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PREPARATIONS FOR NORMAL LOAD OPERATION
STANDBY POWER REQUIREMENTS
Standby AC power is required to insure the immediate startup capability of particular turbine
equipment and related control system when the start signal is given. Functions identified by asterisk are
also necessary for unit protection and should not be turned off except for maintenance work on that
1. Heating and circulating turbine lube oil at low ambient temperatures to maintain oil viscosity.
2. Control panel heating.
3. Generator heating.
4. Cranking motor power circuit.
5. When fuel heaters are furnished to heat and circulate fuel oil at low ambient temperature to maintain
6. Compartment heating.
7. Operation of control compartment air conditioner during periods of high ambient temperature. This is
to maintain electrical equipment insulation within design temperature limits.
8. Battery charging.
CHECKS PRIOR TO OPERATION
The following checks are to be made before attempting to operate an overhauled turbine. It is
assumed that the turbine has been assembled correctly, is in alignment and that calibration of the
SPEEDTRONIC system has been performed per the Control Specifications. A stand by inspection of the
turbine should be performed with the lube oil pumps operating and emphasis on the following:
1. Check that all piping and turbine connections are securely fastened and that all blinds have been
removed. Most tube fittings incorporate a stop collar which insures proper torquing of the fittings at
initial fitting make up and at reassembly. These collars fit between the body of the fitting and the nut
and contact in tightening of the fitting. The stop collar is similar to a washer and can be rotated freely
on unassembled fittings. During initials assembly of the fitting with a stop collar, tighten the nut until it
bottoms on the collar. The fitting has to be sufficiently tightened until the collar cannot be rotated by
hand. This is the inspection for a proper fitting assembly. For each remake of the fitting, the nut should
again be tightened until the collar cannot be rotated.
2. Inlet and exhaust plenums and associated ducting are clean ad rid of all foreign objects. All access
doors are secure.
3. Where, air or lube oil filters have been replaced check that all covers are intact and tight.
4. Verify that the lube oil tanks are within the operating level and if the tank has been drained that it has
been refilled with the recommended quality and quantity of lube oil. If lube oil flushing has been
conducted verify that all filters have been replaced and any blinds if used, removed.
5. Check operation of auxiliary and emergency equipment, such as lube oil pumps, water pumps, fuel
forwarding pumps, etc. Check for obvious leakage, abnormal vibration (maximum 3 mils), noise or
6. Check lube oil piping for obvious leakage. Check visually that oil is flowing from the bearing drains by
observing provided oil flow sights. The turbine should not be started unless flow is visible at each flow
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7. Check condition of all thermocouples and /or resistance temperature detectors (RTD’s) on the display
module. Reading should be approximately ambient temperature.
8. Check spark plugs for proper arcing.
Do not test spark plugs where explosive atmosphere is present.
If the arc occurs anywhere other than directly across the gap at the tips of the electrodes, or if by blowing
on the arc it can be moved from this point, the plug should be cleaned, the tip clearance adjusted or if
necessary, replaced. Verify the retracting piston for free operation.
9. Devices requiring manual lubrication are to be properly serviced.
10. Determine that the cooling water system has been properly flushed and filled with the recommended
coolant. Any fine powdery rust, which might from in the piping during short time exposure to
atmosphere, can be tolerated. If there is evidence of a scaly rust, the cooling system should be power
flushed until all scale is removed. If necessary to use a chemical cleaner, most automobile cooling
system cleaners are acceptable and will not damage the carbon and rubber parts of the pump
mechanical seals or rubber parts in the piping.
Refer to “Cooling Water Recommendations for Combustion Gas Turbine Closed Cooling Systems”
included under tab titled Fluid Specification. Note the following regarding antifreeze.
Do not change from one type antifreeze to another, without first flushing the cooling
system very thoroughly. Inhibitors used may not be compatible and can cause formation
of gums, in addition to destroying effectiveness as an inhibitor. Consult the antifreeze
vendor for specific recommendations.
Ensure that following the water system refill that water system piping primarily pumps and flexible
couplings do not leak. It is wise not to add any corrosion inhibitors until after the water system is found to
be leak free.
11. The use of radio transmitting equipment in the vicinity of the control panels is not recommended.
Prohibiting such use will assure that no extraneous signals are introduced into the control system that
might influence the normal operation of the equipment.
12. Check the Cooling and Sealing Air Piping against the assembly drawing and piping schematic, that all
orifice plates between flanges or in orifice unions are of designated size and in designated positions.
13. At this time all annunciated ground faults should be cleared. It is recommended that units not be
operated when a ground fault is indicated. Immediate actions should be taken to locate all grounds
and correct the problems.
The following items should be checked before operating a gas turbine on a daily basis:
1. Position of breakers on MCC.
2. Proper modes of operation selected on control panels.
3. Annunciator panel for outstanding alarms. Investigate all drops.
4. "CHECK” and “READY” lights are “ON”.
5. Security of turbine and generator enclosure panels.
6. Any indications of outage tags which may affect fuel supply etc. to turbine.
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CHECKS DURING STARTUP AND INITIAL OPERATION
The following is a list of important checks to be made on a new or newly overhauled turbine with
a master selector switch “43” in various modes. The Control Specifications – Operating Sequences
should be reviewed prior to operating the turbine.
