SMW Literal , some xsd:'s other xsd:'s xsd:date(time) xsd:Boolean xsd:URI cascading only MediaWiki and extensions [[EquivalentURI::...]] SMW [[Has type::String]] SMW image externalLink uri [[Has type::Number]] SMW [[Has type::Date]] SMW [[Has type::Boolean]] SMW , values=Yes,No | input type=radiobutton SF [[Has type::URL]] SMW owl: cardinality value s [[Has type::String]] SMW DataRangewith oneOf input type=Enumeration SF values= SF , [[Allows value::...]] SMW hasValue, allValuesFrom autocomplete on category=… SF someValuesFrom mandatory SF (min)...>0 (max)...=1 No #arraymap SF, No list SF (max)...>1 Repeated fields SF Repeated mandatory fields SF (min)...>1 #arraymap SF, list SF default Code and parameters generated by OWF from these technologies: MW MediaWiki, SMW Semantic MediaWiki, SF Semantic Forms, OWF OWF-only Planned or under development in OWF (the rest is implemented)