“The Gad-fly at the Marketplace” is one of the
few individuals whom one could say have
shaped the cultural and intellectual development
of the world for without him, history would be
The Socratic Method is a way of thinking that
allows individuals to define their own purpose
of learning and exploring its purpose through
open-minded questioning of what they hold to
be true. Socrates insisted on a right to think of
ourselves by introducing the philosophical
concept, “Dare to Disagree”.
469 - 399 B.C.
I. Admit ignorance.
II. Never rely on tradition.
III. Continuously question.
IV. Formulate your own opinions.
V. Test your opinions with
427 - 347 B.C.
perpetuated the work of
Most important source of
info on Socrates
Founded the Academy
Universal Forms was a
The Republic – most important
“Those things which are
beautiful are also
The Philosopher-King” is one of the world’s
best known and most widely read and studied
philosophers. He was the student of Socrates
and the teacher of Aristotle. He wrote in the
middle of the 4th Century BCE in ancient
Greece. This is Plato’s philosophical idea:
“Good people do not need laws to tell them to
act responsibly, while bad people will find a way
around the laws.”
Plato maintains a virtue-based
eudemonistic conception of ethics.
That is to say, happiness or well-
being (eudaimonia) is the highest
aim of moral thought and conduct,
and the virtues (aretê: excellence)
are the requisite skills and
dispositions needed to attain it.
384 - 322 B.C.
Most famous student of
Most famous teacher of
Alexander the Great
Developed Logic as a field
Devised a complex system
Used in biology
Views on Government
384 - 322 B.C.
Views on Government
3 Good Governments:
3 Bad Governments:
All or Nothing” (384-322 BCE) is a towering
figure in ancient Greek philosophy, contributing
to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics,
biology, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine,
dance, and theater.
“Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of
life, the whole aim, and end of human
“Let people seek fulfillment.”
The word happiness in ethics is a translation of
the Greek term “eudaimonia” which connotes
success and fulfillment. For Aristotle, this
happiness is our highest goal. In relation to
Aristotle concludes that the role of the leader is
to create an environment in which all members
of an organization can realize their potential.
Immanuel Kant (1724–1804).
He is one of the most influential philosophers in
the history of Western Philosophy. He was not
concerned with the consequences of one’s
actions or the harm caused to one’s
individual interests. Instead, he is focused on
motives and the willingness of individuals to act for
the good of others, even if the action might result
to personal loss.
Doing something for the right reason was
more important to Kant than any particular
Jeremy Bentham and
John Stuart Mill
- “Utilitarianism” revolves
concept of “the end justifies
the means”. It believes that
outcomes, as a result of an
action have a greater value
compared to the latter.
Utilitarianism is a philosophy or belief
suggesting that an action is morally right when
the majority of people benefit from it. Also, the
doctrine that an action isright as it promotes
happiness, and that the greatest happiness of the
greatestnumber should be the guiding principle
Utilitarianism is a moral theory that advocates
actions that promote overall happiness or
pleasure and reject actions that cause
unhappiness or harm.