Where an electric motor is used as the starting means refer to the Control Specifications
in regard to maximum operating time.
When a unit has been overhauled those parts or components that have been removed and taken
a part for inspection / repair should be critically monitored during unit startup and operation. This
inspection should include: Leakage check, Vibration, Unusual noise, Overheating, Lubrication.
1. Listen for rubbing noise in the turbine compartment and in the load shaft compartment. A sound-
scope or some other listening type device is suggested. Shutdown and investigate if unusual noises
2. Check for unusual vibration.
3. Inspect for water system leakage.
1. Bleed fuel oil filters, if appropriate, and check entire fuel system and the area immediately around the
fuel nozzle for leaks. In particular check for leaks at the following points:
a) Fuel piping / tubing to fuel nozzle
b) Fuel check valves
c) Atomizing air manifold and associated piping (when used)
d) Fuel gas manifold and associated piping (when used)
a) Flow divider (when used)
b) Fuel and water pumps
c) Filter covers
Elimination of fuel leakage in the turbine compartment is of extreme as a fire preventative
2. Use mirrors to view the sight ports in the combustion chambers to visually check that each chamber is
fired, that the flame is steady and within the liner. In addition, assure that the cross fire tube end is not
glowing. Plug and stake sight ports once satisfactorily flame conditions are obtained.
3. Monitor the turbine control panel for unusual exhaust thermocouple temperature, wheel space
temperature, lube oil drain temperature, highest to lowest exhaust temperature spreads and “hot
spots” i.e. combustion chamber(s) burning hotter than all the others.
4. Listen for unusual noises and rubbing.
5. Monitor unit for excessive vibration.
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Permit the gas turbine to operate for a 30 to 60 minutes period in a full speed, no load condition.
This time period allows for uniform and stabilized heating of the parts and fluids. Tests and checks listed
below are to supplement those also recorded in Control Specification – Control System Adjustments.
Record all data for future comparison and investigation.
1. Continue monitoring for unusual rubbing noises and shutdown immediately if noise persists.
2. Monitor lube oil tank, header and drain temperatures continually during the heating period. Refer to
the Schematic Piping Diagram – Summary Sheets for temperature guidelines. Adjust VTRs if
3. At this time a thorough vibration check is recommended, using vibration test equipment such as IRD
equipment (IRD Mechanalysis, Inc.) or equivalent with filtered or unfiltered readings. It is suggested
that horizontal, vertical and axial data be recorded for the:
Accessory gear forward and aft sides
All accessible bearing covers on the turbine
Forward compressor casing
Turbine support legs
Bearing covers on the load equipment
4. Check and record wheel space, exhaust and control thermocouples for proper indication on the
5. Flame detector operation should be tested per the Control Specification – Control System
6. Utilize all planned shutdowns in testing the Electronic and Mechanical Over speed Trip System per
the Control Specifications – Control System Adjustments. Refer to Special Operations section of this
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The purpose of this section is to describe equipment and operator actions required to operate the
MS-9001E package power plant gas turbine. Description of the starting, stopping and operating of a
single gas turbine at both local and remote stations is included.
START-UP OF GAS TURBINE FOR GENERATOR OPERATION
Operation of a single turbine / generator unit may be accomplished either locally or remotely.
NOTE : Synchronous condenser operation is covered under Special Operations.
The procedures cited herein describe the steps required to start, synchronize, load, shutdown
and cool the turbine in the sequence named. The steps necessary to transfer are also described in
subsequent paragraphs. The ready to start and check lights will be glowing if the turbine is in a ready to
a) Turn the OPERATING MODE SELECTOR (43CG) to GEN position so that this indicating light is lit.
The CLUTCH ENGAGED AND LOCKED indicating light will be lit.
b) Set the OPERATION SELECTOR switch to starting mode desired (CRANK, FIRE or AUTO).
c) Move the synchronizing selector switch (43S) on the generator control panel to the MANUAL position
for manual synchronizing, or to the AUTO position for automatic synchronizing, prior to turbine start.
d) Turn the spring return master control switch (1) on the turbine control panel momentarily to the
START position. The starting sequence of the turbine auxiliaries and control circuits will begin.
e) Set the LOAD SELECTOR switch (43BP) to the required type of operating load (BASE or PEAK).
(1) The sequence-in-progress (PROGRESS) light will glow.
(2) The ready-to-start and check lights (READY and CHECK) will extinguish.
(3) The starting motor will be actuated.
(4) The zero speed indicating light (14HR) will glow when the turbine shaft starts rotating.
(5) When the turbine shaft achieves approximately 16 percent of rated speed, the minimum speed
indicating light (14HM) will glow and purging sequence will begin.
(6) The variable control signal indicator (LCE) or (GCE) will be set to firing value and the STARTUP
light will glow.
(7) The ignition sequence will be initiated.
(8) After flame is established in combustion chambers, #5 and #6, the flame detector indicating
light (FLAME DETECTOR #5 and #6) will glow.
