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Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names

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The Not So Distant African Linquistic Roots of the Words In Your Name
Authored by Legesse Allyn
https://www.amazon.com/Amarigna-Tigrigna-Roots-Female-Names/dp/1533223246
List Price: $14.95
8" x 10" (20.32 x 25.4 cm)
Black & White on White paper
90 pages
ISBN-13: 978-1533223241
ISBN-10: 1533223246
BISAC: History / Ancient / Egypt
"The words in your name are rooted in the east African, ancient Egyptian dual languages of Amarigna and Tigrigna. This book provides a small sampling of the not so distant African linguistic roots of the words in your female name."
http://www.amazon.com/Amarigna-Tigrigna-Roots-Female-Names/dp/1533223246

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Amarigna & Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names

  1. 1. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names Legesse Allyn AncientGebts.org Press http://www.ancientgebts.org http://books.ancientgebts.org
  2. 2. The Ethiopian Culture of Ancient Egypt: Food, Markets, Temples, Religion and Social Culture 3 AncientGebts.org Press http://books.ancientgebts.org © Copyright 2016 Legesse Allyn ISBN-13: 978-1533223241 ISBN-10: 1533223246 First AncientGebts.org trade paperback edition May 2016 All rights reserved, including the right to reproduce this book or portions thereof in any form whatsoever. For information, write to AncientGebts.org Press, books@ancientgebts.org Amarigna and Tigrigna word matching by Legesse Allyn © Copyright 2016 Legesse Allyn Scans from the Dover Publications editions of “The Rosetta Stone” and “An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary,” by E.A. Wallis Budge, reprinted by permission of Dover Publications, NY The Dover Publications editions of “The Rosetta Stone” and “An Egyptian Hieroglyphic Dictionary” by E. A. Wallis Budge are available in bookstores and online at http://store.doverpublications.com Etymologies from Online Etymology Dictioinary reprinted by permission of Douglas Harper. For more information, etymology footnotes, and other details, please visit http://www.etymonline.com Special thanks to: Ramya Karlapudi in New Delhi, India Aradom Tassew in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Memhr.org Online Tigrigna Dictionary, located at http://memhr.org/dic AmharicDictionary.com from SelamSoft, Inc., located at http://www.amharicdictionary.com Cover image: Elizabeth I when she was a princess. The painting's current location is in the Royal Collection, Windsor Castle (wartburg.edu)
  3. 3. The Ethiopian Culture of Ancient Egypt: Food, Markets, Temples, Religion and Social Culture 5
  4. 4. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 1 Introduction From an European perspective, "What's in a name?" questions Juliet in "Romeo and Juliet," one of the many memorable plays written by Shakespeare. Indeed most of us would say, "Everything!" Because, we attach almost everything to it, from our achievements to our legacy. Most of the cultures would reiterate, name is all we leave behind in our wake! This book provides the roots of those names which we hold so close to our heart. Never would have the character, Juliet, imagined that the African words are behind European names! Over a period of time, meanings of most of the names have been lost or are known only in the academic circles. Names have become mere words associated with persons or beings. People often look to mythological sources for inspiring names. But they too, have roots which tell us what the name originally meant. Knowing the real meaning and antiquity of their names is a source of pride to many. With the discovery of Rosetta stone, in modern times we have been able to decipher the language of Ancient Egyptians, which was presumed long dead by Egyptologists. However, as Legesse Allyn has shown, the language has lived on intact outside of Egypt, among the people who inhabited the very lands that gave birth to the Egyptian civilization, the lands which are now known as Ethiopia and Eritrea. The hieroglyphic languages of Amarigna and Tigrigna are still widely used and spoken in Ethiopia and Eritrea today. It is an accepted fact that 60% of English words have roots in Latin and Greek. However, the roots of Latin and Greek words, along with those of most other languages in the world, can be traced to the ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic language and the Ethiopian/Eritrean Amarigna and Tigrigna languages. Like all of Legesse Allyn's "Roots of" books, this book depends heavily upon standard etymologies of words and names as listed in Doug Harper's Online Etymology Dictionary (www.etymonline.com) Etymologies can be simply defined as history of words, but Etymonline.com describes it best, "Etymologies are not definitions; they're explanations of what our words meant 600 or 2,000 years ago. Think of it as looking at pictures of your friends' parents when they were your age... These are histories of words only, not things or ideas. The modern word for something might have replaced old, forgotten words for the same object or concept... " This book is a work in progress. It has endeavored to cover many of the popular female names in the West, but with so many Western names it is by no means complete. With so many languages and myriad ways of pronunciation, it is anybody's guess as to what it takes to accomplish a task such as this. A book of this nature requires in-depth understanding of evolution of changes in sound between languages. Care and effort have been taken to ensure that this book is not too technical in terms of detail of information. The book makes a case for a light reading and at the same time can be of use for a serious academic exercise, too. Related words have been taken from a wide variety of family languages. And two hieroglyphs representing each root word have been included, so that you can write your name in hieroglyphs with real words found in ancient Egyptian artifacts, in tombs and on monuments up to 5100 years ago. I sincerely hope that this book aids you in your pursuit of knowledge. Thank you! Ramya Karlapudi, New Delhi, India
  5. 5. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 2 POPULAR FEMALE NAMES
  6. 6. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 3 ORIGINATED AS: abo (ኣቦ) daddy, dad, father (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) + agola (Aጎላ) emphasize, magnify (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Abigail” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: abh - "father" (see below) + gil - "to rejoice" (see below) Abigail fem. proper name, in Old Testament, Abigail the Carmelitess, a wife of David, from Hebrew Abhigayil, literally "my father is rejoicing," from abh "father" + gil "to rejoice." Used in general sense of "lady's maid" (1660s) from character of that name in Beaumont & Fletcher's "The Scornful Lady." The waiting maid association perhaps begins with I Sam. xxv, where David's wife often calls herself a "handmaid." Her male counterpart was Andrew.
  7. 7. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 4 ORIGINATED AS: yeteleye (የተለየ) special, extraordinary (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Adeline” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: adal - "noble" (see below) Adeline fem. proper name, from French, of Germanic origin, literally "noble" (see Adelaide). Adelaide fem. proper name, from French Adélaide, from a Germanic source similar to Old High German Adalhaid, from adal "noble family" (see atheling) + German heit "state, rank," related to Old English - had "person, degree, state, nature" (see -hood). The first element affixed to French fem. ending -ine gave Adeline. atheling (n.) "member of a noble family," Old English æðling, from æðel "noble family," related to Old English æðele "noble," from Proto-Germanic *athala-, from PIE *at-al- "race, family," from *at(i)- "over, beyond, super" + *al- "to nourish." With suffix -ing "belonging to." A common Germanic word (cognates: Old Saxon ediling, Old Frisian etheling, Old High German adaling).
  8. 8. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 5 ORIGINATED AS: qedese (ቀደሰ) make holy, become holy (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Agatha” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gothaz - "good" (see below) Agatha fem. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Agathe, fem. of agathos "good," of unknown origin. Never a popular name in U.S., and all but unused there since 1940. good (adj.) Old English god (with a long "o") "virtuous; desirable; valid; considerable," probably originally "having the right or desirable quality," from Proto-Germanic *gothaz (cognates: Old Norse goðr, Dutch goed, Old High German guot, German gut, Gothic goþs), originally "fit, adequate, belonging together," from PIE root *ghedh- "to unite, be associated, suitable" (cognates: Old Church Slavonic godu "pleasing time," Russian godnyi "fit, suitable," Old English gædrian "to gather, to take up together"). As an expression of satisfaction, from early 15c.; of children, "well-behaved," by 1690s.
  9. 9. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 6 ORIGINATED AS: wegene (ወገነ) join, take a side (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Nancy “Agnes” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: yag - "to worship, reverence" (see below) Agnes fem. proper name, mid-12c., from Old French Agnes, from Greek Hagne "pure, chaste," from fem. of hagnos "holy," from PIE *yag- "to worship, reverence" (see hagiology). St. Agnes, martyred 303 C.E., is patron saint of young girls, hence the folk connection of St. Agnes' Eve (Jan. 20-21) with love divinations. In Middle English, frequently phonetically as Annis, Annys. In U.S., among the top 50 names for girls born between 1887 and 1919.
  10. 10. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 7 ORIGINATED AS: aleqa (Aለቃ) boss, supervisor, chief (n.) (Amarigna) + wend (ወንድ) man, male (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Alexandra” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: alke - "protection, help, strength, power, courage" (see below) + andros - "man" Alexander masc. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Alexandros "defender of men," from alexein "to ward off, keep off, turn (something) away, defend, protect" + aner (genitive andros) "man" (see anthropo-). The first element is related to Greek alke "protection, help, strength, power, courage," alkimos "strong;" cognate with Sanskrit raksati "protects," Old English ealgian "to defend." As a kind of cocktail, it is attested from 1930. Cartouche of Alexander I
  11. 11. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 8 ORIGINATED AS: ema (Eመ)/əno (Eኖ) mother (n.) (Amarigna/ Tigrigna) Also related to: “Amy” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: am-a - "mother, aunt" (see below) Amy fem. proper name, from Old French Amee, literally "beloved," from fem. past participle of amer "to love," from Latin amare, perhaps from PIE *am-a-, suffixed form of root *am-, a Latin and Celtic root forming various nursery words for "mother, aunt," etc. (such as Latin amita "aunt").
