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8. classical philopsophies.ppt

  1. Philosophies Influencing Our Business Practices
  2. OBJECTIVES 1. identify the classical philosophers and their philosophies; 2. make a graphic organizer about classical philosophies; and 3. explain how each philosophy reflects into business practices.
  3. Philosophers Philosophers – “lovers of wisdom” Sophists – “workers of wisdom” – Teachers philo = love sophia = wisdom
  4. Socrates 469 - 399 B.C. “The unexamined life is not worth living.” - Socrates -
  5.  “The Gad-fly at the Marketplace” is one of the few individuals whom one could say have shaped the cultural and intellectual development of the world for without him, history would be profoundly different
  6.  The Socratic Method is a way of thinking that allows individuals to define their own purpose of learning and exploring its purpose through open-minded questioning of what they hold to be true. Socrates insisted on a right to think of ourselves by introducing the philosophical concept, “Dare to Disagree”.
  7. Socrates 469 - 399 B.C. Socratic Method: I. Admit ignorance. II. Never rely on tradition. III. Continuously question. IV. Formulate your own opinions. V. Test your opinions with others.
  8. Socrates 469 - 399 B.C. “The unexamined life is not worth
  9. Plato 427 - 347 B.C.  Preserved and perpetuated the work of Socrates  Most important source of info on Socrates  Founded the Academy  Wrote dialogues  Universal Forms was a recurring theme  The Republic – most important dialogue “Those things which are beautiful are also
  10.  The Philosopher-King” is one of the world’s best known and most widely read and studied philosophers. He was the student of Socrates and the teacher of Aristotle. He wrote in the middle of the 4th Century BCE in ancient Greece. This is Plato’s philosophical idea:  “Good people do not need laws to tell them to act responsibly, while bad people will find a way around the laws.”
  11. Plato maintains a virtue-based eudemonistic conception of ethics. That is to say, happiness or well- being (eudaimonia) is the highest aim of moral thought and conduct, and the virtues (aretê: excellence) are the requisite skills and dispositions needed to attain it.
  12. Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.  Most famous student of Plato  Most famous teacher of Alexander the Great  Developed Logic as a field of study  Devised a complex system of classification  Used in biology  Views on Government
  13. Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.  Views on Government  3 Good Governments:  Monarchy  Aristocracy  Democracy  3 Bad Governments:  Tyranny  Oligarchy  Mob Rule
  14. Aristotle 384 - 322 B.C.  “All things in moderation”  “Man is by nature a political animal.”
  15.  All or Nothing” (384-322 BCE) is a towering figure in ancient Greek philosophy, contributing to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance, and theater.
  16.  “Happiness is the meaning and the purpose of life, the whole aim, and end of human existence.”  “Let people seek fulfillment.”  The word happiness in ethics is a translation of the Greek term “eudaimonia” which connotes success and fulfillment. For Aristotle, this happiness is our highest goal. In relation to business,  Aristotle concludes that the role of the leader is to create an environment in which all members of an organization can realize their potential.
  17. Immanuel Kant (1724–1804).  He is one of the most influential philosophers in the history of Western Philosophy. He was not concerned with the consequences of one’s actions or the harm caused to one’s individual interests. Instead, he is focused on motives and the willingness of individuals to act for the good of others, even if the action might result to personal loss. Doing something for the right reason was more important to Kant than any particular outcome.
  18. Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill  - “Utilitarianism” revolves around the concept of “the end justifies the means”. It believes that outcomes, as a result of an action have a greater value compared to the latter.
  19.  Utilitarianism is a philosophy or belief suggesting that an action is morally right when the majority of people benefit from it. Also, the doctrine that an action isright as it promotes happiness, and that the greatest happiness of the greatestnumber should be the guiding principle of conduct.  Utilitarianism is a moral theory that advocates actions that promote overall happiness or pleasure and reject actions that cause unhappiness or harm.