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Encode x Tezos: Building a dApp on Tezos

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How to build tezos dapp
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Encode x Tezos: Building a dApp on Tezos

  1. 1. dApp development on Tezos putting it all together
  2. 2. Overview At the presentations leading up to today, we have gone through the components of building a distributed application. In this session, we are going to recap the key takeaways, and review: - The architecture of a distributed application - User experience design for distributed applications Also, we’ll say a few words about the upcoming Encode / Tezos hackathon.
  3. 3. dApp architecture
  4. 4. What is a dApp Distributed Applications, or ‘dApps’ are applications that rely on decentralized database(s) (usually including a blockchain). Classification of dApps by decentralization: - Fully decentralized (only a browser and a blockchain is needed) - Fully decentralizable (single source of truth, all data accessible) - Semi-centralized (some proprietary components / data) - Centralized with decentralized components (not really a ‘dApp’, but a valid application of decentralized technology)
  5. 5. dApp architecture Centralized DB Blockchain node Indexer Indexer DB Application backend Application frontend Decentralized storage (IPFS)
  6. 6. Smart contract layer Code that runs on the blockchain and implements business logic restrictions “Soda vending machine” metaphor - Nick Szabo What goes here? - Only trust-critical components - payments, ownership - Execution time and storage are limited - and expensive - Tezos: the smart contract layer is intentionally constrained - most Tezos dApps are of the ‘decentralizable’ sort
  7. 7. Decentralized off-chain storage Storing data on the blockchain is expensive! Solution: Off-chain decentralized storage (IPFS) - Decentralized technology (high redundancy, censorship resistant) - Free & can store a lot of data - Demand-driven (data that is requested is replicated) - Volatile (data may be ejected from it) - Content addressable - content is accessible by content hash - Pinning: instructing a node to never eject certain data - Accessible as a paid service
  8. 8. Centralized components - De-facto centralized components - These could be deployed by the user - Open source - No proprietary or restricted data is needed for functionality - Blockchain node(!) - IPFS node and pinning service - Indexer - eg. https://github.com/tzConnectBerlin/que-pasa - Open source backend - Web server - ‘Fully’ centralized systems - eg. Proprietary MMO game with NFT / blockchain component
  9. 9. Centralized blockchain identity Many dApps are impersonal - they are public goods to be used by anyone. Some blockchain-based systems (not really ‘dApps’) involve a legal entity, with its own blockchain identity (wallet) ‘‘I’d like to mint NFTs for everyone who finds this geocache’ - ‘Someone’ needs to mint the NFTs - You need a centralized, automated system with a wallet There are ‘task engines’ that can automatically originate operations on the chain. eg. https://github.com/tzConnectBerlin/peppermint
  10. 10. dApp frontend Frontend roles - Presentation layer / UX optimization - Identity management: blockchain wallet - Non-trust-critical business logic Key technologies and tools in Tezos - Beacon for wallet connectivity - Taquito for blockchain operations
  11. 11. Designing with a security mindset - What operations need to be trusted? - What data is trust-critical? - What components can be exploited (eg. to cheat in a game)? - Who could benefit from exploiting a component? - How could they benefit? - Who is in a position to exploit a component? - How does their position set them up for this? - What components does a user have to trust? - In what way could they be harmed if these components were malicious? - How could they mitigate these risks? - What can you, as designer, do to mitigate these risks?
  12. 12. Design
  13. 13. Summary 1. Identify problems to solve 2. Identify user types 3. Brainstorm features to support user goals 4. Diagram user flows 5. Design UI 6. Write clear, concise, and useful copy 7. Validate ideas with user testing
  14. 14. Identify problems to solve Research question Determine a meaningful use case for NFTs in a video game tournament Interview questions Tell me about the last time you… …participated in a video game tournament …observed a video game tournament Look for: sources of value, signs of accomplishment
  15. 15. Identify user types Interview questions What is your experience with blockchain? NFTs? What is experience with this video game? This tournament? Look for: knowledge, behavior patterns, values + attitudes
  16. 16. User research results NFT use case Give an NFT to player who dealt the final blow to a tournament victim User types Blockchain experience: mostly minimal interaction, heard about NFTs through the hype Video game experience: mostly very invested in game and surrounding world Very interested in new technologies, under-the-hood details
  17. 17. Brainstorm features to support user goals Connect gaming account to dApp + create wallet Receive NFT for each final blow Send NFT to another address Top up tez balance Browse NFT gallery Learn how it works
  18. 18. Diagram user flows Considerations based on user type Level of handholding + guidance Abstraction from technical details Nest off-app interactions in explanations Meta education flow
  19. 19. Diagram user flows
  20. 20. Design UI Sketches > wireframes > high fidelity Use gestalt principles for clear information architecture Use UI patterns to minimize cognitive load Keep accessibility in mind
  21. 21. Design UI
  22. 22. Design UI
  23. 23. Write clear, concise, and useful copy Pare it down to the essentials Minimize complex language Use consistent wording and language patterns Use tone as a tool to signal weight of action
  24. 24. Write clear, concise, and useful copy
  25. 25. Validate ideas with user testing Sample tasks You open the landing page — describe what you see Collect an NFT you earned from the tournament Sell an NFT you earned from the tournament Learn about the technical details on how this works
  26. 26. Hackathon
  27. 27. Hackathon “Creating positive social impact via Web3: imagine ways in which the Tezos stack can be used to help people around the world.” Start Date: 13th April 2022 Register by: 13th April 2022, late registrations open until 20th April Submission Date: Sunday, 15th May 2022
  28. 28. Tracks
  29. 29. Learn to Earn Earn tez while gaining hands-on development experience in the Tezos ecosystem. ● Set up an NFT contract with automated minting of tokens with Peppermint ● Write and deploy a simple smart contract using LIGO 🤑 $50 in tez for the first 50 submissions in both categories Total prize: $5000 in tez
  30. 30. Small but great Build a simple dApp on the Tezos technology stack with a clear goal. On this track, no project is too small to compete. Web3 has again opened up the world for individual developers to create meaningful change with nothing but a computer and a dream. We invite you to take part in this wave and build something cool. 🤑 Prizes 1st: $5000 in tez 2nd: $2500 in tez 3rd: $1000 in tez Honorable ideas: 3*$500 in tez Total prize: $10000 in tez
  31. 31. Disrupt all the things Lay the foundations of a major Tezos-based project, and show us what you are truly capable of. This track is intended for teams with a disruptive vision, to showcase an PoC / MVP of their dream Web3 product. 🤑 Prizes 1st: $20000 in tez 2nd: $10000 in tez 3rd: $5000 in tez Total: $25000 in tez

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