  12. 12. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 9 ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Hannah Anne “Anna” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: "grace, graciousness" (see below) Anna fem. proper name, from Latin Anna, from Greek Anna, from Hebrew Hannah, literally "grace, graciousness" (see Hannah). Hannah fem. proper name, biblical mother of the prophet Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "graciousness," from stem of hanan "he was gracious, showed favor."
  13. 13. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 10 ORIGINATED AS: ayer (ኣየር) atmosphere, air (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Aria” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: awer - "air" (see below) Aria from Italian aria, literally "air" (see air (n.1). air (n.1) c.1300, "invisible gases that make up the atmosphere," from Old French air "atmosphere, breeze, weather" (12c.), from Latin aerem (nominative aer) "air, lower atmosphere, sky," from Greek aer (genitive aeros) "air" (related to aenai "to blow, breathe"), of unknown origin, possibly from a base *awer- and thus related to aeirein "to raise" and arteria "windpipe, artery" (see aorta) on notion of "lifting, that which rises." In Homer mostly "thick air, mist;" later "air" as one of the four elements. Words for "air" in Indo-European languages tend to be associated with wind, brightness, sky. In English, air replaced native lyft, luft (see loft (n.)). To be in the air "in general awareness" is from 1875; up in the air "uncertain, doubtful" is from 1752. To build castles in the air is from 1590s (in 17c. English had airmonger "one preoccupied with visionary projects"). Broadcasting sense (as in on the air) first recorded 1927. To give (someone) the air "dismiss" is from 1900. Air pollution is attested by 1870.
  14. 14. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 11 ORIGINATED AS: anaTS'i (Aናፂ) builder, carpenter [creator] (n.) (Amarigna) + tewedede (ተወደደ) be loved, be liked, be important (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Astrid” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ansi - "god" (see below) + trut - "beloved, dear." Astrid fem. proper name, from Norse, related to Old High German Ansitruda, from ansi "god" (see Asgard) + trut "beloved, dear." Asgard (n.) home of the gods in Norse religion, from Old Norse ass "god," from Proto-Germanic *ansu- (cognates: Old High German ansi, Old English os, Gothic ans "god"), from PIE *ansu- "spirit" (cognates: first element in Ahura Mazda, from Avestan) + Old Norse garðr "enclosure, yard, garden" (see yard (n.1)). Ahura from Avestan ahura- "spirit, lord," from Indo-Iranian *asuras, from suffixed form of PIE root *ansu- "spirit" (see Asgard) + Avestan mazda- "wise," from PIE *mens-dhe- "to set the mind," from root *men- "to think" (see mind (n.)).
  15. 15. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 12 ORIGINATED AS: abele (Aበለ) lie (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + reda (ረዳ) help, assist, serve (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Aubrey” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: alb(e) - "evil" + rada - "counsel" (see below) Aubrey masc. personal name, from Old French Auberi, from Old High German Alberich "ruler of elves," or *Alb(e)rada "elf-counsel" (fem.). In U.S., it began to be used as a girl's name c.1973 and was among the top 100 given names for girls born 2006-2008, eclipsing its use for boys, which faded in proportion.
  16. 16. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 13 ORIGINATED AS: yeteleye (የተለየ) special (adj.) (Amarigna) + ayele (Aየለ) have power (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Audrey” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: yeteleye - "special" (see below) + ðryð - "strength, might" (see below) Audrey fem. proper name, contracted from Etheldreda, a Latinized form of Old English Æðelðryð, literally "noble might," from æðele "noble" (see atheling) + ðryð "strength, might." atheling (n.) "member of a noble family," Old English æðling, from æðel "noble family," related to Old English æðele "noble," from Proto-Germanic *athala-, from PIE *at-al- "race, family," from *at(i)- "over, beyond, super" + *al- "to nourish." With suffix -ing "belonging to." A common Germanic word (cognates: Old Saxon ediling, Old Frisian etheling, Old High German adaling).
  17. 17. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 14 ORIGINATED AS: blh (ብልህ)/belih (በሊሕ) wise, smart (adj.) (Amarigna/ Tigrigna) Also related to: “Bella” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: bellus - "beautiful, fair" (see below) Belle "beautiful woman well-dressed; reigning beauty," 1620s, from French belle, from Old French bele, from Latin bella, fem. of bellus "beautiful, fair" (see bene-). Bella fem. proper name, from Italian bella "fair," from Latin bella, fem. of bellus "beautiful, fair" (see bene-). In some cases short for Isabella (see Isabel).
  18. 18. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 15 ORIGINATED AS: fera (ፈራ) produce fruit (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + naqe (ናቀ) denigrate, denounce, to shame (v-perf.) Also related to: Veronica “Berenice” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ferre - "carry, bear," (see below) + nike - "victory" (see below) Berenice fem. proper name, from Latin Berenice, from Macedonian Greek Berenike (classical Greek Pherenike), literally "bringer of victory," from pherein "to bring" (see infer) + nike "victory." The constellation Berenice's hair is from the story of the pilfered locks of the wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt, c.248 B.C.E., which the queen cut off as an offering to Venus. The constellation features a dim but visible star cluster. But the earliest use of the phrase in astronomy in English was as a name for the star Canopus (1601). infer (v.) 1520s, from Latin inferre "bring into, carry in; deduce, infer, conclude, draw an inference; bring against," from in- "in" (see in- (2)) + ferre "carry, bear," from PIE *bher- (1) "to bear, to carry, to take" (cognates: Sanskrit bharati "carries;" Avestan baraiti "carries;" Old Persian barantiy "they carry;" Armenian berem "I carry;" Greek pherein "to carry;" Old Irish beru/berim "I catch, I bring forth;" Gothic bairan "to carry;" Old English and Old High German beran, Old Norse bera "barrow;" Old Church Slavonic birati "to take;" Russian brat' "to take," bremya "a burden"). Sense of "draw a conclusion" is first attested 1520s.
  19. 19. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 16 ORIGINATED AS: bruh (ብሩህ) radiant, vivid, bright, brilliant (adj.) (Tigrigna) brtu (ብርቱ) strong, energetic (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: irrigate “Bertha” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: bright - "gleam, shine, flash" (see below) Bertha fem. proper name, from Old High German Berahta, Perahta, the name of a goddess, literally "the bright one," from Old High German beraht, related to Old English beorht (see bright). Soldiers' nickname Big Bertha for large-bore German mortar of World War I is a reference to Frau Bertha Krupp von Bohlen und Halbach, owner of Krupp steel works 1903-43. bright (adj.) Old English bryht, by metathesis from beorht "bright; splendid; clear-sounding; beautiful; divine," from Proto-Germanic *berhta- "bright" (cognates: Old Saxon berht, Old Norse bjartr, Old High German beraht, Gothic bairhts "bright"), from PIE root *bhereg- "to gleam, white" (cognates: Sanskrit bhrajate "shines, glitters," Lithuanian breksta "to dawn," Welsh berth "bright, beautiful"). Meaning "quick-witted" is from 1741.
  20. 20. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 17 ORIGINATED AS: hara (ሓራ) free (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Carol” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: churl – “freeman” (see below) Carol fem. proper name, from French, from Italian Carolina, originally a fem. adjective from Medieval Latin Carolus "Charles" (see Charles). Charles masc. proper name, from French Charles, from Medieval Latin Carolus, from Middle High German Karl, literally "man, husband" (see carl). carl (n.) c.1300, "bondsman; common man, man of low birth," from Old Norse karl "man, male, freeman," from Proto-Germanic *karlon-, the same root that produced Old English ceorl "man of low degree" (see churl). churl (n.) Old English ceorl "peasant, freeman, man without rank," from Proto-Germanic *kerlaz, *karlaz (cognates: Old Frisian zerl "man, fellow," Middle Low German kerle, Dutch kerel "freeman of low degree," German Kerl "man, husband," Old Norse karl "old man, man").
  21. 21. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 18 ORIGINATED AS: asawere (Aሳወረ) blind (v-perf.) (Amarigna) swur (ስዉር) obscure, invisible, hidden, clandestine (Tigrigna) Also related to: Sheila Cecilia Cecil “Celia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: caecus - "blind." (see below) Celia fem. proper name, from Italian Celia, from Latin Caelia, fem. of Caelius, name of a Roman gens. Sheila is a variant. Sheila fem. proper name, Irish equivalent of Celia, shortened form of Cecilia, the fem. form of Cecil. A standard type of an Irish women's name since 1828; slang for "girlfriend, young woman" dates from 1839. Cecilia fem. proper name, fem. of Cecil (q.v.). Cecil masc. proper name, from Latin Caecilius (fem. Caecilia), name of a Roman gens, from caecus "blind."
  22. 22. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 19 ORIGINATED AS: qorese (ቆረሰ) break off (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Chelsea” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: khalix - "split, break up" (see below) Chelsea district in southwest London, Chelchuthe (1300), Old English Chelchede (1086), Celchyth (789), Caelichyth (767), probably literally "chalk landing place," from Old English cealc "chalk" (see chalk (n.)) + hyth "landing place." Perhaps chalk or limestone was unloaded here from Chalk near Gravesend in Kent. Chelsea Hospital founded by Charles II, built 1680s, as a home for aged veterans. As a fem. proper name, not in the top 1,000 names in U.S. until 1969, then in the top 100 among girls born 1984 to 1998, peaking at number 15 in 1992. chalk (n.) Old English cealc "chalk, lime, plaster; pebble," a West Germanic borrowing from Latin calx (2) "limestone, lime (crushed limestone), small stone," from Greek khalix "small pebble," which many trace to a PIE root for "split, break up." In most Germanic languages still with the "limestone" sense, but in English transferred to the opaque, white, soft limestone found abundantly in the south of the island. Modern spelling is from early 14c. The Latin word for "chalk" was creta, which also is of unknown origin.
