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Drug Addiction

  2. 2. What Is Drug Addiction ? • Drug Addiction is defined as a chronic, relapsing brain disease that is characterized by compulsive drug seeking and use, despite harmful consequences.
  3. 3. • It is considered a brain disease because drugs change the brain—they change its structure and how it works. • These brain changes can be long-lasting, and can lead to the harmful behaviors seen in people who abuse drugs.
  4. 4. • Narcotics are addictive drugs that reduce the user's perception of pain and induce euphoria which is a feeling of exaggerated and unrealistic well-being . • Users also may experience constricted pupils, watery eyes, and itching. An overdose may produce slow and shallow breathing, clammy skin, convulsions, coma, and possibly death. NARCOTICS
  5. 5. • Although the term can refer to any drug that deadens sensation or produces stupor, it is commonly applied to the opioids—that is, to all natural or synthetic drugs that act like morphine.
  6. 6. What is Cannabis? Cannabis has been used for hundreds of years by humans for fiber (hemp), seed oils, seed, medical treatment, and recreationally.
  7. 7. • The primary psychoactive ingredient in cannabis is delta-9-tetrahydro-cannabinol (THC). • Cannabis contains more than 113 cannabinoids.
  8. 8. Medical Uses of Cannabis • THC has mild-to-moderate pain-killing (analgesic) effects, and can be used for the treatment of pain. • THC alters neurotransmitter release in the spinal cord, resulting in pain relief. • The compound is also known to stimulate appetite and induce a relaxed state, as well as other effects on sense of smell, hearing, and eyesight. • THC can also cause fatigue. In some people, THC may reduce aggression.
  9. 9. • Also helps in the treatment of nausea and vomiting - it may have antiemetic qualities that make it helpful for people undergoing chemotherapy or other treatment where nausea can be a side effect.
  10. 10. Potential hazards of cannabis • Cannabis use might lead to male sexual dysfunction. • It can also eventually suppress the body's immune system, making the user more susceptible to certain types of cancer and infections. • could increase the risk of developing psychosis.
  11. 11. • Gum disease risk - raises the risk of developing gum disease, regardless of whether the user smokes tobacco. • Reduced brain function - regular cannabis users who started before they were 15 years old scored worse on brain tests than their counterparts who started later in life. • Acute memory loss - smokers of potent cannabis strains (skunk, for instance) may have a greater risk of acute memory loss.
  12. 12. • Alters human DNA - a British study found compelling evidence that cannabis smoke damages human DNA in such a way that the user could become more susceptible to developing cancer.
  13. 13. COCAINE • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug. • Cocaine is a naturally occurring substance found in the coca plant which is mostly grown in South America. • The chemical formula of cocaine is C17H21NO4
  14. 14. Continued.. • Cocaine is addictive due to its effect on the reward pathway in the brain. • It is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug. • It is commonly snorted, inhaled as smoke, or as a solution injected into a vein. • Cocaine is now predominantly used for nasal surgery.
  15. 15. Symptoms and Effects • Physical symptoms may include a fast heart rate, sweating, and large pupils. • High doses of cocaine can result in very high blood pressure or body temperature. • Effects begin within seconds to minutes of use and last between five and ninety minutes.
  16. 16. Continued.. • Mental effects may include loss of contact with reality, an intense feeling of happiness, or agitation. • Its use also increases the risk of stroke , lung problems (in those who smoke it), blood infections, and sudden cardiac death.
  17. 17. MORPHINE • Morphine is a type of natural narcotic drug. • The primary source of morphine is isolation from poppy straw of the opium poppy. • The chemical formula of morphine is C17H19NO3
  18. 18. Continued.. • Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. • It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. • It can be given by mouth, by injection into a muscle, by injecting under the skin, intravenously, into the space around the spinal cord.
  19. 19. Medical Uses • Morphine is used primarily to treat both acute and chronic severe pain. • It is also used for labour pains. • Morphine is beneficial in reducing the symptom of shortness of breath due to both cancer and non cancer causes. • Morphine is also available as a slow-release formulation for opiate substitution therapy (OST) in many countries.
  20. 20. Symptoms and Effects • Serious side effects include a decreased respiratory effort and low blood pressure. • Common side effects include drowsiness, vomiting, and constipation. • Morphine can affect the baby if mother is a morphine addict. • Maximum effect is around 20 minutes when given intravenously and 60 minutes when given by mouth, while duration of effect is 3–7 hours.
