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Resilience and the Urban Nexus

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How can resilience planning processes be used for integrated resources management within a city? This presentation presents three recent examples from the Rockefeller Foundation's Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) and 100 Resilient Cities initiatives.

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Resilience and the Urban Nexus

  1. 1. City Resilience, Resource Efficiency and the Urban Nexus Kimberly Junmookda The Rockefeller Foundation June 18, 2015
  2. 2. RESILIENCE • We define urban resilience as the capacity of cities to function, so that people living and working in cities – particularly the poor and vulnerable – survive and thrive no matter what shocks and stresses they encounter. • Supporting the planning and development dialogue in second-tier and emerging cities, especially as they experience rapid growth and as more than half of the world’s population lives in cities, many of the most poor and vulnerable. • As a lens, we find resilience to be useful in considering a wide possibility of disruptive future events, and not only one hazard or type of event.
  3. 3. THE CITY RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK • The City Resilience Framework (CRF) was developed by Arup in 2013. • Based on extensive research and fieldwork in six cities that had experienced a recent shock or were suffering from a chronic stress. • A lens to understand the complexity of cities and the drivers that contribute to their resilience.
  4. 4. • The framework allows us to view how various complex and interconnected systems contribute to the city’s resilience. These are critical functions the city needs. • Water-food-energy constraints cut across several aspects of a city’s resilience, such as “fostering long term and integrated planning”, “ensuring the continuity of critical services” and “provides natural and manmade assets” and others. • Like an immune/health system, the city needs to have capacities across all areas. THE CITY RESILIENCE FRAMEWORK
  5. 5. URBAN RESILIENCE Asian Cities Climate Change Resilience Network (ACCCRN) 100 Resilient Cities • Pre-selection of cities • 6 countries; 40 second-tier cities • Competition • 100 global cities
  6. 6. The Resilience Planning Process
  7. 7. THE RESILIENCE PLANNING PROCESS • Starting a discussion through the City Resilience Framework • Engaging city stakeholders • Formulating working groups • Appointing Chief Resilience Officers • Conducting assessments • Prioritizing actions • Developing a city resilience strategy • Testing solutions that support the city’s broader resilience
  8. 8. Examples: Integrative Solutions
  9. 9. SOLUTION: PERI-URBAN AGRICULTURE IN GORAKHPUR, INDIA Gorakhpur, India • The city was expanding into existing agricultural land on the city’s periphery. The area was prone to recurrent floods and there is now water logging, now exacerbated by urban development. • Through resilience planning, the city developed a solution that integrated various needs, including restoring peri-urban land for agricultural use and developing a climate-resilience livestock system. Food supplies were able to be made available locally; and the land was able to serve as a flood buffer. • By seeing the issue across sectors and scales, and looking at the whole, the city was able to devise an integrated solution with benefits across multiple areas.
  10. 10. SOLUTION: WATER REHABILITATION IN INDORE, INDIA Indore, India • Indore faced urban flooding, poor drainage and waterlogging from roads and bridges from more frequent and severe rainfall. The effects were especially felt on the most poor. • The city had to rely on costly and energy-intensive water transported from a river 35 kilometers away. Poor communities often had little access to water. • Integrated solutions involved: • Rainwater was harvested using traditional methods and recharging groundwater, to mitigate flood risk and provide a water supply; the nearby Indore Lake was restored to provide a local source of freshwater; the city developed a multi-sectoral partnership with the Indore Zoo to manage a water treatment plant. • Requiring the use of reused water for gardening and construction purposes.
  11. 11. SOLUTION: URBAN PLANNING QUY NHON, VIETNAM Quy Nhon, Vietnam • The city faced a catastrophic flood in 2009, with 16 deaths, exacerbated by new pressures such as urbanization and urban construction. • While individual households were individually safer, this did not mean the city and system as a whole were becoming more resilient. Climate projections showed the city would be increasingly susceptible to major flooding in the future, and would need to continue building more elevated infrastructure. • Through the city resilience strategy process, the city was able to begin a conversation to consider an integrative approach which included a combination of urban planning to protect natural floodways, and developing an early warning system.
  12. 12. HOW INTEGRATED RESOURCE MANAGEMENT IS CENTRAL TO RESILIENCE • Resource efficiency and integrated resources management are key components of a city’s overall resilience. It is important to integrate across sectors, and water-food-energy constraints inevitably factor into the vulnerability of cities. • Urban nexus issues matter to other parts of the city’s system as well: the way water resources are managed may not only be more energy efficient, but can produce health benefits in lowering incidences of vector-borne disease. • In addition to the relevance of the resilience framework, the resilience planning and resilience-building process which promotes coordination across sectors and departments in the cities, can also be a helpful and relevant tool to putting into practice integrated resources planning.
  13. 13. www.rockefellerfoundation.org https://www.rockefellerfoundation.org/report/city-resilience-framework/ www.acccrn.net www.100resilientcities.org