  23. 23. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 20 ORIGINATED AS: qola (ቆላ)/qelewe (ቀለወ) roast, fry (v-perf.) (Amarigna/ Tigrigna) Also related to: “Chloe” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: glo - "to glow, shine as if red-hot," (see below) Chloe fem. proper name, Latin, from Greek Khloe, literally "young green shoot;" related to khloros "greenish- yellow," from PIE *ghlo- variant of root *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials and gold, and bile or gall (such as Latin helvus "yellowish, bay," Gallo-Latin gilvus "light bay;" Lithuanian geltonas "yellow;" Old Church Slavonic zlutu, Polish żółty, Russian zeltyj "yellow;" Sanskrit harih "yellow, tawny yellow," hiranyam "gold;" Avestan zari "yellow;" Old English geolu, geolwe, Modern English yellow, German gelb "yellow") and "green" (such as Latin galbus "greenish-yellow;" Greek khloros "greenish-yellow color," kholos "bile;" Lithuanian zalias "green," zelvas "greenish;" Old Church Slavonic zelenu, Polish zielony, Russian zelenyj "green;" Old Irish glass, Welsh and Breton glas "green," also "gray, blue"). Buck says the interchange of words for yellow and green is "perhaps because they were applied to vegetation like grass, cereals, etc., which changed from green to yellow." It is possible that this whole group of yellow-green words is related to PIE root *ghlei- "to shine, glitter, glow, be warm" (see gleam (n.)). glow (v.) Old English glowan "to glow, shine as if red-hot," from Proto-Germanic base *glo- (cognates: Old Saxon gloian, Old Frisian gled "glow, blaze," Old Norse gloa, Old High German gluoen, German glühen "to glow"), from PIE *ghel- (2) "to shine," with derivatives referring to bright materials and gold (see glass). Figuratively from late 14c. Related: Glowed; glowing.
  24. 24. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 21 ORIGINATED AS: qnat (ቅናት) envy, jealousy, zeal, ardor (n.) (aMARIGNA) Also related to: “Cindy” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kynthos – "jealousy" (see below) Cindy fem. proper name, often a familiar or diminutive form of Cynthia, but as a name in its own right among the top 100 for girls born in the U.S. c.1953-1973. Cynthia fem. proper name, also "the Moon," from Latin Cynthia dea "the Cynthian goddess," epithet of Artemis/Diana, said to have been born on Mt. Cynthus on Delos. Mount Kynthos In Greek mythology, Leto gave birth to Apollo and Artemis on this island, having been shunned by Zeus' wife Hera who was extremely jealous of his liaison with Leto. Artemis is thus also referred to as Cynthia. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynthus
  25. 25. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 22 ORIGINATED AS: Qel'A (ቀልA) expose, reveal, disclose, make widely known (verb) (Tigrigna) qal (ቃል) statement, term, word, saying (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Claire” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kele - "to shout" (see below) Claire fem. proper name, from French claire, fem. of clair literally "light, bright," from Latin clarus "clear, bright, distinct" (see clear (adj.); also compare Clara). Clara fem. personal name, from Latin Clara, from fem. of clarus "bright, shining, clear" (see clear (adj.) and compare Claire). Derivatives include Clarisse, Clarice, Clarabel, Claribel. The native form Clare was common in medieval England, perhaps owing to the popularity of St. Clare of Assisi. clear (adj.) late 13c., "bright," from Old French cler "clear" (of sight and hearing), "light, bright, shining; sparse" (12c., Modern French clair), from Latin clarus "clear, loud," of sounds; figuratively "manifest, plain, evident," in transferred use, of sights, "bright, distinct;" also "illustrious, famous, glorious" (source of Italian chiaro, Spanish claro), from PIE *kle-ro-, from root *kele- (2) "to shout" (see claim (v.)). claim (v.) c.1300, "to call, call out; to ask or demand by virtue of right or authority," from accented stem of Old French clamer "to call, name, describe; claim; complain; declare," from Latin clamare "to cry out, shout, proclaim," from PIE *kele- (2) "to shout," imitative (compare Sanskrit usakala "cock," literally "dawn- calling;" Latin calare "to announce solemnly, call out;" Middle Irish cailech "cock;" Greek kalein "to call," kelados "noise," kledon "report, fame;" Old High German halan "to call;" Old English hlowan "to low, make a noise like a cow;" Lithuanian kalba "language"). Related: Claimed; claiming.
  26. 26. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 23 ORIGINATED AS: gorere (ጎረረ) brag (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: delay “Cleo” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gloriari - "brag" (see below) Cleopatra common name of sister-queens in Egypt under the Ptolemaic Dynasty. The name is Greek, probably meaning "key to the fatherland," from kleis "key" (see clavicle) + patris, genitive of pater "father" (see father (n.)). The famous queen was the seventh of that name. Clio "muse of history, muse who sings of glorious actions," usually represented with a scroll and manuscript case, from Latin Clio, from Greek Kleio, literally "the proclaimer," from kleiein "to tell of, celebrate, make famous," from kleos "rumor, report, news; good report, fame, glory," from PIE *klew-yo-, from root *kleu- "to hear" (see listen). Related to the -kles in Damocles, etc. glory (v.) mid-14c., "rejoice," from Old French gloriier and directly from Latin gloriari "to boast, vaunt, brag, pride oneself," from gloria (see glory). Related: Gloried; glorying.
  27. 27. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 24 Following are many of the cartouches for Cleopatra I through VI: Cleopatra I Cleopatra II Cleopatra III Cleopatra IV Cleopatra V Cleopatra VI
  28. 28. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 25 ORIGINATED AS: danya (ዳኛ) magistrate, judge (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: delay “Denise” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Dionysus - “judge” (see below) Denise fem. form of masc. proper name Dennis. Little used in U.S. before 1920s; was at its most popular (top 50) for girls born between 1951 and 1973. Dennis masc. proper name, from French Denis, ultimately from Latin Dionysius, name of an important 6c. Church father, from Greek Dionysos, god of wine and revelry. “But Osiris went on to become god and judge of the dead. Dionysus did not.” "Ptolemy of Egypt" by Walter M. Ellis, page 28
  29. 29. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 26 ORIGINATED AS: dehna (ደኅና) good, well, decent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Edna” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ednah - "delight" (see below) Edna fem. proper name, from Greek, from Hebrew ednah "delight" (see Eden). Related to Arabic ghadan "luxury." Among the top 20 names for girls born in the U.S. every year from 1889 to 1917.
  30. 30. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 27 ORIGINATED AS: hlwna (ህልውና) presence (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Ellaina” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: helenos - "the bright one" (see below) Eliana Related names: Elian, Eliane, Ileana, Iliana, Iljana, Liane, Lianne, Liana, Elyana, Eli, Eleana, Eliah, Elijah, Elliana, Elianna, Elianah, Eliena, Elienna, Elienah, Éliane, Elia, Elio, Ellen, Helen, Eileen Moreover, it is related to the Greek name Helene, and would thus be one of the many forms derived from that Greek name, such as Elaine from Old French. In Arabic, it is translated as "the Bright" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eliana Helena fem. proper name, Latin form of Helen. Helen fem. proper name, from French Hélène, from Latin Helena, from Greek Helene, fem. proper name, probably fem. of helenos "the bright one." Among the top 10 popular names for girl babies in the U.S. born between 1890 and 1934.
  31. 31. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 28 ORIGINATED AS: CH'bt’i (ጭብጢ) proof, evidence, bet (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Elizabeth” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: sheva - "oath " (see below) Elizabeth fem. proper name, Biblical name of the wife of Aaron, from Late Latin Elisabeth, from Greek Eleisabeth, Eleisabet, from Hebrew Elishebha "God is an oath," the second element said by Klein to be related to shivah (fem. sheva) "seven," and to nishba "he swore," originally "he bound himself by (the sacred number) seven." Has never ranked lower than 26th in popularity among the names given to baby girls in the U.S. in any year since 1880, the oldest for which a reliable list is available. The city in New Jersey is named for Lady Elizabeth Carteret (d.1697), wife of one of the first proprietors of the colony. Elisheva From Ελισαβετ (Elisabet), the Greek form of the Hebrew name ‫בַע‬ֶ ‫אֱלִישׁ‬ ('Elisheva') meaning "my God is an oath" or perhaps "my God is abundance". http://www.behindthename.com/name/elizabeth
  32. 32. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 29 ORIGINATED AS: hulu (ሁሉ) all (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Ella” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: al - "all" (see below) Ella fem. proper name, when not a diminutive of Eleanor it is from Old High German Alia, from al "all." Eleanor also Elinor, from Provençal Ailenor, a variant of Leonore, introduced in England by Eleanor of Aquitaine (1122-1204), wife of Henry II. The Old French form of the name was Elienor.