(9) The LCE or GCE will set back to warm-up value.
(10) At the end of the warm-up period, the LCE or GCE will increase.
(11) As the gas turbine accelerates the ACCELERATION control light or SPEED control light may
come on. This is no cause for alarm.
(12) When the turbine attains 40 percent speed, the accelerating speed light (14HA) will glow.
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At this point, battery voltage will be applied to the generator field and generator voltage
will begin to buildup.
(13) The turbine continues to accelerate and, when it achieves approximately 70 percent of rated
speed, the starting motor will disengage and shutdown. The percent speed indicating light
(14HC) will glow.
(14) When the turbine achieves 97 percent of operating speed, the turbine operating indicating light
(14HS) will glow.
(15) The auxiliary lube oil pump and auxiliary hydraulic pump will now shutdown, and the complete
sequence light (COMPLETE) will glow. Flashing (voltage to the generator from the excitation
electrical system) is removed from the generator field.
(16) At this point, automatic synchronizing, described below, will be initiated. The turbine speed is
matched to the system and, when the proper phase angle relationship is achieved, the
generator breaker will close.
(17) The turbine will now begin loading to the selected value. See LOADING description in the
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NORMAL LOAD OPERATION
When a gas turbine-driven synchronous generator is connected into a power transmission
system, it must be accomplished in such a way that the phase angle of the generator going online
corresponds to the phase angle of the existing line voltage at the moment of its introduction into the
system. This is called synchronizing.
Before initiating synchronization procedures, be sure that all synchronization equipment
is functioning properly, and that the phase angle of the incoming unit corresponds to the
existing line phase sequence and the potential transformers are connected correctly to
proper phases. Initial synchronization and checkout after performing maintenance to
synchronizing equipment should be performed with the breaker disabled.
Synchronizing cannot take place unless the OPERATION SELECTOR switch has been
placed on AUTO and the turbine has reached full speed.
Generator synchronization can be accomplished either automatically or manually. Manual
synchronization is accomplished by the following procedure:
1. Place the synchronizing selector switch (43S) in the MANUAL position.
2. Place the operation selector switch (43) in the AUTO position.
3. Momentarily place the master control switch (1) in the START position. This will start the turbine and
accelerate 100.3% of full rated speed. At this point the “complete sequence” indicator will glow.
4. Compare the generator voltage with the line voltage. (These voltmeters are located on the generator
5. Make any necessary voltage adjustment by operating the RAISE-LOWER (90R4) switch until the
generator voltage equals the line voltage.
6. Compare the generator and line frequency on the synchroscope (located on the generator control
panel). If the pointer is rotating counterclockwise, the generator frequency is lower than the line
frequency and should be raised by increasing the turbine-generator speed. The brightness of the
synchronizing lights will change with the rotation of the synchroscope. When the lights are their dullest
the synchroscope will be at the 12 o’clock position. The lights should not be used to synchronize but
only to verify proper operation of the synchroscope.
7. Adjust the speed until the synchroscope rotates clockwise at approximately five seconds per
revolution or slower.
8. The generator circuit breaker “close” signal should be given when the synchroscope pointer reaches a
point approximately one minute before minute before 12 o’clock position. This allows for a time lag for
the breaker contacts to close after receiving the close signal.
Automatic synchronization is accomplished by the following steps:
1. Place the synchronizing selector switch (43S) in the AUTO position.
2. Place the operation selector switch (43) in the AUTO position.
3. Momentarily place the master control switch () in the START position.
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This procedure will start the turbine; bring turbine to speed, synchronize the generator to the line
frequency, and load the generator to the pre-selected value. A “breaker closed” indicator will actuate
when the generator circuit breaker has closed placing the synchronized unit online.
Once the generator has been connected to the power system, the turbine fuel flow may be
increased to pick-up load and the generator excitation may be adjusted to obtain the desired KVAR value.
Failure to synchronize properly may result in equipment damage and / or failure, or the
creation of circumstances which could result in the automatic removal of generating
capacity from the power system.
In those cases where out-of-phase breaker closures are not so serious as to cause immediate
equipment failure or system disruption, cumulative damage may result to the on-coming generator.
Repeated occurrence of out-of-phase breaker closure can eventually result in generator failure because
of the stresses created at the time of closure. On load packages with a reduction gear in the gas turbine-
generator train, gear damage may result separately or in conjunction with the generator damage from out-
of-phase breaker closure. Damage may be to the gear teeth or to the quill shaft (if there is a quill shaft).
Out-of-phase breaker closure of a magnitude sufficient to cause either immediate or cumulative
equipment damage mentioned above will usually result in annunciator drops to notify the operator of the
problem. The following annunciator drops have been displayed at various occurrences of known
generator breaker malclosures:
1. High vibration trip
2. Loss of excitation
3. Various AC under voltage drops
Out-of-phase breaker closure will result in abnormal generator noise and vibration at the time of closure.
If there is reason to suspect such breakers malclosure, the equipment should be immediately inspected to
determine the cause of the malclosure and for any damage to the generator and / or reduction gear.