2. Today’s goals
Recap course structure and progress
Learn the definition and major areas of
Explore helpful linguistics concepts
Get ready to study Clinical Phonetics
3. The three chunks of our course
1. Broad transcription
I’m including Linguistics here
3. Narrow transcription/variation
4. You’ve been learning how to:
Use phonetic symbols to transcribe
Listen to unfamiliar sounds and
categories of sounds (ear training)
Have you changed how you listen to
your world? To family? Friends?
5. The task of transcription
Seems clerical (it’s applied)
But you find order in chaos!
Transcription uncovers generalizations
that casual listening misses
Must continue ear training and accuracy
Must add articulatory component now
6. Where we go next
Now we move to how sounds are articulated
Both more embodied and more theoretical
Train your brain to understand the connection
between a change in articulation and the
change in sound so you can figure out what
people are doing to make the sounds you hear
Continue transcribing to make sense of
7. First, a stopover in linguistics
Scientific study of language
Well, what’s language?
A system that uses some physical sign
(sound, gesture, mark) to express meaning
Examples: spoken languages, signed
languages, computer programming
8. Linguist Attitudes
Lisa says: “I’m not cooking for a chef.”
Others say: “I’m not talking for a
Sociologists don’t study how societies
should be, but rather how they are
Physiologists study athletic endeavors
but athletes carry them out
9. Humans: the only language users
Other animals communicate
Bees inform other bees where food is
Cats arch their backs to scare other cats
Chimps can learn primitive sign language to
10. Humans: the only language users
Humans can separate vocalization/signs
from a given situation (cats only arch
back in appropriate situation)
Humans can lie (animals only report)
Humans can speculate (animals are bad
11. Is it really only humans?
Alex the African Grey Parrot
Washoe the Chimpanzee
Koko the Gorilla
12. Three main parts of linguistics
Language form or structure = grammar
Language meaning = semantics
Language in context = pragmatics
13. What linguists do
Explicitly describe linguistic knowledge
Explain how linguistic knowledge is acquired
and how it is used
14. Language form = grammar
Parts of grammar
Phonology (sound structure)
Morphology (word structure)
Syntax (sentence structure)
& Semantics (language meaning)
15. Creativity of language
Linguistic knowledge enables all speakers to
be very creative (and consistent) using their
…produce & understand sentences they’ve
never heard before
…judge whether Ss belong to their language
…form new words from words they’ve never
…adjust foreign words to fit
16. Preludes to linguistics
Prescriptive vs. descriptive
Competence vs. performance
Function word vs. content word
They help us see what’s systematic and
17. Prescriptive vs. descriptive
How you’re supposed to speak
Holds people to a standard (often arbitrary)
How people actually speak
No value judgments attached
18. Be prescriptive … aggravate
It’s the endless wait for luggage that
aggravates me about air travel.
Getting hit on the head by a brick
aggravated my already painful
19. Be prescriptive … amount
The elephant drank an amazing amount
The elephant sprayed that water at an
amazing amount of spectators.
20. Be prescriptive … between
We shared the money between Anna,
Bob and me
The duck swam between the reeds
You’ll find my brain between my ears
The house was built between the pine
21. Be prescriptive … hopefully
“Hopefully, I shall be spared the
guillotine,” thought the prisoner.
Hopefully, the prisoner approached the
guillotine. His hope was misplaced. So
was his head.
22. Be prescriptive … unique
Fenway Park is unique.
Massachusetts has many unique
None of those may be more unique than
the field that Braintree High calls home
23. Competence vs. performance
Competence is the system of linguistic
knowledge possessed by native speakers of a
Performance is the way the language system
is used in communication
24. How would you study that?
How would you study someone’s
How would you study someone’s
What kinds of constraints do you find on
each of these?
25. Content word vs. function word
Which words are which?