  33. 33. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 30 ORIGINATED AS: meleyayet (መለያየት) dissension (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Emily” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: aemulus - "rivaling" (see below) Emily also Emilia, fem. proper name, from French Émilie, from Latin Aemilia; see Emil. Emil masc. personal name, from German Emil, from French Emilé, from Latin Aemilius, name of a Roman gens, from aemulus "imitating, rivaling" (see emulation). emulation (n.) 1550s, from Middle French émulation (13c.) and directly from Latin aemulationem (nominative aemulatio) "rivalry, emulation, competition," noun of action from past participle stem of aemulari "to rival, strive to excel," from aemulus "striving, rivaling" (also as a noun, "a rival," fem. aemula), from Proto-Italic *aimo-, from PIE *aim-olo, suffixed form of root *aim- "copy" (see imitation). imitation (n.) c.1400, "emulation; act of copying," from Old French imitacion, from Latin imitationem (nominative imitatio) "a copying, imitation," from past participle stem of imitari "to copy, portray, imitate," from PIE *im-eto-, from root *aim- "copy" (cognates: Hittite himma- "imitation, substitute"). Meaning "an artificial likeness" is from c.1600. As an adjective, from 1840.
  34. 34. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 31 ORIGINATED AS: aleqa (Aለቃ) boss, supervisor, chief (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Erica” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: rik - "ruler" (see below) Erica fem. proper name, feminine form of Eric. The plant genus is Modern Latin, from Greek ereike "heath." Eric masc. proper name, from Old Norse Eirikr, literally "honored ruler," from Proto-Germanic *aiza- "honor" + *rik- "ruler" (see regal). The German form is Erich. regal (adj.) late 14c., from Old French regal "royal" (12c.) or directly from Latin regalis "royal, kingly; of or belonging to a king, worthy of a king," from rex (genitive regis) "king," from PIE root *reg- "move in a straight line," hence, "direct in a straight line, rule, guide" (cognates: Sanskrit raj- "a king, a leader;" Avestan razeyeiti "directs;" Persian rahst "right, correct;" Latin regere "to rule," rex "a king, a leader," rectus "right, correct;" Old Irish ri, Gaelic righ "a king;" Gaulish -rix "a king," in personal names, such as Vircingetorix; Gothic reiks "a leader;" Old English rice "kingdom," -ric "king," rice "rich, powerful," riht "correct;" Gothic raihts, Old High German recht, Old Swedish reht, Old Norse rettr "correct"). Related: Regally.
  35. 35. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 32 ORIGINATED AS: əshi (Eሺ) okay, all right (adv.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) + wegen (ወገን) group, member of a group, kind, type (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Eugenia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: (e)su - "good" (see below) + gene - "produce, give birth, beget," Eugenia - fem. of Eugenius (see Eugene) masc. proper name, from French Eugène, from Latin Eugenius, from Greek Eugenios, literally "nobility of birth," from eugenes "well-born" (see eugenics). eu- word-forming element, in modern use meaning "good, well," from comb. form of Greek eus "good," eu "well" (adv.), also "luckily, happily" (opposed to kakos), as a noun, "the right, the good cause," from PIE *(e)su- "good" (cognates: Sanskrit su- "good," Avestan hu- "good"). In compounds the Greek word had more a sense of "greatness, abundance, prosperity," and was opposed to dys-. genus (n.) (plural genera), 1550s as a term of logic, "kind or class of things" (biological sense dates from c.1600), from Latin genus (genitive generis) "race, stock, kind; family, birth, descent, origin," cognate with Greek genos "race, kind," and gonos "birth, offspring, stock," from PIE root *gene- "produce, give birth, beget," with derivatives referring to family and tribal groups (cognates: Sanskrit janati "begets, bears," janah "race," janman- "birth, origin," jatah "born;" Avestan zizanenti "they bear;" Greek gignesthai "to become, happen;" Latin gignere "to beget," gnasci "to be born," genius "procreative divinity, inborn tutelary spirit, innate quality," ingenium "inborn character," germen "shoot, bud, embryo, germ;" Lithuanian gentis "kinsmen;" Gothic kuni "race;" Old English cennan "beget, create;" Old High German kind "child;" Old Irish ro-genar "I was born;" Welsh geni "to be born;" Armenian chanim "I bear, I am born").
  36. 36. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 33 ORIGINATED AS: hyaw (ሕያው) alive, living (adj.) (Amarigna, Tigrigna) Also related to: zealous “Eve” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hawah - "a living being"` (see below) Eve fem. proper name, Biblical first woman, Late Latin, from Hebrew Hawwah, literally "a living being," from base hawa "he lived" (compare Arabic hayya, Aramaic hayyin). Like most of the explanations of names in Genesis, this is probably based on folk etymology or an imaginative playing with sound. ... In the Hebrew here, the phonetic similarity is between hawah, "Eve," and the verbal root hayah, "to live." It has been proposed that Eve's name conceals very different origins, for it sounds suspiciously like the Aramaic word for "serpent." [Robert Alter, "The Five Books of Moses," 2004, commentary on Gen. iii:20]
  37. 37. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 34 ORIGINATED AS: kbur (ክቡር) honorable (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Ghebriella “Gabriella” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gabhar "was strong" (see below) Gabriel masc. proper name, also name of an Old Testament angel, from Hebrew Gabhri el, literally "man of God," from gebher "man" + El "God." First element is from base of verb gabhar "was strong" (compare Arabic jabr "strong, young man;" jabbar "tyrant").
  38. 38. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 35 ORIGINATED AS: gilya (ጊልያ) servant (n.) (Tigrigna) see also: gwal (ጓል) girl, maiden, daughter (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Gail” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gil - "handmaid" (see below) Gail fem. proper name, in some cases short for Abigail, or from the Hebrew root in that name meaning "rejoicing." Attained its greatest popularity in U.S. as a given name for girls born c.1945-1955. Abigail fem. proper name, in Old Testament, Abigail the Carmelitess, a wife of David, from Hebrew Abhigayil, literally "my father is rejoicing," from abh "father" + gil "to rejoice." Used in general sense of "lady's maid" (1660s) from character of that name in Beaumont & Fletcher's "The Scornful Lady." The waiting maid association perhaps begins with I Sam. xxv, where David's wife often calls herself a "handmaid." Her male counterpart was Andrew. 1 Samuel 25:40-41 (King James Bible) “When the servants of David came to Abigail at Carmel, they spoke to her, saying, ‘David has sent us to you to take you as his wife.’ And she arose, and bowed herself on her face to the earth, and said, ‘Behold, let thine handmaid be a servant to wash the feet of the servants of my lord.’”
  39. 39. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 36 ORIGINATED AS: qr'At ( ቅርዓት) farm-yard, compound, courtyard, court (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Georgia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hortus - "garden, plot of ground" (see below) Georgia the U.S. state was named for King George II of Great Britain. The Caucasian nation is so-called for St. George, who is its patron saint (his cult there may continue that of a pre-Christian deity with whom he was later identified), but the name also is said to derive from Arabic or Persian Kurj, or Gurz (the form in the earliest sources), said to be a name of the native people, of unknown origin. In modern Georgia, the name of the country is Sakartvelo and the people's name is Kartveli. George masc. personal name, from Late Latin Georgius, from Greek Georgos "husbandman, farmer," from ge "earth" + ergon "work" (see organ). The name introduced in England by the Crusaders (a vision of St. George played a key role in the First Crusade), but not common until after the Hanoverian succession (18c.). St. George began to be recognized as patron of England in time of Edward III, perhaps because of his association with the Order of the Garter (see garter). His feast day, April 23, was made a holiday in 1222. The legend of his combat with the dragon is first found in "Legenda Aurea" (13c.). The exclamation by (St.) George! is recorded from 1590s. organ (n.) fusion of late Old English organe, and Old French orgene (12c.), both meaning "musical instrument," both from Latin organa, plural of organum "a musical instrument," from Greek organon "implement, tool for making or doing; musical instrument; organ of sense, organ of the body," literally "that with which one works," from PIE *werg-ano-, from root *werg- "to do" (cognates: Greek ergon "work," orgia "religious performances;" Armenian gorc "work;" Avestan vareza "work, activity;" Gothic waurkjan, Old English wyrcan "to work," Old English weorc "deed, action, something done;" Old Norse yrka "work, take effect").
  40. 40. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 37 ORIGINATED AS: gurado (ጉራዶ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) gwrade (ጕራደ) sword (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Geraldine” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: girald - "spear" (see below) Geraldine fem. proper name, fem. form of Gerald. Gerald masc. proper name, introduced by the Normans, from Old French Giralt, from Old High German Gerwald, "spear-wielder," from Proto-Germanic *girald, from *ger "spear" + base of waltan "to rule" (cognate with Old English wealdan). The name often was confused with Gerard.
  41. 41. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 38 ORIGINATED AS: qlaTS'e (ቅላፄ) harmony (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Grace” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gratus - " pleasing, agreeable " (see below) Grace fem. proper name, literally "favor, grace;" see grace (n.). grace (n.) late 12c., "God's favor or help," from Old French grace "pardon, divine grace, mercy; favor, thanks; elegance, virtue" (12c.), from Latin gratia "favor, esteem, regard; pleasing quality, good will, gratitude" (source of Italian grazia, Spanish gracia), from gratus "pleasing, agreeable," from PIE root *gwere- (3) "to favor" (cognates: Sanskrit grnati "sings, praises, announces," Lithuanian giriu "to praise, celebrate," Avestan gar- "to praise"). Sense of "virtue" is early 14c., that of "beauty of form or movement, pleasing quality" is mid-14c. In classical sense, "one of the three sister goddesses (Latin Gratiæ, Greek Kharites), bestowers of beauty and charm," it is first recorded in English 1579 in Spenser. The short prayer that is said before or after a meal (early 13c.; until 16c. usually graces) has a sense of "gratitude."
