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UNIT 3.
ANCIENT GREECE
https://youtu.be/cyvNgDMZEdw
BEFORE STARTING…
 In this unit, we will focus in one of the Classic
Civilisation: Greek Civilisation.
 You have to take into account that the History of
Ancient Greek is divided into three important
periods of time:
 The Archaic period (800-500 BC)
 The Classical period (500-336 BC)
 The Hellenistic period (336-30 BC)
 However, Ancient Greek civilisation was
preceded by two important cultures, also called
civilisations:
 Minoan (cultura Minoica): 2.500-1300 BC
 Mycenaean (cultura Micénica): 1600-1200 BC
GREEK CIVILISATION: ORIGINS
 Ancient Greek
civilisation began in
the the
Mediterranean, betwee
n the Ionian Sea and the
Aegean Sea.
 The Ancient Greeks
referred to this area
as Hellas (Hélade).
HELLAS
 The terrain of Hellas was mountainous and
formed of narrow valleys surrounded by steep
mountains.
 This terrain influenced the way this civilisation
developed in a number of ways:
 It was difficult to travel from one settlement to
another. It was easier to travel by sea. The Ancient
Greeks were very good sailors.
 The terrain was not very suitable for agriculture. This
meant that people had to trade more.
 The terrain did not favour the development of large
kingdoms. This meant that small city-states, known
as poleis, formed.
ORIGINES OF GREEK CIVILISATION:
EARLY GREEK CIVILISATIONS
 Ancient Greek
civilisation was
preceded by two other
civilisations:
 Minoan civilisation:
Crete
 Mycenaean civilisation:
Peloponnese peninsula.
MINOAN CIVILIZATION (2500-1300 BC) MYCENAEAN CIVILISATION (1600-1200 BC)
 Because of its location
on trade routes between Africa, Asia
and Europe, craftwork developed.
This economic development led to
the emergence of the Minoan
civilisation.
 We have evidence of the Minoan
civilisation from about 2600 BC. The
ruins of its cities suggest that it had a
high standard of living. In cities
such as Knossos (the capital of
Minoan civilisation), the palace was
the centre of power.
 Around 1450 BC, the Minoan culture
had been destroyed.
 The Mycenaean civilisation emerg
ed on the Peloponnese peninsula
1700 and 1500 BC. This civilisation
was divided
into small kingdoms ruled by kings.
 Mycenaean palaces were royal
residences. They were protected by
massive walls. The most important
palace was in Mycenae.
 The Mycenaean civilisation
experienced a crisis between the
years 1200 and 1150 BC which
marked its decline. Following its
decline, Greece entered a Dark Age
(1200-800 BC)
PERIODS OF GREEK CIVILISATION
1. Archaic period
2. Classical period
3. Hellenistic period
1. ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-500 BC)
 After the fall of Mycenae, Greece entered a Dark Age
(1200-800 BC): This period was characterized by
economic decline and migration to Ionia, on the coast
of Anatolia.
 Ionia was extremely important because it was where
the first Greek polis (or city-state). It became the
model for political organisation in Greece.
 A polis was made up of two main areas:
 A dependent territory located outside the city walls, which
was used for farming.
 An urban area, which was usually protected by defensive
walls. The acropolis was an elevated port of the urban
area where the most important buildings were located
(TEMPLES). One of the most well-known acropolis is the Acropolis
of Athens, where the Parthenon is located
ACROPOLIS OF ATHENS
THE STRUCTURE OF A POLIS
TERRITORIAL EXPANSION: COLONISATION.
 One of the most important phenomena of the
Archaic period was colonisation: a process by
which Greek settlements were
established throughout the Mediterranean.
As a result of
colonisation:
Trade was
stimulated.
Colonies were set up
by colonisers from
Greek city-states.
The colonisers helped
spread Greek culture:
Hellenisation.
2. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (500-336 BC)
 Importance of poleis.
 The most important: Athens (democracy)
and Sparta (oligarchy).