  21. 21. What is a Hallucinogen? •A drug that changes perception, thought, or emotion. •They also alter senses, consciousness, and may cause hallucinations. •Generally, some of the common effects of hallucinogens include: o hallucinonation of sight, sound, taste and touch
  22. 22. o a blurring of senses, such as sounds being ‘felt’ or color being ‘heard’ o feeling detached from the body o distortions of time, direction and distance o relaxation o accelerated heart rate o dilated pupils o nausea and loss of appetite
  23. 23. In general, the various types of hallucinogens fall in three separate categories: • Deliriants • Dissociates • Psychedelics Jimson Weed Magic mushrooms Cannabis Weed
  24. 24. Deliriants • Deliriant hallucinogen drugs alter a person’s sensory perceptions to the point where the mind concocts imaginary scenes that have no basis in his or her external reality. • Consequently, someone experiencing a Deliriant-type “high” enters a stupor- like state of total confusion. • Commonly used deliriant hallucinogens include: o Jimson Weed o Datura o Deadly Nightshade
  25. 25. Dissociatives •These drugs block signals to the conscious mind from other parts of the brain. The loss of these senses leave the user in a dream- like state of self exploration and hallucinations. •Commonly used dissociative drugs include: PCP Magic mushrooms DXM Ketamine
  26. 26. Psychedelics • Psychedelics, while they can cause pleasurable side effects. •While psychedelics can cause a person to feel a sense of oneness with the universe and experience spiritual or enjoyable hallucinations and distorted perceptions, they can also cause intense fear, paranoia, and panic. •Commonly used psychedelic types of hallucinogens include: Peyote LSD Mescaline
  27. 27. Good Trips and Bad Trips • Good trips entail pleasant, exhilarating, even transcendent-like experiences that many users describe as spiritual or divine. • Bad trips produce distressing and oftentimes frightening imagery and/or sensations. •On average, a drug “trip” can run anywhere from five to 12 hours depending on the dosage amount ingested. While the type of hallucinogen used does affect the types of experiences had, a person’s mood, expectations and surrounding environment most influence what type of trip he or she will have.
  28. 28. How are Hallucinogens Used? • In most cases they are ingested, such as LSD, Mushrooms, Peyote, and Ecstasy. •They are also commonly smoked, such as marijuana. •Other ways are by snorting or injecting. These drugs are usually crushed from a solid into a powder and then used.
  29. 29. Stimulants • Stimulants, sometimes called “uppers”, are drugs that increase the alertness of the user causing increased attention, heightened energy and elevated blood pressure. • These drugs essentially stimulate the user and have been widely used throughout medical history in the treatment of asthma, obesity, various neurological disorders and for certain respiratory problems. • Today, stimulants are only used in the treatment of a couple of different disorders including ADHD and certain types of hyperactivity disorder.
  30. 30. Stimulants Types: Drugs that can be classified as stimulants include: • Caffeine • Nicotine • Cocaine • Methamphetamine Each stimulant has various levels in terms of the effects that it can cause. Some are relatively mild when used in small amounts and are actually legal such as caffeine or nicotine while others are never legal such as methamphetamine.
  31. 31. Caffeine: • Caffeine is present in over sixty plants, including coffee beans, tea leaves and cacao pods. • Caffeine stimulates the central nervous system, an effect that may begin as early as 15 minutes after ingesting the caffeine and can last for as long as six hours. • The main effect of caffeine is increased alertness and reduced sleepiness, but the drug can also cause problems. • The Food and Drugs Administration (FDA) classifies caffeine as both a drug and a food additive.
  32. 32. Nicotine: • Nicotine is a chemical compound that is present in tobacco. • When tobacco is smoked, nicotine is absorbed through the wall lining of the small air sacs in the lungs. When sniffed or chewed, it is absorbed through the mucous membranes of the nose or mouth. Nicotine can also be absorbed through the skin. • Regardless of how nicotine is absorbed, it enters the bloodstream where it circulates throughout the body and travels to the brain where it crosses the blood-brain barrier. Once in the brain, it binds to and activates receptors called the cholinergic receptors. Nicotine enters the brain and disrupts its normal functioning.
  33. 33. Cocaine: • Cocaine is a powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the cocoa plant. • Although health care providers can use it for valid medical purposes, cocaine is an illegal drug. • People who use cocaine often take it in binges—taking the drug repeatedly within a short time, at increasingly higher dose—to maintain their high. • Cocaine increases levels of the natural chemical messenger dopamine in brain circuits controlling pleasure and movement.
  34. 34. Crystal Meth: • Crystal meth is short for crystal methamphetamine. It is just one form of the drug methamphetamine. • It is a white crystalline drug that people take by inhaling through the nose, smoking it or injecting it with a needle. Some even take it orally, but all develop a strong desire to continue using it. • Crystal meth is used by individuals of all ages, but is most commonly used as a “club drug,” taken while partying in night clubs or at rave parties. Its most common street names are ice or glass. • It is associated with serious health conditions, including memory loss, aggression, psychotic behaviour and potential heart and brain damage.