Open class vs. closed class
Special qualities of function words with
respect to phonetics and their ability to
reduce in connected speech
26. Content words
Content words are words that have a
culturally shared meaning in labeling an
object or action
Content words are necessary to convey
an idea to someone else
They are an “open” class
27. Function words are the glue
Function words are like thumbtacks. We
don’t notice thumbtacks; we look at the
calendar or poster they are holding up. If
we were to take the tacks away, the
calendar or poster would fall down.
From Aronoff & Fudeman
28. Take away the function words
And speech would be hard to
understand because we wouldn’t know
the relationships between words
What could these sentences be?
people low self-esteem earned
book children book kid read
29. With function words
“Most people with low self-esteem have
“Every book is a children's book if the kid
can read.” Mitch Hedberg
30. Function words reduce more
Phonemes: f o r
It’s for hand combat vs. it’s forehand combat
Phonemes: h I m
Sing him a song vs. Sing hymn or song
Phonemes: t u
Go to pieces vs. go two paces
Phonemes: t + ju
They’ll get you vs. They’ll get unionized
31. Levels in linguistics
Language is organized into levels
Familiarity with the levels helps pinpoint
a client’s problem
From narrowest to widest… bottom to
top... smallest to largest …
Phonetics, phonology, morphology,
syntax, semantics, pragmatics
What we have been doing!
Studying the physical phenomena of
sound / quantifiable reality
The study of how sounds pattern within and
Function, behavior and organization of sounds
Each language has an inventory of abstract
phonemes and rules
Rules combine phonemes into legal
(sequences, clusters, syllables) words of the
34. Phonological rules
Example rules: an English word can…
End, but not begin, with engma
Begin, but not end, with h or j or w
Phonological rules reveal themselves when
borrowed foreign words are adjusted
Spanish borrowing of “switch” or “strike”
Japanese Starbucks as “sutarubukusu”
Sbarro restaurant pronunciation
35. Try out some phonology
The plural “s” sounds different
depending on the sound that precedes it
Cat + s
Dog + s
Fish + s
Study of “shape” borrowed from biology
The study of the internal structure of words
A morpheme is the smallest meaningful unit,
including root words, prefixes, suffixes (and a
couple of sketchy infixes)
Principles and rules for constructing
phrases and sentences of a language
What are the possible strings of word in
Is word order “free” or “fixed”?
Subject + Verb + Object
How do you form questions from
44. Try out some adjectival syntax
Here are four sentences. Make them into one.
I want to buy a blue car.
I want to buy a new car.
I want to buy a European car.
I want to buy a beautiful car.
45. Try out more adjectival syntax (1)
Chip wants a (stone, square, gray)
The ambassador took a (European, 2-
week, exhausting) tour.
These are (chocolate chip, delicious,
46. Try out more adjectival syntax (2)
Isabella prefers (leather, Italian, black)
Archeologists get very excited when
they find (animal, large, prehistoric)
Kittens love to chase (laser, red, fast)
47. Try out some interrogative syntax
Here are some statements.
Transform them into questions.
Write the “rules” you used
She is a guest.
You are a student.
He has a sister.
48. Now make these into questions
Donna sings doo-wop.
Dick does dishes.
What rule do you need now?
Probably the single most important
“individual” to draw attention to word
How does Yoda talk?
Or … describe Yoda’s syntax
51. Yoda statements
Still much to learn, there is.
Obi Wan, my choice is.
To fight Lord Sidious, strong enough you are not.
Not far, are we, from the emergency ship.
To a dark place, this line of thought will carry us.
Stink, this mud does.
When you look at the dark side, careful you must
be ... for the dark side looks back.
52. Semantics is Language Meaning
The study of meaning that is used to
understand human expression through
Meanings of individual words and
combinations of words
Meaning is the conditions under which a
sentence is true (“the truth conditions”)
There can still be ambiguity in
53. Humorous ambiguity
I just met the old Irishman and his son,
coming out of the toilet.
I wouldn’t have thought there was room
for the two of them.
No silly, I mean I was coming out of the
toilet. They were waiting.