 In the Classical Age, Greece took part in
several wars:
 Persian Wars against the Persians.
 Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC) (Sparta-Athens)
where Sparta won and imposed and oligarchy on
Athens.
ATHENS: DEMOCRACY
 Democracy. The basis of democracy was the
participation of citizens in government.
 Athenian democracy was based on three important
institutions:
 Assembly (Ecclesia): citizen more than 20 years. They voted
the laws, they decided the war and the peace and they chose
to the governors.
 The laws that were voted in the Assembly were prepared by a
Council, called Boule (Bulé).
 Magistrates: Were in charge of implementing the decisions of
the assembly.
 Courts of justice: chosen by lot.
 Only a minority of Athenians were citizens (free men
who were all born in Athens). Women, foreigners and slaves
were excluded from citizenship. Because of this, Athenian
democracy is considered a limited democracy.
SPARTA: OLIGARCHY- DIARCHY
 The system of government in Sparta was based on:
 Diarchy (diarquía), because it was led by two kings. Spartan
kings came from the aristocracy,
 The Council of Elders, or Gerousia. Formed by elders of the
most powerful families. They made laws.
 5 magistrates: Are responsible for enforcing the laws.
 Assembly: formed by free men with more than 30 years. Very
little power.
CLASSICAL PERIOD: A TIME OF WARS
 The Persian Empire, tried to gain control of Greece (5th
century BC).
 A coalition of Greek cities fought the Persian forces in a
conflict known as the Greco-Persian Wars, which took place in
490 (1º Guerra Médica) and 480–479 BC (2º GUERRA MÉDICA).
 At the battles of Marathon (1º Guerra Médica) and
Salamis (2º Guerra Médica), the Greek armies
defeated the powerful Persian forces.
 Greece’s victory over the Persians liberated city-states
which had been conquered, reinforced common Greek
values in all city-states and strengthened the leadership of
the city-states of Athens and Sparta.
GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: GUERRAS MÉDICAS
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_hQAClmGpA
 After serving as leaders in the Greco-Persian
Wars, Athens and Sparta became rivals,
forming leagues of cities around them
(alliances created for political and military
purposes).
 Between 431 and 404 BC, Athens and Sparta,
fought in the Peloponnesian War. Sparta won.
 This war weakened all Greek cities and led to
social and economic decline. Despite its victory,
not long afterwards, Sparta was forced to give
way to the leadership of Thebes, and later, to
kingdoms such as Macedonia.
THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IESaDM3NW68
3. HELLENISTIC PERIOD
In the 4th century, King
Phillip II of Macedonia
conquered Greece.
When Philip II died in
336 BC, his
son Alexander the
Great became king
and consolidated
Macedonian control
over Greece.
THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT
 He was a cultured man, educated by the most important
intellectual of the period: philosopher Aristotle.
 He was very skilled in politics and war. Over a period of
13 years, he made many conquests, forming
an empire that united East and West.
THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS
 The premature death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC at
the age of 33, before he had named a successor,
caused his empire to break up into a number of kingdoms
known as the Hellenistic kingdoms: Macedonia, Egypt or
the Seleucid Empire.
 The territory of Ancient Greek are going to be
conquered by the Roman Empire until, in 30
BC they occupied Egypt:
 Is the end of Greek Civilisation!!!!!
LIFE IN ANCIENT
GREEK CITY-STATES
THE ECONOMY
 Agriculture was important, although there wasn´t a
lot of cultivated land.
 Vines and olives were the main crops.
 People also kept livestock and many Greeks made
crafts, such as pottery.
 Farmers and artisans usually sold their products
directly in the market.
 There was a lot of sea trade with the colonies.
 They used silver coins for payment called
drachma.
SOCIETY
Society can be divided between:
 Slaves: were no considered to be human beings.
They were not free and belonged to other people (the
property of the state or of the wealthy). They were the main
workforce in agriculture, crafts and domestic service.