  42. 42. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 39 ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Hannah” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hanan - "he was gracious, showed favor" (see below) Hannah fem. proper name, biblical mother of the prophet Samuel, from Hebrew, literally "graciousness," from stem of hanan "he was gracious, showed favor."
  43. 43. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 40 ORIGINATED AS: harfaf (ሓርፋፍ) rough, coarse (adjective) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Harper” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: harfe - "instrument of torture" (see below) harper (n.) Old English hearpere, agent noun from harp (v.). As a surname, from late 12c. harp (n.) Old English hearpe, from Proto-Germanic *harpon- (cognates: Old Saxon harpa "instrument of torture;" Old Norse harpa, Dutch harp, Old High German harpfa, German Harfe "harp") of uncertain origin. Late Latin harpa, source of words in some Romanic languages, is a borrowing from Germanic. Meaning "harmonica" is from 1887, short for mouth-harp. The harp seal (1784) is so called for the harp-shaped markings on its back.
  44. 44. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 41 ORIGINATED AS: quT'qwaT'o (ቁጥቋጦ) bush (n.) (Amarigna) qotQwaT' (ቆትቋጥ) hawthorn, bush, shrub (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Heather” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: kaito - "forest, uncultivated land" (see below) heather (n.) early 14c., hathir, from Old English *hæddre, Scottish or northern England dialect name for Calluna vulgaris, probably altered by heath, but real connection to that word is unlikely [Liberman, OED]. Perhaps originally Celtic. As a fem. proper name little used in U.S. before 1935, but a top-15 name for girls born there 1971-1989. heath (n.) Old English hæð "untilled land, tract of wasteland," earlier "heather," influenced by Old Norse heiðr "field," from Proto-Germanic *haithiz (cognates: Old Saxon hetha, Old High German heida "heather," Dutch heide "heath," Gothic haiþi "field"), from PIE *kaito "forest, uncultivated land" (cognates: Old Irish ciad, Welsh coed, Breton coet "wood, forest").
  45. 45. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 42 ORIGINATED AS: ellta (Eልልታ) cries sounding like "lililili" (n.) (Amarigna) ellta (Eልልታ) cheer, acclamation (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Hilary” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hilaritas - "cheerfulness" (see below) Hilary masc. proper name, from Late Latin Hilarius, literally "cheerful," from Latin hilaris (see hilarity). The name was more popular in France than in England. The woman's name (Middle English Hillaria) seems to be merged with this from Eulalia, name of the patron saint of Barcelona, a Latinization of Greek eulalos "sweetly speaking." The Hilary sessions of British High Court and universities (1577) are from St. Hilarius, Bishop of Poitiers, obit. C.E. 368, whose feast day is Jan. 13. hilarity (n.) mid-15c., from Latin hilaritatem (nominative hilaritas) "cheerfulness, gaiety, merriment," from hilaris "cheerful, gay," from Greek hilaros "cheerful, gay, merry, joyous," related to hilaos "graceful, kindly." In ancient Rome, Hilaria (neuter plural of hilaris) were a class of holidays, times of pomp and rejoicing; there were public ones in honor of Cybele at the spring equinoxes as well as private ones on the day of a marriage or a son's birth.
  46. 46. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 43 ORIGINATED AS: qoreT'e (ቆረጠ) cut, chop (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Hilda” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: keldh - " cut" (see below) Hilda fem. proper name, German, literally "battle-maid," from fem. of Old High German hild "war, battle," from Proto-Germanic *hildiz "battle," from PIE *keldh-, from root *kel- (1) "to strike, cut" (see holt). holt (n.) Old English holt "woods," common in place names, from Proto-Germanic *hultam- (cognates: Old Frisian, Old Norse, Middle Dutch holt, Dutch hout, German Holz "wood"), from PIE *kldo- (cognates: Old Church Slavonic klada "beam, timber," Greek klados "twig," Old Irish caill "wood"), from root *kel- (1) "to strike, cut."
  47. 47. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 44 ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Janet Jean “Jane” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hanan - "he was gracious" (see below) Jane fem. proper name, from French Jeanne, Old French Jehane, from Medieval Latin Johanna (see John). As a generic name for "girl, girlfriend" it is attested from 1906 in U.S. slang. Never a top-10 list name for girls born in the U.S., it ranked in the top 50 from 1931 to 1956. It may owe its "everywoman" reputation rather to its association with John. John masc. proper name, mid-12c., from Medieval Latin Johannes, from Late Latin Joannes, from Greek Ioannes, from Hebrew Yohanan (longer form y'hohanan) literally "Jehovah has favored," from hanan "he was gracious." As the name of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, it was one of the most common Christian given names, and in England by early 14c. it rivaled William in popularity. The Old French form was Jean, but in England its variants Johan, Jehan yielded Jan, Jen (also compare surname Jensen). Welsh form was Ieuan (see Evan), but Ioan was adopted for the Welsh Authorized Version of the Bible, hence frequency of Jones as a Welsh surname.
  48. 48. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 45 ORIGINATED AS: qn (ቅን) honest, sincere (adj.) (Amarigna) + wefeye (ወፈየ) give, offer, dedicate, donate (verb) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Jennifer” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gwen - "holy" + wyf - "yielding" (see below) Jennifer fem. proper name, from Welsh Gwenhwyvar, from gwen "fair, white" + (g)wyf "smooth, yielding." The most popular name for girls born in America 1970-1984; all but unknown there before 1938. Also attested as a surname from late 13c.
  49. 49. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 46 ORIGINATED AS: asaye (Aሳየ) show, to manifest (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Jessica” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: “to see before, exist” (see below) Jessica fem. proper name, from Late Latin Jesca, from Greek Ieskha, from Hebrew Yiskah, name of a daughter of Haran (Gen. xi:29). Among the top 5 popular names for girls born in the U.S. every year between 1977 and 1997. The familiar form Jessie was one of many fem. names used 20c. for "cowardly or effeminate male." Jessica Foresighted, "to see before" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jessica_(given_name) Jessie Jesse, Isai or Yishai meaning "God exists" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jesse
  50. 50. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 47 ORIGINATED AS: genana (ገናና) abundant, great, magnificent (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Jean Jane Janet “Joan” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hanan - "he was gracious" (see below) Joan fem. proper name, originally Joanna, fem. of Johannes (see John). Often 17c.-18c. used as a generic name for a female rustic. Among U.S. births, a top 10 name for girls born between 1930 and 1937. John masc. proper name, mid-12c., from Medieval Latin Johannes, from Late Latin Joannes, from Greek Ioannes, from Hebrew Yohanan (longer form y'hohanan) literally "Jehovah has favored," from hanan "he was gracious." As the name of John the Baptist and John the Evangelist, it was one of the most common Christian given names, and in England by early 14c. it rivaled William in popularity. The Old French form was Jean, but in England its variants Johan, Jehan yielded Jan, Jen (also compare surname Jensen). Welsh form was Ieuan (see Evan), but Ioan was adopted for the Welsh Authorized Version of the Bible, hence frequency of Jones as a Welsh surname.
  51. 51. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 48 ORIGINATED AS: ke (ከ) of (prep.) (Amarigna) + T'ru (ጥሩ) pure (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Catherine Trina Katrina Karen “Katherine” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: katharos - "pure" (see below) Katherine fem. proper name, also Katharine, see Catherine. Catherine fem. proper name, from French Catherine, from Medieval Latin Katerina, from Latin Ecaterina, from Greek Aikaterine. The -h- was introduced 16c., probably a folk etymology from Greek katharos "pure" (see catharsis). The initial Greek vowel is preserved in Russian form Ekaterina. As the name of a type of pear, attested from 1640s. Catherine wheel (early 13c.) is named for St. Catherine of Alexandria, legendary virgin martyr from the time of Maximinus who was tortured on a spiked wheel. Her name day is Nov. 25. A popular saint in the Middle Ages, which accounts for the popularity of the given name.
  52. 52. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 49 ORIGINATED AS: gnay (ግናይ) repulsive, hideous, horrible, awful, ugly, (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Kennedy” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: "ugly" (see below) Kennedy Irish surname, said to be from Old Irish cinneide "ugly head."
