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Grounded Cognition: Motor Resonance

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lecture from Grounded Cognition course at Faculty of Mathematics, Physics, and Informatics, Comenius University in Bratislava

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Grounded Cognition: Motor Resonance

  1. 1. Motor Resonance Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  2. 2. Motor Resonance partial activation of motor circuits without any (apparent) motor activity triggered by various modalities: visual, auditory, linguistic might provide us with a simulation mechanism - understanding, prediction, empathy Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  3. 3. Ideomotor Theory William James (1980) [originally developed by German scholars in early 19th century, see Stock and Stock, 2004] there are many behavioral routines we execute subconsciously, for instance when we eat raisins out of a cake, fully engaged in a conversation, without noticing... actions are results of ideas about actions, triggered by the perception of the action or its image in mind ideomotor reaction happens unhesitatingly and immediately the eect induced during sole observation of the movement might not necessarily lead to action (might be suppressed) Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  4. 4. Common Coding Theory Prinz (1997), Hommel et al. (2001) the perception of action automatically activates its motor component and vice versa an action and its perceptual aspects are (on a higher level) represented within common domain (common codes) a mean for sensorimotor simulation (Barsalou, 1999; Jeannerod, 2001; Wolpert et al., 2003) same neural mechanisms are involved in mental imagery of a motor act as in its execution Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  5. 5. Motor resonance and the EEG mu-rhythm mu-rhytm: EEG oscillation with dominant frequencies in the 813 and 1525 Hz bands (alpha like) typical for motor rest desynchronizes/supresses not only when subject produces, but also observes action rst indirect evidence of mirror neurons in humans Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  6. 6. Motor Resonance and EEG mu-rhythm motor resonance is a partial activation of motor areas during a sole observation of a movement Cohen-Seat et al. (1954), Gastaut and Bert (1954) mu rhythm an EEG oscillation in 8 to 13 Hz and 20 Hz bands typical for motor rest gets desynchronized, diminished, or vanishes when the subject observes motor acts the magnitude of the desynchronization points to the degree of understanding or reliving the observed movement Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  7. 7. Motor Resonance and Eectors caused also by non-human, but human-like eectors, like a robotic arm (Oberman and Ramachandran, 2007) Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  8. 8. Motor Resonance and Motor Repertoire motor resonance appears even in infants Van Elk et al. (2008) it is selective to the movements inside the motor repertoire responses of infants of 14-16 months of age were signicantly higher when observing crawling in comparison to walking Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  9. 9. Guess Who's Doing That people have better judgment about the outcome of an action when observing themselves Knoblich and Flach (2001): experiments with throwing darts (video paradigm) Knoblich et al. (2002): experiments with writing digits (nished and unnished digits) Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  10. 10. Eects of Prociency Repp and Knoblich (2007): pianists judge sequences of ambiguous tones (Tritone paradox) according to the direction of the produced movement (from left to right and vice versa) Aglioti et al. (2008): professional sportsmen judge better the outcome of the action even compared skilled observers (couches, journalists) However, this principle does not apply when viewing static images (Sebanz and Shirar ,2009) (mirror neurons are not triggered by static images as well) Cross et al. (2006): when professional dancers learned a new movement the activity triggered by the observation of this movement in IPL and frontal premotor cortex gradually increased Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  11. 11. Motor Resonance and Ideomotor Theory: Conclusions the more closely the observed action maps onto the observer's own motor repertoire, the more accurate will be the observer's prediction of the course and the result of the action motor preparation enhances the performance in perceptual tasks stimulus-response compatibility (facilitation of reaction on the basis of congruence with the stimulus) ideomotor action: involuntary movement that tends to arise when observing another's performance inuence of familiarity inuence of prociency and praxis inuence of training various motor laws imply for perception and imagery of action Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  12. 12. Forward and Inverse Models Wolpert and Kawato (1998), Wolpert et al. (2003) forward: to generate predictions about the next state of the world inverse: reversely activating actions that could possibly lead to the observed situation work together a possible solution to the problem of agency: who does the action? Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance
  13. 13. The End Thank you for your attention kristina.rebrova@gmail.com Kristína Rebrová [Grounded Cognition 2011] Motor Resonance