 Free people:
 Citizens were aristocrats, merchants and farmers. They
could vote, be elected to hold public office and take part
in political life. They had to pay taxes and do military
service.
 Non- citizens were foreigners and had no political rights.
They paid special taxes. Most of them were artisans or
trades. Also women were considered non-citizens.
DAILY LIFE IN ATHENS
GREEK RELIGION
 The Greeks were polytheistic: believed in many
gods.
 Look at page 27 of your book.
 According to Greek mythology, the gods
lived on Mount Olympus and they were
immortal and had supernatural powers.
 The Greeks also believed in heroes.
 The Greeks made offerings and animal
sacrifices to the gods. They also believed in
oracles, which was the place where visitors
asked the god to help them to make
decisions.
GREEK CULTURE
 Philosophy (Socrates, Plato and Aristotle): looked for
explanations for the origin and the nature of the Universe.
 “El sabio no dice todo lo que piensa, pero siempre piensa todo lo
que dice” (Aristotle, 384-322 BC).
 “El objetivo de la educación es la virtud y la meta de convertirse
en un buen ciudadano” (Plato, 427-347 BC).
 “Los jóvenes hoy en día son unos tiranos. Contradicen a sus
padres, devoran su comida, y le faltan al respeto a sus maestros
(Socrates, 470-399 BC); Yo sólo sé que no sé nada”.
 Literature (literary genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry and
theatre).
 Epic Poetry : the most important writer was Homer. His greatest
works: The Iliad and The Odyssey.
 Theatre: Plays were act out in theatres. The genres:
 Tragedies (Euripides or Sophocles)
 Comedies (Aristophanes)
 History (Herodotus)
 Sciences (Pythagoras).
Aesop's fables (Fábulas de Esopo)
ACTIVITY
 Go to the blog to access to an interesting
activity about the Fable of “The Lion and
The Mouse”.
 Also, you can watch this video, where you
can see and listen to the fable:
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzyvmC1FAt0
 After doing this activity, write in your
notebook the moral of the Fable (with your
own words and giving your personal point of view).
 Cheer up! You can do a really good activity
ARCHITECTURE AND ART
 The main characteristics of Greek art are the
proportion and visual balance.
 The fundamental aim of Ancient architecture was
that the citizens would enjoy looking at it.
 In Greek architecture, columns provided support for
a building. The Greeks made columns in white
stone.
 There are three styles of Greek architecture
depending on the type of column used:
 Doric
 Ionic
 Corinthian.
DORIC ORDER
 This was the oldest order.
 The column had no base,
the shaft was thick
and fluted, and the capital
was made up of three
rectilinear pieces: the
abacus, echinus and
necking.
 In the entablature, the
most important element
was the frieze, divided into
triglyphs (three vertical
bands) and flat sections
called metopes,
where bas-reliefs were
usually carved.
IONIC ORDER
 The column had a base
and was slender, with a
narrow shaft and grooves.
 The capital was made up
of spirals known as
volutes.
 The entablature was
divided into two sections:
architrave and frieze. The
frieze was not divided up.
CORINTHIAN ORDER
 This order was the most
common during the
Hellenistic period and
extremely influential after
that.
 It had similar
characteristics to the Ionic
order, but the capital was
different:
 it was made up of a basket
from which acanthus leaves
emerged.
IMPORTANT BUILDINGS
 TEMPLES, such as the Parthenon in Athens, which
honored Athena, the patron of Athens.
 THEATRES: were built on hillsides to create rows
or seats (seating area, orchestra, proscenium).
The theatre at
Epidaurus
Parthenon in Athens
POTTERY
 Pottery from the time have survived.
 These are often decorated with geometrical
patterns, imaginary animals, and plants figures
representing scenes from mythology or daily life.
GREEK SCULPTURE
 Greek sculpture
focuses on the
human form and
shows an ideal of
beauty, proportion
and balance.
 There were three
stages: archaic,
classical and
Hellenistic age.