  53. 53. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 50 ORIGINATED AS: aqny (Aቅኝ) one who leads the way (n.) (Amarigna) + lq (ልቅ) spacious (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Kimberley” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: cyne - "royal " (see below) + louquo - "open space" (see below) Kimberley South African city, founded 1871; also region in northwest Australia; both named for John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley, who was British secretary of state for the colonies; the earldom is from a place in Norfolk, England (the name alsi is found in Nottinghamshire, Warwickshire). The second element is Old English leah "meadow, clearing in a woodland" (see lea), the first reflect various Old English personal names; the one in Norfolk appears first as Chineburlai (1086) and seems to be "clearing of a woman called Cyneburg." lea (n.) Old English leah "open field, meadow, piece of untilled ground," earlier læch, recorded in place names, from Proto-Germanic *laukhaz (cognates: Old High German loh "cluster of bushes," and probably also Flemish -loo, which forms the second element in Waterloo), from PIE *louquo- (cognates: Sanskrit lokah "open space," Latin lucus "grove," Lithuanian laukas "open field"), perhaps from or related to *leuk- "to shine, be bright" (see light (n.)). “Cyneburg means ‘royal-fortress’” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kimberly_%28given_name%29
  54. 54. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 51 ORIGINATED AS: lekose (ለኮሰ) light, burn (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Lucy” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: leukos - "bright, shining" (see below) Lucy fem. proper name, from French Lucie, from Latin Lucia, fem. of Lucius (see Lucian). Lucian masc. proper name, from Latin Lucianus (source also of French Lucien), a derivative of Roman Lucius, from lux (genitive lucis) "light" (see light (n.)). The Hellenistic Greek writer (his name Latinized from Greek Loukianos) was noted as the type of a scoffing wit. light (n.) "brightness, radiant energy," Old English leht, earlier leoht "light, daylight; luminous, beautiful," from Proto-Germanic *leukhtam (cognates: Old Saxon lioht, Old Frisian liacht, Middle Dutch lucht, Dutch licht, Old High German lioht, German Licht, Gothic liuhaþ "light"), from PIE *leuk- "light, brightness" (cognates: Sanskrit rocate "shines;" Armenian lois "light," lusin "moon;" Greek leukos "bright, shining, white;" Latin lucere "to shine," lux "light," lucidus "clear;" Old Church Slavonic luci "light;" Lithuanian laukas "pale;" Welsh llug "gleam, glimmer;" Old Irish loche "lightning," luchair "brightness;" Hittite lukezi "is bright").
  55. 55. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 52 ORIGINATED AS: mawaT'at (ማዋጣት) contribute (v-inf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Madison” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: mattath - "gift" (see below) Matthew masc. proper name, introduced in England by the Normans, from Old French Mathieu, from Late Latin Matthaeus, from Greek Matthaios, contraction of Mattathias, from Hebrew Mattathyah "gift of Jehovah," from mattath "gift." Variant Matthias is from the Greek version.
  56. 56. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 53 ORIGINATED AS: MuE’gurti (ሙEጉርቲ) cheek (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: Gretchen Margarita “Margaret” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: hamaguri (ハハハハ ) “clam” (Japanese) (see below) Margaret fem. proper name (c.1300), from Old French Margaret (French Marguerite), from Late Latin Margarita, female name, literally "pearl," from Greek margarites (lithos) "pearl," of unknown origin, "probably adopted from some Oriental language" [OED]; compare Sanskrit manjari "cluster of flowers," also said by Indian linguists to mean "pearl," cognate with manju "beautiful." Arabic marjan probably is from Greek, via Syraic marganitha. The word was widely perverted in Germanic languages by folk- etymology, for example Old English meregrot, which has been altered to mean literally "sea-pebble." hamaguri (ハハハハ ) “clam” (Japanese) (This is the clam regarded as a mouth)
  57. 57. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 54 ORIGINATED AS: meri (መሪ) leader, guide, chief (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Martha” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: mar, mara - "lord, master" (see below) Martha fem. proper name, from Aramaic Maretha, literally "lady, mistress," fem. of mar, mara "lord, master." As the type name of one concerned with domestic affairs, it is from Luke x:40, 41. Martha's Vineyard discovered 1602 by English explorer Gabriel Archer and apparently named by him, but the identity of the Martha he had in mind is unknown now.
  58. 58. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 55 ORIGINATED AS: meram (ምEራም) correction (n.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: Molly Mary Mariam “Maria” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Miryam - "rebellion" (see below) Maria fem. proper name, from Late Latin; see Mary. Mary fem. proper name, Old English Maria, Marie, "mother of Jesus," from Latin Maria, from Greek Mariam, Maria, from Aramaic Maryam, from Hebrew Miryam, sister of Moses (Ex. xv.), of unknown origin, said to mean literally "rebellion."
  59. 59. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 56 ORIGINATED AS: meram (ምEራም) correction (n.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Mary” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Miryam - "rebellion" (see below) Mary fem. proper name, Old English Maria, Marie, "mother of Jesus," from Latin Maria, from Greek Mariam, Maria, from Aramaic Maryam, from Hebrew Miryam, sister of Moses (Ex. xv.), of unknown origin, said to mean literally "rebellion."
  60. 60. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 57 Also related to: “Mildred” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: meldh - "soft" (see below) + ðryð"- power, strength." (see below) Mildred fem. proper name, Old English Mildðryð, from milde "mild" (see mild) + ðryð "power, strength." A popular name in the Middle Ages through fame of St. Mildred (obit c. 700), abbess, daughter of a Mercian king and a Kentish princess. Among the 10 most popular names for girls born in the U.S. between 1903 and 1926, it hasn't been in the top 1,000 since 1983. mild (adj.) Old English milde "gentle, merciful," from Proto-Germanic *milthjaz- (cognates: Old Norse mildr, Old Saxon mildi, Old Frisian milde, Middle Dutch milde, Dutch mild, Old High German milti, German milde "mild," Gothic mildiþa "kindness"), from PIE *meldh-, from root *mel- "soft," with derivatives referring to soft or softened materials (cognates: Greek malthon "weakling," myle "mill;" Latin molere "to grind;" Old Irish meldach "tender;" Sanskrit mrdh "to neglect," also "to be moist"). Originally of persons and powers; of the weather from c.1400, of disease from 1744. Also in Old English as an adverb, "mercifully, graciously." ORIGINATED AS: mwaleT'e (ሟለጠ) be soft or smooth (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + ayele (Aየለ) have power (v-perf.) (Amarigna)
  61. 61. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 58 ORIGINATED AS: mar (ማር) honey (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Melissa” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: mel - "honey” (see below) Melissa fem. proper name, from Latin, from Greek (Ionic) melissa (Attic melitta) "honeybee," also "one of the priestesses of Delphi," from PIE *melit-ya, suffixed form of *melit- "honey" (cognates: Greek meli, Latin mel "honey; sweetness;" Albanian mjal' "honey;" Old Irish mil "honey," Irish milis "sweet;" Old English mildeaw "nectar," milisc "honeyed, sweet;" Old High German milsken "to sweeten;" Gothic miliþ "honey").
  62. 62. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 59 ORIGINATED AS: may (ማይ) water (noun) (Tigrigna) + ayele (Aየለ) have power (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Muriel” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: mori - "sea" (see below) + ðryð - "power, strength." (see below) Muriel fem. proper name, probably Celtic and meaning literally "sea bright;" compare Welsh Meriel, Meryl, Irish Muirgheal, earlier Muirgel, from muir "sea" (see mere (n.)) + geal "bright." mere (adj.) c.1400, "unmixed, pure," from Old French mier "pure" (of gold), "entire, total, complete," and directly from Latin merus "unmixed" (of wine), "pure; bare, naked;" figuratively "true, real, genuine," probably originally "clear, bright," from PIE *mer- "to gleam, glimmer, sparkle" (cognates: Old English amerian "to purify," Old Irish emer "not clear," Sanskrit maricih "ray, beam," Greek marmarein "to gleam, glimmer"). Original sense of "nothing less than, absolute" (mid-15c., now only in vestiges such as mere folly) existed for centuries alongside opposite sense of "nothing more than" (1580s, as in a mere dream). mere (n.) Old English mere "sea, ocean; lake, pool, pond, cistern," from Proto-Germanic *mari (cognates: Old Norse marr, Old Saxon meri "sea," Middle Dutch maer, Dutch meer "lake, sea, pool," Old High German mari, German Meer "sea," Gothic marei "sea," mari-saiws "lake"), from PIE *mori- "sea" (cognates: Latin mare, Old Church Slavonic morje, Russian more, Lithuanian mares, Old Irish muir, Welsh mor "sea," Gaulish Are-morici "people living near the sea").
  63. 63. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 60 ORIGINATED AS: enst (Eንስት) female (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Agnes “Nancy” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: annis - "effeminate" (see below) Nancy fem. proper name, probably a pet form of Ancy, diminutive of Middle English Annis "Agnes" (see Agnes). As an adjective meaning "effeminate" (with reference to men) it is from 1904. Among the top 10 popular names for girls born in U.S. between 1935 and 1955. Agnes fem. proper name, mid-12c., from Old French Agnes, from Greek Hagne "pure, chaste," from fem. of hagnos "holy," from PIE *yag- "to worship, reverence" (see hagiology). St. Agnes, martyred 303 C.E., is patron saint of young girls, hence the folk connection of St. Agnes' Eve (Jan. 20-21) with love divinations. In Middle English, frequently phonetically as Annis, Annys. In U.S., among the top 50 names for girls born between 1887 and 1919.
  64. 64. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 61 ORIGINATED AS: muna (ሙና) lovely (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Naomi” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: na'em - "lovely" (see below) Naomi fem. proper name, biblical mother-in-law of Ruth, from Hebrew Na'omi, literally "my delight," from no'am "pleasantness, delightfulness," from stem of na'em "was pleasant, was lovely."
  65. 65. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 62 ORIGINATED AS: naTS’la (ናጽላ) new-born (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Natalie” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: natalis - "birthday" (see below) Natalie fem. proper name, from French Natalie, from Church Latin Natalia, from Latin (dies) natalis "birthday," in Church Latin, "Christmas Day," so probably originally a name for one born on Christmas. nada (n.) "nothing," 1933, slang, introduced by Hemingway, from Spanish nada "nothing," from Latin (res) nata "small, insignificant thing," literally "(thing) born" (see natal). natal (adj.) late 14c., "of or pertaining to birthdays," from Latin natalis "pertaining to birth or origin," from natus, past participle of nasci "to be born" (Old Latin gnasci; see genus).