  35. 35. Effects of Stimulants: Short term effects In the short term, stimulant effects can be very pleasurable and may include : • Intense feelings of happiness. • Increased energy and self esteem. • Improved attention. • Increased sexual desire and performance. • Opened breathing passages/easier breathing. • Suppressed appetite. Side Effects • Increased heart rate. • Heightened blood pressure. • Very high body temperature. • Muscle shakes or tremors. • Agitation.
  36. 36. Long Term Effects • Extreme weight loss. • Reduced sexual functioning. • Gastrointestinal problems. • Chronic exhaustion. • Cardiovascular damage. • Breathing problems. • Headaches. • Cerebral haemorrhage. • Stroke.
  37. 37. Stimulant withdrawal treatment: Withdrawal from stimulant abuse is not a life-threatening process, but it can be uncomfortable. Common symptoms of withdrawal from stimulants include : • Mental and physical exhaustion. • Insomnia. • Irritability. • Anxiety and agitation. • Excessive sleep. • Intense hunger. • Drug cravings.
  38. 38. SEDATIVES • A sedative is a drug that slows down or depresses the central nervous system and therefore slows down both the physical and mental processes in the body. • Also known as tranquilizers or depressants, sedatives have a calming effect and can also induce sleep. • When used properly, sedatives can relieve anxiety, help people sleep better, and even help them to get through a difficult situation such as a death in the family; on the other hand, when over-prescribed or when taken too frequently, they can easily cause addiction and, in some cases, even death.
  39. 39. TYPES OF SEDATIVES The two most common types of sedatives prescribed are Benzodiazepines and Barbiturates. • Benzodiazepines: Benzodiazepines are typically prescribed for anxiety, seizures, insomnia, and panic attacks. Somebody might abuse these kind of sedatives because of the calming effect that they have. • Barbiturates: Barbiturates are less commonly prescribed than Benzodiazepines, but can be used for anxiety, insomnia, seizures, and panic attacks, and can still be found in some hospitals and veterinarians. • Non Benzodiazepines (Z Drugs) : Non Benzodiazepines are in the same family as Benzodiazepines, but work faster and don’t alter the sleep patterns as greatly.
  40. 40. Benzodiazepines • Benzodiazepines are a class of drugs primarily prescribed to reduce anxiety or stress, encourage sleep or to relax muscles. • Short-term use of these medications is generally safe and effective. However, long-term use is controversial because of the potential for tolerance, dependence, and other adverse effects. • It is possible to overdose on benzodiazepines, and mixing them with alcohol or other substances can be fatal. • There are various types of benzodiazepines: Ativan, Xanax, Librium, Klonopin, Valium, Tranxene, Alprazolam.
  41. 41. Short-term effects: • They can begin to affect you after 10 to 15 minutes and last up to 6 hours. • Depresses your nervous system and slows your body down. • Relieves stress, anxiety and tension and can make you more calm and relaxed. • You can become drowsy, forgetful and confused which can lead to accidents. Long-term effects: • Short-term memory loss. • They may lose their effect as ‘sleeping pills’ after only two weeks of continuous use. They no longer control anxiety after four months of regular use.
  42. 42. Barbiturates • Barbiturates are central nervous depressants. They reduce the activity of nerves causing muscle relaxation. They can reduce heart rate, breathing, and blood pressure. • Barbiturates are medications used for treating headaches, insomnia, and seizures. • Examples of barbiturates: Amytal , Butisol, Seconal .
  43. 43. Other Side Effects: • Common side effects of barbiturates are:  Dizziness  Lightheadedness  Headache  Nausea  Vomiting  Abdominal pain. • Barbiturates can slow breathing, reduce heart rate, and they can be habit forming.
  44. 44. Non Benzodiazepines (Z Drugs): • Carry the same potential as Barbiturates. • Originally used as anxiolytics, day time sedatives and hypnotics. • Interchangeable pharmacologically with Barbiturates. • Rarely used today. • Common Non Benzodiazepines are:  Choral Hydrate  Methylpyrlon etc.
  45. 45. Signs of Sedative Withdrawal: Sedatives reduce and slow communication throughout the brain. As an individual withdraws from a persistent period of sedation, a much higher level of neural stimulation may be experienced. This can lead to symptoms like: • Restlessness. • Muscle shaking. • Excessive sweating. • Nausea or vomiting. • Insomnia. • Depression/anxiety.
  46. 46. Medicinal Drugs The Public Health Code, defines a medicinal drug as a “Any substance or compound that can be used in humans and animals , in view to formulating a medical diagnosis or restoring, correcting or modifying their physiological functions through pharmacological, immunological or metabolic action”.