KORE: Myron´s
Discubolus:
Laocoon: Hellenistic

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Unit 3. Greek civilisation

  • 2. BEFORE STARTING…  In this unit, we will focus in one of the Classic Civilisation: Greek Civilisation.  You have to take into account that the History of Ancient Greek is divided into three important periods of time:  The Archaic period (800-500 BC)  The Classical period (500-336 BC)  The Hellenistic period (336-30 BC)  However, Ancient Greek civilisation was preceded by two important cultures, also called civilisations:  Minoan (cultura Minoica): 2.500-1300 BC  Mycenaean (cultura Micénica): 1600-1200 BC
  • 3. GREEK CIVILISATION: ORIGINS  Ancient Greek civilisation began in the the Mediterranean, betwee n the Ionian Sea and the Aegean Sea.  The Ancient Greeks referred to this area as Hellas (Hélade).
  • 4. HELLAS  The terrain of Hellas was mountainous and formed of narrow valleys surrounded by steep mountains.  This terrain influenced the way this civilisation developed in a number of ways:  It was difficult to travel from one settlement to another. It was easier to travel by sea. The Ancient Greeks were very good sailors.  The terrain was not very suitable for agriculture. This meant that people had to trade more.  The terrain did not favour the development of large kingdoms. This meant that small city-states, known as poleis, formed.
  • 5. ORIGINES OF GREEK CIVILISATION: EARLY GREEK CIVILISATIONS  Ancient Greek civilisation was preceded by two other civilisations:  Minoan civilisation: Crete  Mycenaean civilisation: Peloponnese peninsula.
  • 6. MINOAN CIVILIZATION (2500-1300 BC) MYCENAEAN CIVILISATION (1600-1200 BC)  Because of its location on trade routes between Africa, Asia and Europe, craftwork developed. This economic development led to the emergence of the Minoan civilisation.  We have evidence of the Minoan civilisation from about 2600 BC. The ruins of its cities suggest that it had a high standard of living. In cities such as Knossos (the capital of Minoan civilisation), the palace was the centre of power.  Around 1450 BC, the Minoan culture had been destroyed.  The Mycenaean civilisation emerg ed on the Peloponnese peninsula 1700 and 1500 BC. This civilisation was divided into small kingdoms ruled by kings.  Mycenaean palaces were royal residences. They were protected by massive walls. The most important palace was in Mycenae.  The Mycenaean civilisation experienced a crisis between the years 1200 and 1150 BC which marked its decline. Following its decline, Greece entered a Dark Age (1200-800 BC)
  • 7. PERIODS OF GREEK CIVILISATION 1. Archaic period 2. Classical period 3. Hellenistic period
  • 8. 1. ARCHAIC PERIOD (800-500 BC)  After the fall of Mycenae, Greece entered a Dark Age (1200-800 BC): This period was characterized by economic decline and migration to Ionia, on the coast of Anatolia.  Ionia was extremely important because it was where the first Greek polis (or city-state). It became the model for political organisation in Greece.  A polis was made up of two main areas:  A dependent territory located outside the city walls, which was used for farming.  An urban area, which was usually protected by defensive walls. The acropolis was an elevated port of the urban area where the most important buildings were located (TEMPLES). One of the most well-known acropolis is the Acropolis of Athens, where the Parthenon is located
  • 10. THE STRUCTURE OF A POLIS
  • 11. TERRITORIAL EXPANSION: COLONISATION.  One of the most important phenomena of the Archaic period was colonisation: a process by which Greek settlements were established throughout the Mediterranean. As a result of colonisation: Trade was stimulated. Colonies were set up by colonisers from Greek city-states. The colonisers helped spread Greek culture: Hellenisation.
  • 12. 2. THE CLASSICAL PERIOD (500-336 BC)  Importance of poleis.  The most important: Athens (democracy) and Sparta (oligarchy).  In the Classical Age, Greece took part in several wars:  Persian Wars against the Persians.  Peloponnesian Wars (431-404 BC) (Sparta-Athens) where Sparta won and imposed and oligarchy on Athens.
