3. Hebrew, Israel, Judaism
Hebrew meaning: abera, pass the river/ nomad. According to Jews their name come from
emigration of Abraham and his descendants to Canaan./ During the emigration they passed
rivers Tigris and Euphrates.
Israel meaning : slave of God/ fighter of God
Israel is the second name of Jacob
“Jacob fights with God...and he demonstrated that he was willing to let God prevail in his life.
In response, God changed Jacob's name to Israel, meaning 'let God prevail. ' God then
promised Israel that all the blessings that had been pronounced upon Abraham's head would
also be his”
Only the “holy seed,” meaning the genetic lineage from Abraham down to the Babylonian
exiles, is the true Israel, which bears no mixing or mingling (Ezra 9:2)
Yehuda/Judah is the fourth son of Jacob and the name of south kingdom of Israel where we
get the term Judaism
Qur'an mentions jews as Israel`s sons for good and Jahudi for bad characteristics.
4. The history of Judaism
The history of the early Jews, and their neighbors, centers on the Fertile
Crescent and east coast of the Mediterranean Sea. It begins among those
people who occupied the area lying between the
river Nile and Mesopotamia. Surrounded by ancient seats of culture
in Egypt and Babylonia, by the deserts of Arabia, and by the highlands
of Asia Minor, the land of Canaan (roughly corresponding to modern Israel,
the Palestinian Territories, Jordan and Lebanon) was a meeting place of
The traditional religious view of Jews and Judaism of their own history was
based on the narrative of the ancient Hebrew Bible. In this view Abraham is
regarded as the first Hebrew/Israelite/Jew and the one who therefore starts
Jewish history as the founder and originator of the Jewish people.
The origins of Jewish faith are explained throughout the Torah. According
to the text, God first revealed himself to a Hebrew man named Abraham,
who became known as the founder of Judaism.
Jews believe that God made a special covenant with Abraham and that he
and his descendants were chosen people who would create a great nation.
Abraham’s son Isaac, and his grandson Jacob, also became central figures
in ancient Jewish history. Jacob took the name Israel, and his children and
future generations became known as Israelites.
More than 1,000 years after Abraham, the prophet Moses led the Israelites
out of Egypt after being enslaved for hundreds of years.
According to scriptures, God revealed his laws, known as the Ten
Commandments, to Moses at Mt. Sinai.
6. The history of Genesis
The origins of Judaism date back more than 3500 years. This religion is
rooted in the ancient near eastern region of Canaan (which today
constitutes Israel and the Palestinian territories). Judaism emerged from
the beliefs and practices of the people known as “Israel”
God creates a world which is good and fit for mankind, but when man
corrupts it with sin God decides to destroy his creation, sparing only the
righteous Noah and his family to re-establish the relationship between
man and God. Genesis
The ancestral history (chapters 12–50) tells of the prehistory of Israel,
God's chosen people. At God's command, Noah's
descendant Abraham journeys from his birthplace into the God-given land
of Canaan, where he dwells as a sojourner, as does his son Isaac and his
. Jacob's name is changed to "Israel", and through the agency of his
son Joseph, the children of Israel descend into Egypt, 70 people in all with
their households and God promises them a future of greatness. Genesis
ends with Israel in Egypt, ready for the coming of Moses and the Exodus.
The narrative is punctuated by a series of covenants with God, successively
narrowing in scope from all mankind (the covenant with Noah) to a special
relationship with one people alone (Abraham and his descendants through
Isaac and Jacob).
In Judaism, the theological importance of Genesis centres on the
covenants linking God to his chosen people and the people to
the Promised Land.
8. Isolation of Jews themselves from
The Jews had the true faith, that of Abraham while
the other surrounding peoples worshiped idols
The Jews were nomads and had no consolidated
civilization so they entered to an inferiority complex.
The persecution throughout history isolated them
9. Moses and the Exodus
Exodus is the liberation of the people of Israel from slavery in Egypt in the
13th century bce, under the leadership of Moses; also, the Old Testament
book of the same name.
The biblical Book of Exodus tells the story of the children of Israel and
their liberation from slavery in Egypt. Moses, who as a child is nearly
killed, tries to convince the Pharoah to free the Israelites.
The Israelites complain that Moses has taken them to die in the wilderness,
and Moses, at God's bidding, parts the sea for the people to cross. Pharaoh
follows and Moses closes the waters back again, drowning the Egyptian
For 40 years, the Israelites wandered in the wilderness, eating quail and
manna. They were led into the Promised Land by Joshua; the victory at
Jericho marked the beginning of possession of the land.
10. Efforts of Moses with the Israelis
the request of worshipping the idols
the request of showing God
the request of worshipping the cow
the 10 orders of Torah
the invitation of Moses for war, for fighting.
the Jews enter Palestine after 40 years.