54. Groucho Marx line
In his movie Animal Crackers
“One morning, I shot an elephant in my
pajamas; how he got into my pajamas,
I’ll never know.”
#53 on list of top 100 movie quotes
55. Try out some ambiguity
Combination of syntax and semantics
Mary claims that John saw her duck.
Flying planes can be dangerous
Every man loves a motorcycle.
The French teacher is beautiful.
Look at the man in the chair with the broken leg.
I just went to the bathroom and man was it big.
The contribution of context to meaning
The relationships between linguistic
forms and the users of those forms, Yule
All meaning may not actually be there in
the words and different speakers may
mean different things
57. Pragmatics is language in context
Three major communication areas…
• Using language
• Changing language
• Following rules
Pragmatics may challenge people on the
autism spectrum, and adults who’ve had
a brain injury or stroke
Use language for certain purpose
Greet, inform, demand, promise, request
Routinized language, hi/thanks/goodbye
Change language for the situation
Baby, unfamiliar, playground/classroom
Follow rules for conversations and story telling
Take turns, stay on topic, rephrase, make eye
contact, respect personal space
59. People with pragmatic problems
Say inappropriate or unrelated things
Tell stories in a disorganized way
Have little variety in language use
May have lowered social acceptance!
60. Try out some pragmatics
To fully understand spoken utterances, must
take context into account … give me some
contexts for these
“It’s hot in here”
“Can you reach the ketchup?”
“Are you gonna eat that?
“Do you like this show?”
61. Train station pragmatics
Which track is the 11 am train from
Philadelphia coming in on?
I’m wondering which track the 11 am from
Philadelphia is coming in on
Uh…the 11 am from Philadelphia
The train from Philadelphia
I have a friend who lives in Philadelphia
Same answer to all: Track 8
62. Combination fields
Using the different parts of linguistics
with or in other fields of inquiry
Historical linguistics, psycholinguistics,
computational linguistics, forensic
63. Historical linguistics
How languages change over time
For ex., how Latin evolved into all of the
Phonetics example for us:
How did “newt” come from “ewt?”
How did “apron” come from “napron?”
64. Contested historical linguistics
Proto-Eurasiatic, 15,000 years ago
“You, hear me! Give this fire to that old
man. Pull the black worm off the bark
and give it to the mother. And no spitting
in the ashes!”
Language as a psychological
How we acquire language
How we assemble our speech (and
How we understand others
How we store and use vocabulary
Language in the brain
Studying processing patterns
What happens to language when
particular regions of the brain are
The study of language and society
Effects of society on how language is
What clues can language give to the
How do people mark or try to change
their social status through speech?
68. Computational linguistics
How computers mimic speech
production (speech synthesis)
How computers mimic speech
perception (speech recognition)
Finding generalizations over huge
quantities of data (using computers)
69. Forensic linguistics
Application of linguistic knowledge,
methods, and insights to the law
Understanding the language of the law
Understanding language use in forensic
and judicial process
Providing linguistic evidence
A varied field with varied practitioners
70. Clinical linguistics
Applies linguistic theory to the field of
Uses linguistics to describe, analyze,
and treat language disabilities
An area in its own right
Application of phonetics to disorders
71. Applied linguistics
Identifies, investigates, offers solutions
to language-related real-life problems.
Related fields: education, psychology,
computer science, communication
research, anthropology, and sociology
72. Applying sociolinguistics
A Revere, Mass. firefighter had a stroke
Will you worry in therapy that he cannot
produce /r/ in all positions of the word?
Will you worry that he lost the distinction
between “cot” and “caught”?
Not necessarily! You take his variety of
English into account
73. Clinical phonetics
Application of phonetics to development
Perception and production of speech
Acoustic, articulatory, auditory, applied
Must acquire skill in perception to
understand what’s going on with clients
74. Scoring in clinical phonetics
See the “cube” sheet from your book
Sound in isolation
More complex to produce = more complex to