  66. 66. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 63 ORIGINATED AS: alebe (Aለበ) draw out (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Olivia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ewi - "oil" (see below) Olivia fem. proper name, from Italian Olivia, from Latin oliva "olive" (see olive). olive (n.) c.1200, "olive tree," from Old French olive "olive, olive tree" (13c.) or directly from Latin oliva "olive, olive tree," from Greek elaia "olive tree, olive," probably from the same Aegean language (perhaps Cretan) as Armenian ewi "oil." Applied to the fruit or berry of the tree in English from late 14c. As a color from 17c. Olive branch as a token of peace is from early 13c.
  67. 67. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 64 ORIGINATED AS: afera (Aፈራ)/afreye (ኣፍረየ) produce, breed (v.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Ophelia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: avelum - "increase, abound" (see below) Ophelia fem. proper name, from Greek opheleia "help, aid," from ophelein "to help, aid, assist," ophelos "advantage, help," from PIE root *obhel- "to avail" (cognates: Greek ophelos "advantage," Armenian avelum "increase, abound").
  68. 68. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 65 ORIGINATED AS: bCH'ay (ብጫይ) companion, comrade (n.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Paige” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: page - "page, servant" (see below) Paige fem. proper name, also a family name, variant of page (n.2) "young servant." page "youth, lad, boy of the lower orders," c.1300, originally also "youth preparing to be a knight," from Old French page "a youth, page, servant" (13c.), possibly via Italian paggio (Barnhart), from Medieval Latin pagius "servant," perhaps ultimately from Greek paidion "boy, lad," diminutive of pais (genitive paidos) "child." But OED considers this unlikely and points instead to Littré's suggestion of a source in Latin pagus "countryside," in sense of "boy from the rural regions" (see pagan). Meaning "youth employed as a personal attendant to a person of rank" is first recorded mid-15c.; this was transferred from late 18c. to boys who did personal errands in hotels, clubs, etc., also in U.S. legislatures.
  69. 69. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 66 ORIGINATED AS: wn (ውን) etcetera, etc. (adv.) (Tigrigna) + mar (ማር )/ma'Ar (ማዓር) honey (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Pamela” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: pan - "all" + meli - "honey" (see below) Pat Sir Philip Sidney invented the name Pamela for a pivotal character in his epic prose work, The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia, written in the late 16th century and published posthumously. The name is widely taken to mean "all sweetness", formed on the Greek words παν pan ("all") and μέλη meli ("honey"),[2][3] but there is no evidence regarding what meaning, if any, Sidney intended for it. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pamela_(name) Strong's Greek Lexicon Search Results #3192. meli mel'-ee apparently a primary word; honey:--honey. http://www.eliyah.com/cgi-bin/strongs.cgi?file=greeklexicon&isindex=honey etcetera adverb and others; and so forth; and so on (used to indicate that more of the same sort or class might have been mentioned, but for brevity have been omitted) http://www.dictionary.com/browse/et-cetera
  70. 70. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 67 ORIGINATED AS: feT’ere (ፈጠረ) create (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Pat” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: pater - "father" (see below) Pat as a fem. proper name, short for Patricia. As a masc. proper name, short for Patrick; hence a nickname for any Irishman Patricia fem. proper name, from Latin, fem. of patricius "patrician, noble" (see Patrick). Patrick masc. proper name, from Old Irish Patraicc (Irish Padraig), from Latin Patricius, literally "a patrician" (see patrician). As a given name, chiefly in northern England and Scotland, in Ireland only a popular name after 1600, due probably to the Scots settlers in Ulster. [Reaney] patrician (n.) early 15c., "member of the ancient Roman noble order," from Middle French patricien, from Latin patricius "of the rank of the nobles, of the senators; of fatherly dignity," from patres conscripti "Roman senators," literally "fathers," plural of pater "father" (see father (n.)). Contrasted, in ancient Rome, with plebeius. Applied to noble citizens and higher orders of free folk in medieval Italian and German cities (sense attested in English from 1610s); hence "nobleman, aristocrat" in a modern sense (1630s). As an adjective, attested from 1610s, from the noun.
  71. 71. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 68 ORIGINATED AS: feT’ere (ፈጠረ) create (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Pat” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: pater - "father" (see below) Pat as a fem. proper name, short for Patricia. As a masc. proper name, short for Patrick; hence a nickname for any Irishman Patricia fem. proper name, from Latin, fem. of patricius "patrician, noble" (see Patrick). Patrick masc. proper name, from Old Irish Patraicc (Irish Padraig), from Latin Patricius, literally "a patrician" (see patrician). As a given name, chiefly in northern England and Scotland, in Ireland only a popular name after 1600, due probably to the Scots settlers in Ulster. [Reaney] patrician (n.) early 15c., "member of the ancient Roman noble order," from Middle French patricien, from Latin patricius "of the rank of the nobles, of the senators; of fatherly dignity," from patres conscripti "Roman senators," literally "fathers," plural of pater "father" (see father (n.)). Contrasted, in ancient Rome, with plebeius. Applied to noble citizens and higher orders of free folk in medieval Italian and German cities (sense attested in English from 1610s); hence "nobleman, aristocrat" in a modern sense (1630s). As an adjective, attested from 1610s, from the noun.
  72. 72. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 69 ORIGINATED AS: fenta (ፈንታ) portion (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Penelope” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: pane - " part, piece" (see below) Penelope fem. proper name, name of the faithful wife in the "Odyssey," from Greek Penelopeia, probably related to pene "thread on the bobbin," from penos "web," cognate with Latin pannus "cloth garment" (see pane (n.)). Used in English as the type of the virtuous wife (1580) as it was in Latin. pane (n.) mid-13c., "garment, part of a garment," later "side of a building, section of a wall," from Old French pan "section, piece, panel" (11c.), from Latin pannum (nominative pannus) "piece of cloth, garment," possibly from PIE root *pan- "fabric" (cognates: Gothic fana "piece of cloth," Greek penos "web," Old English fanna "flag"). Sense of "window glass" first attested mid-15c.
  73. 73. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 70 ORIGINATED AS: redai (ረዳI) patron, friend, contributor, customer (n.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Ruth” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: reuth - "companion, friend” (see below) Ruth fem. proper name, biblical ancestor of David, from Hebrew Ruth, probably a contraction of reuth "companion, friend, fellow woman."
  74. 74. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 71 ORIGINATED AS: aleqa (Aለቃ) boss, supervisor, chief (n.) (Amarigna) + wend (ወንድ) man, male (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Sandra” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: alke - "protection, help, strength, power, courage" (see below) + andros - "man" Sandra fem. proper name, originally short for Alexandra. Little used before c.1920; a top-20 name for girls born in the U.S. 1938-1967. Alexander masc. proper name, from Latin, from Greek Alexandros "defender of men," from alexein "to ward off, keep off, turn (something) away, defend, protect" + aner (genitive andros) "man" (see anthropo-). The first element is related to Greek alke "protection, help, strength, power, courage," alkimos "strong;" cognate with Sanskrit raksati "protects," Old English ealgian "to defend." As a kind of cocktail, it is attested from 1930.
  75. 75. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 72 ORIGINATED AS: aseri (Aሠሪ) employer (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Sarah” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: sarar - "he ruled," (see below) Sarah fem. proper name, Biblical wife of Abraham and mother of Isaac, from Hebrew, literally "princess," from sarah, fem. of sar "prince," from sarar "he ruled," related to Akkad. sharratu "queen." Popular as a name for girls born in U.S. in 1870s and 1978-2000.
  76. 76. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 73 ORIGINATED AS: zban (ዝባን) tray, surface, stage, back (noun) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Savannah” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: zavana - "treeless plain," (see below) Savannah port city in U.S. state of Georgia, from savana, name applied to the Native Americans in the area by early European explorers, perhaps from a self-designation of the Shawnee Indians, or from the European topographical term (see savannah). savannah (n.) also savanna, "treeless plain," 1550s, from Spanish sabana, earlier zavana "treeless plain," from Taino (Arawakan) zabana. In U.S. use, especially in Florida, "a tract of low-lying marshy ground" (1670s).
  77. 77. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 74 ORIGINATED AS: asawere (Aሳወረ) blind (v-perf.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Sheila” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: cecil - "blind" (see below) Sheila fem. proper name, Irish equivalent of Celia, shortened form of Cecilia, the fem. form of Cecil. A standard type of an Irish women's name since 1828; slang for "girlfriend, young woman" dates from 1839. Cecilia fem. proper name, fem. of Cecil (q.v.). Cecil masc. proper name, from Latin Caecilius (fem. Caecilia), name of a Roman gens, from caecus "blind."
  78. 78. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 75 ORIGINATED AS: hesab (ሐሳብ) opinion, point of view, thought, idea (n.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Sophia” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: sophia - "knowledge of, acquaintance with" (see below) Sophia fem. proper name, from Greek sophia "skill, knowledge of, acquaintance with; sound judgement, practical wisdom; cunning, shrewdness; philosophy," also "wisdom personified," abstract noun from sophos "wise" (see sophist). Saint Sophia in ancient church names and place names in the East is not necessarily a reference to a person; the phrase also is the English translation of the Greek for "divine wisdom, holy wisdom," to which churches were dedicated. sophist (n.) "one who makes use of fallacious arguments," mid-15c., earlier sophister (late 14c.), from Latin sophista, sophistes, from Greek sophistes "a master of one's craft; a wise or prudent man, one clever in matters of daily life," from sophizesthai "to become wise or learned," from sophos "skilled in a handicraft, cunning in one's craft; clever in matters of everyday life, shrewd; skilled in the sciences, learned; clever; too clever," of unknown origin. Greek sophistes came to mean "one who gives intellectual instruction for pay," and at Athens, contrasted with "philosopher," it became a term of contempt.
