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Meta-ethics is the branch of
ethics that seeks to understand
the nature of ethical
properties, statements, attitude
s, and judgments.
According to Richard Garner and
1. What is the meaning of moral terms or judgments?
2. What is the nature of moral judgments?
3. How may moral judgments be supported or defended?
Normative ethics investigates the set of questions that arise when
considering how one ought to act, morally speaking.
Normative ethics can be divided into the sub-disciplines of moral
theory and applied ethics.
1. Virtue ethics
Three competing views:
Applied ethics is the philosophical examination, from a moral
standpoint, of particular issues in private and public life that are
matters of moral judgment.
• Bio ethics
• Business ethics
• Professional ethics
• Machine ethics
• Relational ethics
• Military ethics
• Public service ethics
The Centre for Professional ethics was established at Case
Western Reserve University, Canada.
• A profession is a vocation
founded upon specialized high
educational training, the purpose
of which is to supply objective
counsel and service to others, for
a direct and definite
• Professional ethics encompass
the personal and corporate
standards of behaviour expected
Obedience to the Law
Honesty refers to a facet of moral character and
denotes positive, virtuous attributes such as
integrity, truthfulness, and straightforwardness along
with the absence of lying, cheating, or theft.
“Honesty is the best policy. If I lose mine honor, I
O Integrity is a concept of consistency of
actions, values, methods, measures, principles, exp
ectations, and outcomes.
O Integrity can be regarded as the opposite of
hypocrisy, that it regards internal consistency as a
O The word "integrity" derived from the Latin
adjective integer that means “wholeness”.
“Integrity without knowledge is weak and
useless, and knowledge without integrity is
dangerous and dreadful.” -
O Transparency is a general quality.
O It is implemented by a set of policies, practices and
O It allow citizens to have
accessibility, usability, utility, understandability, in
formativeness and auditability of information and
process held by centers of authority (society or
“A lack of transparency results in distrust and a deep
sense of insecurity.”
O Accountability is often used synonymously with
such concepts as
answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and other
terms associated with the expectation of account-
O It is the acknowledgment and assumption of
responsibility for actions, products, decisions, and
policies and be answerable for resulting
O It cannot exist without proper accounting practices.
O Political accountability
O Ethical accountability
O Accountability in administration & education.
O Individual accountability
O Constituency relations
O Public/private overlap
“When a man points a finger at someone else, he
should remember that four of his fingers are pointing
at himself.” — Louis Nizer
O Confidentiality is an ethical principle of
discretion associated with the professions, such as
medicine, law, psychotherapy.
O In law, and mediation, there exist communications
between the client and the professional, which are
O In business, the confidentiality of information, a
mainstream adaptation of the “need to know”
O In military, it is basic to the security of corporate
1. Whose interests
2. Which interests
Confidential information of:
“In intelligence work, there are limits to the amount
of information one can share. Confidentiality is
essential.” -Gijs de Vries
O Objectivity is a principle of journalistic
O In journalism, objectivity may synonymous with
O Objectivity in journalism enables highly
accelerated news reporting and delivery, which
sometimes is at tension with standards of
“The belief in objectivity is a faith in 'facts,' a distrust
in 'values,' and a commitment to their segregation.“
O Respect gives a positive feeling of esteem for a person
and conduct representative of that esteem.
O Respect can be a specific feeling of regard for the actual
qualities of the one respected.
O Rude conduct is usually considered to indicate a lack of
respect, disrespect, whereas actions that honor
somebody or something indicate respect.
O The opposite of respect is contempt.
“I speak to everyone in the same way, whether he is the garbage
man or the president of the university.”
O Respect is shown in many languages such as:
- An honorific is a word or expression.
- An anti-honorific forms.
- A Style is a legal, official, or recognized.
O When a person's foot accidentally touches a book
or any written material (manifestation of the
goddess of knowledge Saraswati)
O This also counts for money, which is considered as
a manifestation of the goddess of wealth Lakshmi.
OBEDIENCE TO LAW
O Law is the set of enforced rules under which a
society is governed.
O Law is one of the most basic social institutions-and
one of the most necessary.
O The law thus establishes the rules that define a
person's rights and obligations. The law also sets
penalties for people who violate these rules.
O In fact, laws frequently are changed to reflect
changes in a society's needs and attitudes.
O Law is a system of rules and guidelines which are
enforced through social institutions to govern
OBEDIENCE TO LAW
O The formation of laws themselves may be
influenced by a constitution (written or unwritten)
O The law shapes politics, economics and society in
countless ways and serves as a social mediator of
relations between people.
“An unjust law is itself a species of violence. Arrest
for its breach is more so.”
OBEDIENCE TO LAW
O International law
O Constitutional and
O Criminal law
O Contract law
O Tort law
O Property law
O Equity and trusts
O Civil law
O Common law and
O Religious law
O A whistleblower is a person who tells the public
or someone in authority about alleged dishonest or
illegal activities occurring in a government
department or private company or organization.
O A whistleblower is a person who raises concern
about frauds, corruptions, wrongdoings and
O A government employee who exposes corruption
practices within his department is a whistleblower. So is
an employee of a private organization, who raises his
voice against misconduct, within the company.
The misconduct can be classified in several ways, such as:
O Violation of Indian laws.
O Posing direct threat to public interest(Fraud, corruption)
O Violation of health or safety norms.
O Deceptive practices.
DIMENSIONS OF ETHICS
( 3 “R’s” of Ethics)
CODES OF ETHICS
O The primary aspect
of codes of ethics is
to provide the basic
ethical judgment for
CODES OF ETHICS
O The codes of ethics are guidelines for specific
group of professionals to help them perform their
roles, to know how to conduct themselves, and to
know how to resolve various ethical issues.
