• Over the years, many different definitions have been proposed for
personality. An individual's personality is the mental characteristics
that makes them unique from other people. It includes all of the
patterns of thought and emotions that cause us to do and say things
in particular ways. Personality concerns the most important, most
noticeable parts of an individual's psychological life. Personality can
be defined as a dynamic and organized set of characteristics
possessed by a person that uniquely influences his or her cognitions,
motivations, and behaviors in various situations.
• Personality is psychological, but research suggests that it is also
influenced by biological processes and needs.
3. Types Of Personalities
• Tradition Oriented: The tradition-oriented personality is one that places a
strong emphasis on doing things the same way that they have always been
done. Individuals with this sort of personality are less likely to try new
things and to seek new experiences.
• Inner-Directed: Those who have inner-directed personalities are guilt
oriented. Their behavior is strongly controlled by their conscience. As a
result, there is little need for police to make sure that they obey the law.
These individuals monitor themselves. If they break the law, they are likely
to turn themselves in for punishment.
• Directed Personalities: people with directed personalities have ambiguous
feelings about right and wrong. When they deviate from a societal norm,
they usually don't feel guilty. However, if they are caught in the act or
exposed publicly, they are likely to feel shame.
4. Big Five personality traits
• Big Five personality traits are five broad domains or dimensions of
personality that are used to describe human personality, the five-
factor model (FFM). The five factors are
• Acronym commonly used to refer to the five traits collectively is
5. Openness to experience
• Openness is a general appreciation for art, emotion, adventure,
unusual ideas, imagination, curiosity, and variety of experience.
People who are open to experience are intellectually curious, open to
emotion, sensitive to beauty and willing to try new things. They tend
to be, when compared to closed people, more creative and more
aware of their feelings. They are also more likely to hold
• Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully,
and aim for achievement against measures or outside expectations. It
is related to the way in which people control, regulate, and direct
their impulses. High scores on conscientiousness indicate a
preference for planned rather than spontaneous behavior. The
average level of conscientiousness rises among young adults and then
declines among older adults.
• Extraversion is characterized by breadth of activities surgency from external
activity/situations, and energy creation from external means. The trait is marked
by pronounced engagement with the external world. Extraverts enjoy interacting
with people, and are often perceived as full of energy. They tend to be
enthusiastic, action-oriented individuals. They possess high group visibility, like to
talk, and assert themselves.
• Introverts have lower social engagement and energy levels than extraverts. They
tend to seem quiet, low-key, deliberate, and less involved in the social world.
Their lack of social involvement should not be interpreted as shyness or
depression; instead they are more independent of their social world than
extraverts. Introverts need less stimulation than extraverts and more time alone.
This does not mean that they are unfriendly or antisocial; rather, they are
reserved in social situations.
• The agreeableness trait reflects individual differences in general
concern for social harmony. Agreeable individuals value getting along
with others. They are generally considerate, kind, generous, trusting
and trustworthy, helpful, and willing to compromise their interests
with others. Agreeable people also have an optimistic view of human
• Neuroticism is the tendency to experience negative emotions, such as
anger, anxiety, or depression. It is sometimes called emotional
instability, or is reversed and referred to as emotional stability.
According to Eysenck's (1967) theory of personality, neuroticism is
interlinked with low tolerance for stress or aversive stimuli. Those
who score high in neuroticism are emotionally reactive and
vulnerable to stress.
10. • These include the place we live and the people around us.
• Our experiences in our day to day life
• The people whom we associated with such as our family, friends,
people in the school, in the church and the community as a whole, all
influences our personality.
Some potential environmental influences
that help to shape personality
11. How heredity can play a role in shaping
personalities along with environment?
• Interactions with the particular social environment in which people live.
For instance, your genetically inherited physical and mental capabilities
have an impact on how others see you, and how you see yourself. If you
have poor motor skills that prevent you from throwing a ball straight and if
you regularly get bad grades in school, you will very likely be labeled by
your teachers, friends, and relatives as someone who is inadequate or a
failure to some degree.
• Health and physical appearance are likely to be very important in your
personality development. You may be frail or robust. You may have a
learning disability. You may be slender in a culture that considers obesity
attractive or vice versa.
• There are many ways to see how a persons individual personality can
be shaped. Whether you believe a person is limited to their genetic
make up or you believe that the environment can continue to mold a
personality after conception. There is a strong case that the
environment does influence personality. what we learn, see, live and
experience that shape are personality.