  47. 47. Samples of Medicinal Drugs • Antipyretics: reducing fever (pyrexia) • Analgesics: reducing pain (painkillers) • Anti malarial drugs: treating malaria • Antibiotics: inhibiting germ growth • Antiseptics: prevention of germ growth near burns, cuts and wounds • Mood stabilizers: lithium and valpromide • Hormone replacements: Premarin • Oral contraceptives: Enovid, "biphasic" pill, and "triphasic" pill • Stimulants: methylphenidate, amphetamine
  48. 48. Side Effects • An allergic reaction could happen with any drug. That can range from itching and rash all the way to a life-threatening anaphylactic reaction. • Some drugs can’t help but trigger side effects because of their chemical structure. The common allergy drug diphenhydramine(also known by the brand name Benadryl) is one. Though it eases allergy symptoms, it also blocks the chemical acetylcholine, and that leads to drowsiness and a host of other side effects, including dry mouth.
  49. 49. Behavioural Changes • Changes in patterns of sleep. • Increased amounts of irritability, especially when medication isn’t available. • Frequent usage of alcohol. • Mood swings that are correlated to the absence and availability of prescription drugs.
  50. 50. General Medicinal Drugs Characteristic Drug Name Drug commonly used for treatment of fever and as a painkiller. Paracetamol Drug commonly used for treatment of Asthma. Salbutamol Drug commonly used for treatment of cold and symptoms of sneezing, watery eyes, runny nose. Cetirizine Drug commonly used for treatment of Malaria. Chloroquine
  51. 51. Cough Syrup as a Drug • Cough Medication is one of the easiest substances to abuse. There are pills and bottles of cough- suppressing medications in millions of homes in America and around the world. Many are over-the- counter drugs and others are prescription-only. Both can be intoxicating or even deadly in high doses. • The cough suppressants that are abused contain dextromethorphan or codeine.
  52. 52. Iodex as a Drug Iodex is used to prevent and treat infections that may occur in minor scrapes and cuts. It works by killing bacteria that can cause infections.
  53. 53. Side effects • Keep this medicine away from the eyes because it may cause irritation. If you should accidentally get some in your eyes, wash it away with water immediately. • Do not use topical iodine on deep, puncture wounds, animal bites, or serious burns. To do so may increase the chance of side effects. • Do not cover the wound to which you have applied topical iodine with a tight dressing or bandage since this may increase the chance of side effects.
  54. 54. Alcohol as a Drug • Alcohol often has harmful interactions with prescription medications, over-the-counter drugs, and even some herbal remedies. • Alcohol interactions with medications may cause problems such as: • Nausea and Vomiting • Headaches • Drowsiness • Dizziness • Fainting • Changes in blood pressure • Abnormal behavior • Loss of coordination • Accidents
  55. 55. Mixing alcohol and medications also may increase the risk of complications such as: • Liver damage • Heart problems • Internal Bleeding • Impaired breathing • Depression
  56. 56. Drug withdrawal • These are unpleasant, nasty or uncomfortable effects that can happen if you stop an addictive substance or drug quickly. • It occurs because your brain gets used to and adapts to a drug or alcohol being present. If you have been taking a drug or drinking alcohol regularly and suddenly stop the body has to get used to it not being around anymore, and you will experience ‘withdrawal symptoms’. The type of symptoms and when they occur can differ depending on which drug you were taking.
  57. 57. • It may only be mild and not last long, but they can be very severe and dangerous. If you have taken bigger and bigger amounts of a drug over a long period of time the symptoms are more likely to be worse. This is why it is always important to seek help and support on how to reduce and stop taking drugs safely.

Hinweis der Redaktion

  •  Many stimulants were widely accepted as safe for a long time but as use increased and the dangers became more evident, these drugs became less prescribed and less accepted except in the most dire cases.
    attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)
    Prescription stimulants come in tablets or capsules. When abused, they are swallowed, injected in liquid form or crushed and snorted.
    Stimulants work by acting on the central nervous system to increase alertness and cognitive function. 
  • Around 90% of individuals use caffeine in one form or another.
    Caffeine is added to food and drink items as well as to certain medications to relieve drowsiness or enhance the effects of pain killers.
  • Regular smoking leads to a change in the number of cholinergic receptors and to changes in their sensitivity to nicotine. This can lead to the development of nicotine tolerance.
    Once this happens, the affected person needs to use nicotine regularly to maintain normal brain function. If the level of nicotine falls, the smoker may experience unpleasant withdrawal symptoms that lead to them "topping up" their nicotine levels by smoking again. Because of its highly addictive properties, smoking is considered by the American Heart Association to be one of the hardest addictions to break.
  • It is because the drug creates a false sense of happiness and well-being—a rush (strong feeling) of confidence, hyperactiveness and energy. One also experiences decreased appetite. These drug effects generally last from six to eight hours, but can last up to twenty-four hours.
    The first experience might involve some pleasure, but from the start, methamphetamine begins to destroy the user’s life.