  79. 79. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 76 ORIGINATED AS: danya (ዳኛ) magistrate, judge (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Tanya” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Tanya - “decider” (see below) Tanya Gender: Female Origin:Russian Meaning: Short form of Tatiana, Ancient Greek (Establisher, Decider) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanya_(name)
  80. 80. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 77 ORIGINATED AS: danya (ዳኛ) magistrate, judge (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Tatiana” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Tanya - “decider” (see below) Tatiana (Russian: Татьяна; also romanized as Tatyana, Tatjana, Tatianna, Tatijana, etc.) is a female name of Latin origin. The short form of the name is Tanya (Russian: Таня). https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tatiana Tanya Gender: Female Origin: Russian Meaning: Short form of Tatiana, Ancient Greek (Establisher, Decider) https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tanya_(name)
  81. 81. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 78 ORIGINATED AS: taye (ታየ) be seen, , appear (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + fanos (ፋኖስ) lantern, lamp (n.) (Amarigna) Also related to: Catherine Katrina “Tiffany” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: theo - "god" (see theo-) + phainein - "to show" (see below) tiffany (n.) "type of thin, transparent fabric," c.1600; earlier a common name for the festival of the Epiphany (early 14c.; in Anglo-French from late 13c.), from Old French Tifinie, Tiphanie "Epiphany" (c.1200), from Late Latin Theophania "Theophany," another name for the Epiphany, from Greek theophania "the manifestation of a god" (see theophany). theophany (n.) "an appearance of God to man," 1630s, from Late Latin theophania, from Greek theos "god" (see theo-) + phainein "to show" (see phantasm). In Middle English "Epiphany" (late 12c.). Ancient Greek Theophaneia was the name of a festival at Delphi during which the statues of Apollo and other gods were displayed to the public. theo- word-forming element meaning "god, gods, God," from comb. form of Greek theos "god," from PIE root *dhes-, root of words applied to various religious concepts, such as Latin feriae "holidays," festus "festive," fanum "temple." Strong's Greek Lexicon #2316. theos theh'-os of uncertain affinity; a deity, especially (with 3588) the supreme Divinity; figuratively, a magistrate; by Hebraism, very:--X exceeding, God, god(-ly, -ward).
  82. 82. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 79 ORIGINATED AS: T'ru (ጥሩ) pure (adj.) (Amarigna) Also related to: “Trina” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: Trina - "pure" (see below) Trina Gender: female Origin Word/name: Scandinavian Meaning: pure https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trina_(name)
  83. 83. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 80 ORIGINATED AS: fera (ፈራ) produce fruit (v-perf.) (Amarigna) + naqe (ናቀ) denigrate, denounce, to shame (v-perf.) Also related to: “Veronica” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: ferre - "carry, bear," (see below) + nike - "victory" (see below) Veronica fem. proper name, French Veronique, a variant of Greek Berenike (see Berenice). The popular "Saint Veronica" (not in the Roman Martyrology) traditionally was a pious woman who wiped the face of Christ when he fell carrying the cross to Calvary. The image of his face remained on the cloth, and the "veil of Veronica" has been preserved in Rome from the 8c. Her popularity rose with the propagation of the Stations of the Cross, and this connection led to the folk-etymology derivation of the name from Latin vera "true" + Greek eikon "image." Some also identified her with the woman with the issue of blood, cured by Christ, as in the East this woman was identified from an early date by the name Berenike. Hence vernicle (mid-14c.) "picture of the face of Christ," from Old French veronicle, variant of veronique "St. Veronica's cloth." Berenice fem. proper name, from Latin Berenice, from Macedonian Greek Berenike (classical Greek Pherenike), literally "bringer of victory," from pherein "to bring" (see infer) + nike "victory." The constellation Berenice's hair is from the story of the pilfered locks of the wife of Ptolemy Euergetes, king of Egypt, c.248 B.C.E., which the queen cut off as an offering to Venus. The constellation features a dim but visible star cluster. But the earliest use of the phrase in astronomy in English was as a name for the star Canopus (1601).
  84. 84. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 81 Also related to: “Victoria” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: weik - "to fight, conquer" (see below) Victoria fem. proper name, Latin, literally "victory in war," also the name of the Roman goddess of victory (see victory). The Victoria cross is a decoration founded 1856 by Queen Victoria of Great Britain and awarded for acts of conspicuous bravery in battle. victory (n.) c.1300, "military supremacy, victory in battle or a physical contest," from Anglo-French and Old French victorie (12c.) and directly from Latin victoria "victory," from past participle stem of vincere (see victor). V.E. ("victory in Europe") and V.J. ("victory in Japan") days in World War II were first used Sept. 2, 1944, by James F. Byrne, U.S. director of War Mobilization ["Washington Post," Sept. 10, 1944]. victor (n.) mid-14c., from Anglo-French, Old French victor "conqueror," and directly from Latin victorem (nominative victor) "a conqueror," agent noun from past participle stem of vincere "to conquer, overcome, defeat," from PIE root *weik- (5) "to fight, conquer" (cognates: Lithuanian apveikiu "to subdue, overcome," Old Church Slavonic veku "strength, power, age," Old Norse vigr "able in battle," Old English wigan "fight," Welsh gwych "brave, energetic," Old Irish fichim "I fight," second element in Celtic Ordovices "those who fight with hammers"). Fem. formations include victrice (late 14c.), victress (c.1600), victrix (1650s). ORIGINATED AS: wgiya (ውጊያ)/wgi (ውግE) war, fight (n.) (Amarigna/Tigrigna)
  85. 85. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 82 ORIGINATED AS: fetl (ፈትል); fetli (ፈትሊ) fibre, thread, yarn, string (noun) (Amarigna/Tigrigna) Also related to: “Viola” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: vitula - "stringed instrument" (see below) viola (n.) "tenor violin," 1797, from Italian viola, from Old Provençal viola, from Medieval Latin vitula "stringed instrument," perhaps from Vitula, Roman goddess of joy (see fiddle), or from related Latin verb vitulari "to exult, be joyful." Viola da gamba "bass viol" (1724) is from Italian, literally "a viola for the leg" (i.e. to hold between the legs).
  86. 86. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 83 ORIGINATED AS: hyaw (ህያው) alive, living (adj.) (Amarigna) hyaw (ሕያው) alive, living (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Vivian” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gweie - "to live" (see below) Vivian masc. proper name, from Latin Vivianus (source also of French Vivien), literally "living, alive," (see vivid). But Klein says it is "prob. a misreading of the Celtic name Ninian." vivid (adj.) 1630s, from French vivide and perhaps also directly from Latin vividus "spirited, animated, lively, full of life," from vivus "alive," from PIE *gweie- (1) "to live" (see bio-). Extension to colors is from 1660s. Sense of "strong, distinct" (as of memories, etc.) is from 1680s; that of "very active or intense" (as of imagination, interest, etc.) is from 1853. Related: Vividly; vividness. bio- word-forming element, from Greek bio-, comb. form of bios "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime" (as opposed to zoe "animal life, organic life"), from PIE root *gweie- (1) "to live" (cognates: Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old Persian *jivaka- "alive," Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Old English cwic, cwicu "living, alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Old Church Slavonic zivo "to live;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive," gyvata "(eternal) life;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world"). The correct usage is that in biography, but in modern science it has been extended to mean
  87. 87. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 84 ORIGINATED AS: hyaw (ህያው) alive, living (adj.) (Amarigna) hyaw (ሕያው) alive, living (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Yvette” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gweie - "to live" (see below) Yvette Yvette is female given name, the origin is from the name "Eve", giving rise to "Evette" and "Yvette". https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yvette
  88. 88. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 85 ORIGINATED AS: hyaw (ህያው) alive, living (adj.) (Amarigna) hyaw (ሕያው) alive, living (adj.) (Tigrigna) Also related to: “Zoe” BECAME IN EUROPEAN LANGUAGES: gweie - "to live" (see below) Zoe fem. proper name, Greek, literally "life" (see zoo-). zoo- word-forming element meaning "animal, living being," from comb. form of Greek zoion "an animal," literally "a living being," from PIE root *gwei- "to live, life" (source also of Greek bios "life," Old English cwicu "living;" see bio-). bio- word-forming element, from Greek bio-, comb. form of bios "one's life, course or way of living, lifetime" (as opposed to zoe "animal life, organic life"), from PIE root *gweie- (1) "to live" (cognates: Sanskrit jivah "alive, living;" Old Persian *jivaka- "alive," Middle Persian zhiwak "alive;" Old English cwic, cwicu "living, alive;" Latin vivus "living, alive," vita "life;" Old Church Slavonic zivo "to live;" Lithuanian gyvas "living, alive," gyvata "(eternal) life;" Old Irish bethu "life," bith "age;" Welsh byd "world"). The correct usage is that in biography, but in modern science it has been extended to mean "organic life."
  89. 89. Amarigna and Tigrigna Qal Roots of Female Names 86

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