O The codes of ethics help the professionals to apply
moral and ethical principles to the specific
situations encountered in professional practice.
O These codes convey the rights, duties, and
obligations of the members of the profession.
POSITIVE ROLES OF CODES
O Support for responsible conduct
O Deterring and disciplining unethical professional conduct
O Education and promoting of mutual understanding
O Contributing to a positive public image of the profession
O Protecting the status quo and suppressing dissent within the
O Promoting business interests through restraint of trade
O Ethical codes provide a
positive inspiration for the
professionals to exercise
O These codes inspire the
professionals to apply
moral principles under the
O The ethical codes provide
guidelines for achieving the
obligations of professionals.
O These codes also provide
specific guidelines, which tell
how to apply the code to the
O The ethical codes offer
positive and potential
support to professionals
to perform their duties in
O At times, the codes can
serve as legal support for
those professionals who
are tangled in
O The ethical codes can be used
for deterring and disciplining
O These codes are also
considered as the formal
basis for investigating
EDUCATION AND MUTUAL
O The ethical codes can be used in educational institutions
and other places for emphasizing the importance of moral
issues and values.
O They are also useful to encourage a shared understanding
among professionals, the public and government
organizations concerning the moral responsibilities of
CONTRIBUTING TO THE
O The ethical codes can confer
a positive image to the public
of an ethically committed
O The codes enable the
professionals to serve the
public more effectively
PROTECTING THE STATUS
O The codes institute ethical
conventions. These ethical
conventions can promote a
minimum, acceptable level of
O The codes can also suppress
the dispute within the
O The codes of ethics promote
business interests through
restraint of trade.
O They help in facilitating
morally feasible business
dealings to the professionals.
LIMITATIONS OF CODES
O Codes of ethics are broad guidelines, restricted to
general phrases. The codes cannot be applied directly to
O Engineering codes often have internal conflicts, since
several entries in codes overlap with each other, which
may result in moral dilemmas.
O The codes cannot serve as the final moral authority for
O Computer ethics is the study of ethical issues that are
associated primarily with computing machines and
O Don’t use a computer to harm other people.
O Don’t interfere with other people’s computer work.
O Don’t snoop around in other people’s computer files.
O Don’t use a computer to steel.
O Don’t copy or use propriety software for which you have
O Don’t use other people’s computer resources without
authorization or proper compensation.
O Don’t appropriate other people’s intellectual output.
O Think about the social consequences of the program you
are waiting or the system you are designing.
O Use a computer in ways that insure considerations and
respect for your fellow humans.
O Medical Code of Ethics is the document establishing the
ethical rules of behaviour of physicians and dental
practitioners, defining the priorities of their professional
work, showing the principles in the relations with
patients, other physicians and the rest of community.
O The greatest ethical imperative for the physician is the
welfare of the patient.
O The physician should approach patients with
consideration, respecting their personal dignity, right to
intimacy and privacy.
O The physician should perform all diagnostic, therapeutic
and preventive procedures with due exactitude and
devoting the necessary time.
O The physician has the duty to maintain confidentiality.
O It is the duty of every physician to continually update and
develop professional knowledge and skills as well as to
share them with co-workers.
O Legal ethics encompasses
an ethical code governing the
conduct of persons engaged
in the practice of law and
persons more generally in the
CODES OF ETHICS FOR
O Competency (having required knowledge to handle
O Maintaining good communication with clients
O Advise and counsel her clients
O Protecting Client Property
O Honesty (with clients, judges and other parties)
CODES OF ETHICS FOR
O Completely provide the information to our lawyer
O Maintaining good communication with lawyer
O Do not harm the opposing party
O Do not deal directly with the opposing party
O Honesty (with lawyer, judges and other parties)
CODES OF ETHICS FOR
O Analyze all the data that are provided
O Should not be partial
O Should give the correct judgment
O Should complete the case on time
CODES OF ETHICS FOR
O Teachers are duly licensed
professionals who posses
dignity and reputation with
high moral values as well as
technical and professional
O Posses and actualize full commitment and devotion to duty.
O Shall not engage in the promotion of any
political, religious, or other partisan interest.
1. The Teacher and the State
2. The Teacher and the Community
O Provide leadership and initiative to actively participate in
O Study and understand local customs and traditions.
O Has the right and duty to determine the academic marks
and promotion of learners in the subjects they handle.
O Shall not accept, directly or indirectly, any remuneration
O Base evaluation of the learner’s work on merit and quality
of academic performance.
O Exercise utmost discretion to avoid scandal, gossip and
preferential treatment of the learner.
O Shall not inflict corporal punishment on offending
learners nor make deductions from their scholastic
3. The Teacher and Learners
O Establish and maintain cordial relations with parents.
O Inform parents, through proper authorities of the progress
or deficiencies of learners under him.
O Hear parents’ complaint with sympathy and
4. The Teacher and Parents
5. The Teacher as a Person
O Live with dignity in all places at all times.
O Place premium upon self-respect and self-discipline.
O Maintain at all times a dignified personality.
O Recognize the Almighty God or Being as guide of his
own destiny and of the destinies of men and nations.
O Environmental ethics is the study to explore the ethical
roots of the environmental movement and to understand
what ethics tells us about our responsibility to the
O Marketing ethics is the area of applied
ethics which deals with the moral principles
behind the operation and regulation of marketing.
Some areas of marketing ethics (ethics
of advertising and promotion) overlap with media
O Journalism ethics and standards comprise
principles of ethics and of good practice as
applicable to the specific challenges faced