  • 13.
  • 14. ATHENS: DEMOCRACY  Democracy. The basis of democracy was the participation of citizens in government.  Athenian democracy was based on three important institutions:  Assembly (Ecclesia): citizen more than 20 years. They voted the laws, they decided the war and the peace and they chose to the governors.  The laws that were voted in the Assembly were prepared by a Council, called Boule (Bulé).  Magistrates: Were in charge of implementing the decisions of the assembly.  Courts of justice: chosen by lot.  Only a minority of Athenians were citizens (free men who were all born in Athens). Women, foreigners and slaves were excluded from citizenship. Because of this, Athenian democracy is considered a limited democracy.
  • 15. SPARTA: OLIGARCHY- DIARCHY  The system of government in Sparta was based on:  Diarchy (diarquía), because it was led by two kings. Spartan kings came from the aristocracy,  The Council of Elders, or Gerousia. Formed by elders of the most powerful families. They made laws.  5 magistrates: Are responsible for enforcing the laws.  Assembly: formed by free men with more than 30 years. Very little power.
  • 16. CLASSICAL PERIOD: A TIME OF WARS  The Persian Empire, tried to gain control of Greece (5th century BC).  A coalition of Greek cities fought the Persian forces in a conflict known as the Greco-Persian Wars, which took place in 490 (1º Guerra Médica) and 480–479 BC (2º GUERRA MÉDICA).  At the battles of Marathon (1º Guerra Médica) and Salamis (2º Guerra Médica), the Greek armies defeated the powerful Persian forces.  Greece’s victory over the Persians liberated city-states which had been conquered, reinforced common Greek values in all city-states and strengthened the leadership of the city-states of Athens and Sparta. GRECO-PERSIAN WARS: GUERRAS MÉDICAS https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=v_hQAClmGpA
  • 17.  After serving as leaders in the Greco-Persian Wars, Athens and Sparta became rivals, forming leagues of cities around them (alliances created for political and military purposes).  Between 431 and 404 BC, Athens and Sparta, fought in the Peloponnesian War. Sparta won.  This war weakened all Greek cities and led to social and economic decline. Despite its victory, not long afterwards, Sparta was forced to give way to the leadership of Thebes, and later, to kingdoms such as Macedonia. THE PELOPONNESIAN WAR https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IESaDM3NW68
  • 18. 3. HELLENISTIC PERIOD In the 4th century, King Phillip II of Macedonia conquered Greece. When Philip II died in 336 BC, his son Alexander the Great became king and consolidated Macedonian control over Greece.
  • 19. THE EMPIRE OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT  He was a cultured man, educated by the most important intellectual of the period: philosopher Aristotle.  He was very skilled in politics and war. Over a period of 13 years, he made many conquests, forming an empire that united East and West.
  • 20. THE HELLENISTIC KINGDOMS  The premature death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC at the age of 33, before he had named a successor, caused his empire to break up into a number of kingdoms known as the Hellenistic kingdoms: Macedonia, Egypt or the Seleucid Empire.
  • 21.  The territory of Ancient Greek are going to be conquered by the Roman Empire until, in 30 BC they occupied Egypt:  Is the end of Greek Civilisation!!!!!
  • 22. LIFE IN ANCIENT GREEK CITY-STATES
  • 23. THE ECONOMY  Agriculture was important, although there wasn´t a lot of cultivated land.  Vines and olives were the main crops.  People also kept livestock and many Greeks made crafts, such as pottery.  Farmers and artisans usually sold their products directly in the market.  There was a lot of sea trade with the colonies.  They used silver coins for payment called drachma.
