What is research proposal? (1 of 3)
• Research proposal is a detailed “BluePrint "of research process
from the beginning to the end.
• The research proposal serves as a direction for the researcher
in doing his research work.
What is research proposal? (2 of 3)
• The researcher must present the proposal to the academic
supervisor or the supervisory committee in order to convince
them regarding the significance of the research itself to the
body of Knowledge, practitioners, policy makers and other
What is research proposal? (3 of 3)
• Doing research without the research proposal is like sailing the
ship without a captain!
• Sooner or later the ship would lose its direction and the journey
would not reach its final destination.
Outline for research proposal (1of 3)
• Chapter 1- Introduction
• 1.1. background of the study
• 1.2. problem statement
• 1.3. research objectives
• 1.4. research questions
• 1.5. research hypotheses
• 1.6. significance of the study
Outline for research proposal (2 of 3)
• Chapter 2. Literature Review
• 2.1. Discuss the results of the previous studies in the same area
• 2.2. Discus the variables involve in the previous studies
• 2.3. Discuss the hypothesised relationships among the
• 2.4. provide the theoretical model or framework for the study
• 2.5. define the terms for every variable involved in the model
Outline for research proposal (3 of 3)
• Chapter 3 – Methodology
• 3.1. Define properly the target population for the study
• 3.2. Discuss the sampling technique to select a sample
• 3.3. discuss the method of data collection to obtain the data
• 3.4. explain the measuring instruments for the variables
• 3.5. explain the statistical methods to analyse the data
• 3.6. define the scope and limitations of the study
• 3.7. draft the research schedule
Chapter 1 :Introduction
• The introduction sets the stage for you to elaborate your
• The objective of the introduction is to;
• Make the audience understand the urgent need for a solution to
• Highlight what has gone wrong and potential threat it will bring
to the survival of an organisation, and hence a research is
The significance of the study
• This reflects the “Value” of the proposed study.
• You should highlight how your proposed study relates to larger
critical issues in the future so that it is justified to approve your
• You should take into consideration the following question when
presenting the significance of the study.
• Why the proposed study is important?
Example of significance of study
• The study would provide a clear sense of direction for the public
Universities, especially KNUST, to plan the programmes
towards achieving the loyalty of their outgoing undergraduates.
In the stiff competition among Universities for the potential
candidates into post-graduate programmes, the customer
loyalty of the outgoing undergraduate is extremely important.
Thus, the undergraduates loyalty towards their University is the
focus in this study since it may bring tremendous benefits to the
University in the future.
• The effect of University programmes on undergraduates loyalty
towards their University.
• The influence of academic programmes on undergraduate loyalty
The scope and limitations of the study
• All research studies have limitations and a finite scope. Since the
results of your study are not valid for the whole world, not
applicable across all industries, not apply to all population and
might not be true under all circumstances you should think
carefully about the scope and limitations of your study.
• It is irritating when someone tells you that your research is not
valid under certain conditions, which is within your limitation.
• Scope = the subject matter and the geographical area.
Summary structure of research proposal
• Chapter I - Introduction
• Chapter II- Literature Review
• Chapter III – Research Methodology
The Research Report
• The key purpose of any research report is to offer a clear
description of what has been done in the various stages of the
• Importantly to identify the specific purpose of the report, so that
it can be tailored accordingly.
• Simple descriptive report
• Comprehensive report, offering alternative solutions
Presentation of Results
• Results of the study and recommendations to solve the problem
have to be effectively communicated to the sponsor, so that
suggestions made are accepted and implemented.
• Contents and organization of written report and oral
presentation depend on the purpose of the research study, and
the audience to which it is targeted.
Characteristics of a Well-Written Report
• The right emphasis on important aspects
• Meaningful organization of paragraphs
• Smooth transition from one topic to the next
• Apt choice of words
Structure of research report
• Chapter I - Introduction
• Chapter II - Literature
• Chapter III- Research Methodology
• Chapter IV – Findings and Discussion
• Chapter V – Conclusion and Recommendation
• Aguinis, H. (1995). Statistical power problems with moderated multiple regression
in management research, Journal of Management, 21, 1141-1158.
• Owusu, J., Ismail, M., Osman, M. H., & Kuan, G. (2019). Financial literacy as a
moderator linking financial resource availability and SME growth in Ghana.
Investment Management and Financial Innovations, 16(1), 154–166
• Owusu, J., Wilberforce, O. A., Djan, K. O., & Anin, K. E. (2021). Impact of
financial resource building effort on financial resource availability among small
and medium enterprises, Cogent Business & Management, 8.
• Ampofo, E. T., Wilberforce, O. A., & Owusu, J. (2021): Organizational
embeddedness and life satisfaction among star-rated hotel employees in Accra:
The role of perceptions of organizational politics and job satisfaction, Anatolia, An
International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research.
• Aguinis, H. (2004). Regression analysis for categorical moderators. New York,
NY: Guilford. (Book)