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Research data collection methods and tools

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Research data collection methods and tools

  1. 1. Research data collection methods and tools Presented by Likhila abraham
  2. 2. Data Data are observable measurable fact that provide information about the phenomenon under study .
  3. 3. Data sources 1.Primary sources 2.Secondary sources a)internal b)external
  4. 4. Selection of methods of data collection 1.The nature of phenomenon under study 2.Type of research subject
  5. 5. 3)Purpose of research study 4)Size of study sample 5)Distribution of target population 6)Time frame of the study 7)Literacy level of subjects
  6. 6. 8)Avilability of resourses and man power 9)Researchers knowledge level and compitence
  7. 7. Diamensions of data collection methods Structure obtrusiveness quantifiability objectivity
  8. 8. Methods of data collection Self reports Observatio n Biophysi ological methods
  9. 9. Self report methods
  10. 10. Unstructured and semi structured self report techniques Unstructured or loosely structured self report method offer flexibility ,when these methods are used the researcher does not have a set of questions that must be asked in a specific order and worked in a given way.
  11. 11. Interview A method of data collection in which one person ( interviewer)ask the questions to another person (respodent)which conducted either face to face or telephonically
  12. 12. Characteristics of interview 1)Participants and interviewer will be strangers 2)Verbal answers to the verbal questions 3)Investigator records the information's from the respondents 4)With a specific purpose 5)Can be through telephone 6)It can be modified with situations
  13. 13. Types of interviews 1.Structured interviews 2)Unstructured interviews 3)Semi structured interviews 4)Focussed group interviews 5)Telephonic interviews 6)In depth interviews
  14. 14. Structured interview(directive interview) Formalized and has limited set of questions Presented with same questions in same order Not permitted to change any thing Increases credibility and reliability Minimize context effect
  15. 15. Merits 1.Data from 1 interview to next are comparable 2.Recording or coding data does not cause problem 3.Attention will not diverted 4.Time consuming
  16. 16. Demerits Loose the spontaneity Respondent views are minimized The scope of exploration limitted
  17. 17. Semi structured interview method In depth interview method Focussed group interview method
  18. 18. Interview process
  19. 19. Advantages Useful to obtain people perception,feelings,openions High respondent rate Own words are recorded Detailed questioning
  20. 20. Disadvantages Time consuming Different interviewers may understand differently
  21. 21. Questionnaire It is a self report paper and pencil instrument that a researcher asked to complete
  22. 22. Formats of questions
  23. 23. Dichotomous Multiple choice Cafeteria Rank order Contingency Rating Importance Likert Bipolar matrix
  24. 24. Guidelines General points Sequence of questions Construction of questions
  25. 25. Methods Postal phone Electronic personal
  26. 26. Advantages Easy to analyse Time consuming Reduce bias Cost effective
  27. 27. Disadvantages Not suitable for all Low response rate Probbing not possible Chanse of interpretation Can lie
  28. 28. Scales and other forms of self report methods
  29. 29. Socio physiological scales Vignettes Projective techniques Q sorts
  30. 30. Socio physiological scales Composite scales
  31. 31. Likert scale It is a composite measure of attitudes that involve summation of score on set of itemsto which respondents are asked to indicate their disagreement or agreement
  32. 32. Uses To measure attitude values and feelings of people about specific concepts , quantifying the qualitative attributes
  33. 33. Characteristics Psychological measurement tool Illustrative in nature Neutral statement Bipolar scaling methods
  34. 34. Scoring statement Positive Stron Agree Uncer Disag Stron gly tain ree gly agree disag ree 5 4 3 2 1 Negative 1 2 3 4 5
  35. 35. Advantages Easy to construct More reliable and valuable Easy to administer
  36. 36. Disadvantages Respondent may feel force to answer Feeling of respondent is not fully assessed Casual approach providing misleading data
  37. 37. Semantic differential scales It is a type of rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects ,events ,concepts (respondent attitude towards events)
  38. 38. Uses Patient satisfaction survey Employee survey Marketing survey Personality measurement
  39. 39. Design Bipolar adjective pairs are used This adjectives are selected according to the survey
  40. 40. Evaluation Good-bad Kind –cruel Wise –foolish Potency Hard-soft Heavy –light Large-small Activity Active-passive Fast –slow Bright-dim
  41. 41. Advantages Easy to administer Provide reasonable valid reliable data . Convenient method
  42. 42. Disadvantages Difficult to select the adjective pairs Time consuming
  43. 43. To asess the belief about HIV? CU 1 RE 2 3 4 5 6 DEA TH NO 1 PU NIS HM ENT 2 3 4 5 6 PU NIS HM ENT
  44. 44. VISUAL ANALOGOUS SCALE DEFINITION VISUAL ANALOGOUS SCALE IS A TOOL USED TO HELP A PERSON TO RATE THE INTENSITY OF SENSATION AND FEELINGS
  45. 45. NO PAIN WORST PAIN
  46. 46. USES TO MEASURE PAIN, ANXIETY, MOOD TO MEAURE ALERTNESS AND QUALITY OF SLEEP TO CHOOSE RIGHT DOSE OF MEDICINE FOR RATING SOFT VARIABLES SKILLS,CONFIDENCE QUALITY
  47. 47. ADVANTAGES IT IS RELIABLE AND VALID QUANTITATIVE ASSESSMENT OF HIGHLY SUBJECTIVE PHENOMENON
  48. 48. DISADVANTAGES COMPARISON NOT POSSIBILE INCREASE OF FEELINGS CANOT MEAURED HIGHLY SUBJECTIVE

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