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Female reproductive system

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Reproductive system
Reproductive system
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Female reproductive system

  1. 1. Presented by Khazima
  2. 2. Contents  Female reproductive organs  Diagram  Location  Relations  Parts  Histology  Blood supply  Nerve supply  Lymphatic supply  Functions  Histology  Clinical significance
  3. 3. Female reproductive organs  Female reproductive system compromises: Primary sex organs Pair of ovaries Accessory sex organs System of genital ducts: fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix &vagina External genitalia: labia majora, labia minora, clitoris
  4. 4. FEMALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGAN
  5. 5. OVARY location Ovaries are bilateral pair of flattened,egg shaped,intraperitoneal disc,reside within the true pelvis Measuring 1.5 0.75in Attached to the back of the broad ligament by mesovarium
  6. 6. Structural relation Superior pole Covered by the fimbriae of fallopian tube Attached to the suspensory ligament of ovary Inferior pole Directed towards the body of uterus Has a connection there by way of ligament of the ovary . This ligament progresses as round ligament secures each ovary to cornu of uterus
  7. 7. Blood supply
  8. 8. OVARY Arterial supply  Ovarian artery arise from abdominal aorta at the level of 1st lumbar vertebrae Venous supply  Ovarian vein drains into the inferior vena cava on right side and into the left renal vein on the left side.
  9. 9. OVARY Lymph drainage  Para aortic nodes at the level of 1st lumbar vertebra Nerve supply  Nerve supply to the ovary is derived from the aortic plexus & accompanies the ovarian artery
  10. 10. OVARY Functions  Production of female germ cells  Production of ova  Production of female sex organs estrogen & progesterone in the mature female
  11. 11. FALLOPIAN TUBE
  12. 12. FALLOPIAN TUBE OR UTERINE TUBE Location and trajectory: The two fallopian tubes are about 10 cm long from the superior border They connect the peritoneal cavity with uterine cavity
  13. 13. FALLOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBE Parts:  The uterine tube is divided into four parts; Infundibulum;  Distal end of the tube  Funnel shaped  Opens into peritoneal cavity at the abdominal ostium  Several Finger like projections called Fimbriae
  14. 14. FALLOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBE Intramural; Is the segment that pierces the uterine wall Ampulla; Longest part of the tube Diameter of 1cm and 5cm length Thin wall, folded luminal surface Fertilization takes place within the lumen
  15. 15. FALLOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBE Isthmus; Rounded muscular part of fallopian tube Narrowest part of the tube It is 3cm long & between 1 to 5mm wide
  16. 16. FALLOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBE Functions :  Fertilization  Nourishment  Transportation
  17. 17. FALLOPIAN OR UTERINE TUBE  Arteries Uterine artery Ovarian artery  Venous drainage Uterine veins Ovarian veins  Lymph drainage Para aortic Internal Iliac lymph node
  18. 18. FALLOPIAN TUBE OR UTERINE TUBE  Nerve supply Sympathetic nerves arise from spinal ligament T10- L12 Parasympathetic nerves supply the medial half of the tube derived from pelvic splanchnic nerves Lateral half of the tube are derived from vagus nerves
  19. 19. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE Salpingitis  Inflammation of the fallopian tube  Usually results from the bacterial infection Ligation or tying  Effective surgical method to control birth rate  Prevents fertilization of oocytes
  20. 20. UTERUS Location:  Hollow , pear shaped organ  Thick muscular wall  Also called womb  The uterus is about 8cm long
  21. 21. UTERUS Parts It is divided into 3 parts  Fundus: Lies above the entrance of uterine tube  Body Lies below the entrance of uterine tube  Cervix Narrow part of the uterus It pierces the anterior wall of vagina Two orifices: Internal orifice to isthmus External orifice to vagina
  22. 22. Relations Anteriorly  Uterovesical pouch  Vaginal cervix  Supravaginal cervix Posteriorly  Rectouterine pouch( pouch of douglas) with coils of ileum Laterally  Supravaginal cervix  Vaginal cervix
  23. 23. UTERUS Arterial supply Uterine artery Ovarian artery Venous supply Through uterine venous plexus into internal iliac vein
  24. 24. UTERUS Nerve supply  Sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves from branches of inferior hypogastric plexus  Lymph drainage  Fundus:paraortic  Cornu:superficial inguinal  Body:external iliac  Cervix : cervical lymphatics
  25. 25. HISTOLOGY Three layers of tissues: Mucosa(endometrium)  Lined with simple columnar epithelium  Contain numerous tubular glands  Followed by cell rich connective tissue layer called lamina propria  From puberty to menopause, it goes extensive changes during menstrual cycle
  26. 26. HISTOLOGY Myometrium  Thick layer Comprises of three smooth muscles layers Vascular layer Subvascular layer Supravascular layer Perimetrium  Equals the peritonium  Surrounded by thin connective tissue layer
  27. 27. FUNCTIONS  Implantation  Nourishment  Pushing out baby during birth through muscle contraction  Menstrual cycle
  28. 28. VAGINA Location  Fibromuscular tube  Anterior wall;7.5 cm long  Posterior wall:8 to 10 cm long  Extends from vulva to uterus
  29. 29. Relations Anteriorly  Closely related to the bladder above and to urethra below Posteriorly  Rectouterine pouch ( pouch of douglas )  Ampulla of rectum  Perineal body Laterally Ureter Levator ani Urogenital diaphragm Bulb of vestibule
  30. 30. VAGINA Arterial supply  Vaginal artery  Internal iliac artery Venous supply  Vaginal veins form plexus around the vagina that drain into internal iliac vein
  31. 31. VAGINA Lymph drainage  External iliac nodes  Internal iliac nodes  Superficial inguinal nodes Nerve supply  Inferior hypogastric plexuses
  32. 32. FUNCTION • Not only the female genital organ • Serves as the excretory duct for the menstrual flow • Forms part of birth canal
  33. 33. Clinical significance vaginitis  Inflammation of vagina Sexually transmitted infections (STI)  Caused by:  HIV  Human papillomavirus  Genital herpes

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