  • 24. SOCIETY Society can be divided between:  Slaves: were no considered to be human beings. They were not free and belonged to other people (the property of the state or of the wealthy). They were the main workforce in agriculture, crafts and domestic service.  Free people:  Citizens were aristocrats, merchants and farmers. They could vote, be elected to hold public office and take part in political life. They had to pay taxes and do military service.  Non- citizens were foreigners and had no political rights. They paid special taxes. Most of them were artisans or trades. Also women were considered non-citizens.
  • 25.
  • 26. DAILY LIFE IN ATHENS
  • 27. GREEK RELIGION  The Greeks were polytheistic: believed in many gods.  Look at page 27 of your book.  According to Greek mythology, the gods lived on Mount Olympus and they were immortal and had supernatural powers.  The Greeks also believed in heroes.  The Greeks made offerings and animal sacrifices to the gods. They also believed in oracles, which was the place where visitors asked the god to help them to make decisions.
  • 28. GREEK CULTURE  Philosophy (Socrates, Plato and Aristotle): looked for explanations for the origin and the nature of the Universe.  “El sabio no dice todo lo que piensa, pero siempre piensa todo lo que dice” (Aristotle, 384-322 BC).  “El objetivo de la educación es la virtud y la meta de convertirse en un buen ciudadano” (Plato, 427-347 BC).  “Los jóvenes hoy en día son unos tiranos. Contradicen a sus padres, devoran su comida, y le faltan al respeto a sus maestros (Socrates, 470-399 BC); Yo sólo sé que no sé nada”.  Literature (literary genres: epic poetry, lyric poetry and theatre).  Epic Poetry : the most important writer was Homer. His greatest works: The Iliad and The Odyssey.  Theatre: Plays were act out in theatres. The genres:  Tragedies (Euripides or Sophocles)  Comedies (Aristophanes)  History (Herodotus)  Sciences (Pythagoras).
  • 29. Aesop's fables (Fábulas de Esopo) ACTIVITY  Go to the blog to access to an interesting activity about the Fable of “The Lion and The Mouse”.  Also, you can watch this video, where you can see and listen to the fable:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TzyvmC1FAt0  After doing this activity, write in your notebook the moral of the Fable (with your own words and giving your personal point of view).  Cheer up! You can do a really good activity
  • 30. ARCHITECTURE AND ART  The main characteristics of Greek art are the proportion and visual balance.  The fundamental aim of Ancient architecture was that the citizens would enjoy looking at it.  In Greek architecture, columns provided support for a building. The Greeks made columns in white stone.  There are three styles of Greek architecture depending on the type of column used:  Doric  Ionic  Corinthian.
  • 31. DORIC ORDER  This was the oldest order.  The column had no base, the shaft was thick and fluted, and the capital was made up of three rectilinear pieces: the abacus, echinus and necking.  In the entablature, the most important element was the frieze, divided into triglyphs (three vertical bands) and flat sections called metopes, where bas-reliefs were usually carved.
  • 32.
  • 33. IONIC ORDER  The column had a base and was slender, with a narrow shaft and grooves.  The capital was made up of spirals known as volutes.  The entablature was divided into two sections: architrave and frieze. The frieze was not divided up.
  • 34. CORINTHIAN ORDER  This order was the most common during the Hellenistic period and extremely influential after that.  It had similar characteristics to the Ionic order, but the capital was different:  it was made up of a basket from which acanthus leaves emerged.
  • 35. IMPORTANT BUILDINGS  TEMPLES, such as the Parthenon in Athens, which honored Athena, the patron of Athens.  THEATRES: were built on hillsides to create rows or seats (seating area, orchestra, proscenium). The theatre at Epidaurus Parthenon in Athens
  • 36. POTTERY  Pottery from the time have survived.  These are often decorated with geometrical patterns, imaginary animals, and plants figures representing scenes from mythology or daily life.
  • 37. GREEK SCULPTURE  Greek sculpture focuses on the human form and shows an ideal of beauty, proportion and balance.  There were three stages: archaic, classical and Hellenistic age. KORE: Myron´s Discubolus: Laocoon: Hellenistic