The story of Talut (Saul), Xhalut (Goliath) and David
11. Judges and Kingdom
For several hundred years, the Land of Israel was organized into a
confederacy of twelve tribes ruled by a series of Judges. After that came
the Israelite monarchy, established in 1037 BCE under Saul, and continued
under King David and his son, Solomon. During the reign of David, the
already existing city of Jerusalem became the national and spiritual capital
of the United Kingdom of Israel and Judah. Solomon built the First
Temple on Mount Moriah in Jerusalem
12. The end of the Kingdom
Upon his death, a civil war erupted between the ten northern
Israelite tribes, and the tribes of Judah (Simeon was absorbed
into Judah) and Benjamin in the south in 930 BCE.
The nation split into the Kingdom of Israel in the north, and
the Kingdom of Judah in the south.
The Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser III conquered the northern
kingdom of Israel in 720 BCE
13. Babylonian captivity
After revolting against the new dominant power and an ensuing siege, the
Kingdom of Judah was conquered by the Babylonian army in 587 BCE and
the First Temple was destroyed. The elite of the kingdom and many of their
people were exiled to Babylon/
Babylonia, where some of the largest and most prominent Jewish cities
and communities were established, became the center of Jewish life.
14. Jews and Persian occupation…
Jews and Hellen occupation…
Jews under Roman occupation…
Wailling wall and Adrian
Christians rule throughout Jews
15. Persian captivity
Persian King Cyrus the Great conquered the Babylonian empire, including
Jerusalem. 516 B.C. — King Cyrus allowed Jews to return to Jerusalem to
rebuild the Temple
16. Roman captivity
Pagan Rome's occupation of that area lasted for roughly 400
years followed by Christian Rome's and then Constantinople's occupation
for 300 years. The first 100 years from Pompey's conquest in 63 BCE to the
end of Pontius Pilate's governorship in 36 CE were terrible.
17. Wailing Wall
The Western Wall, or “Wailing Wall”, is the most religious site in the world
for the Jewish people. Located in the Old City of Jerusalem, it is the
western support wall of the Temple Mount. Thousands of people journey
to the wall every year to visit and recite prayers.
The wall is believed by devout Jews to be the Western Wall of the
Second Temple of Jerusalem (destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE), the
only surviving structure of the Herodian Temple built during the realm of
Herod Agrippa (37 BCE–4 CE) in the first century BCE
18. The Jewish diaspora
The Jewish diaspora began with the Assyrian captivity and continued on a
much larger scale with the Babylonian captivity. Jews were also widespread
throughout the Roman Empire, and this carried on to a lesser extent in the
period of Byzantine rule in the central and eastern Mediterranean.
In 638 CE the Byzantine Empire lost control of the Levant. The Arab Islamic
Empire under Caliph Omar conquered Jerusalem and the lands of
Mesopotamia, Syria and Egypt. The Golden Age of Jewish culture in Spain
coincided with the Middle Ages in Europe, a period of Muslim rule throughout
much of the Iberian Peninsula. During that time, Jews were generally accepted
in society and Jewish religious, cultural, and economic life blossomed.
Between the 12th and 15th centuries, Ashkenazi Jews experienced extreme
persecution in Central Europe, which prompted their massive emigration to
During the Classical Ottoman period (1300–1600), Jews, together with
most other communities of the empire, enjoyed a certain level of
prosperity. In the 17th century, there were many significant Jewish
populations in Western Europe. During the period of the European
Renaissance and Enlightenment, significant changes occurred within the
Jewish community. Jews began in the 18th century to campaign for Jewish
emancipation from restrictive laws and integration into the wider European
While Jews in Western Europe were increasingly granted equality before
the law, they faced growing persecution and legal restrictions in the
Russian pale of settlement, including widespread pogroms, which caused a
mass exodus of more than two million Jews to the United States between
1881 and 1924.
During the 1870s and 1880s, the Jewish population in Europe began to
more actively discuss emigration back to Israel and the re-establishment of
the Jewish Nation in its national homeland. The Zionist movement was
founded officially in 1897.
Zionism is Israel's national ideology. Zionists believe Judaism is a
nationality as well as a religion, and that Jews deserve their own state in
their ancestral homeland, Israel.
Meanwhile, the Jews of Europe and the United States gained success in the
fields of science, culture and the economy. Among those generally
considered the most famous were scientist Albert Einstein and philosopher
Ludwig Wittgenstein. Many Nobel Prize winners at this time were Jewish.
In 1933, with the rise to power of Adolf Hitler and the Nazis in Germany, the Jewish
situation became more difficult.
Economic crises, racial anti-Semitic laws, and a fear of an upcoming war led many Jews
to leave from Europe to Palestine, to the United States and to the Soviet Union.
World War II broke out in 1939, and by 1941 Hitler had invaded almost all of Europe,
including Poland - home to millions of Jews at the time.
In 1941, the Nazis launched an unprecedented large-scale operation aimed at the
extermination of the Jewish people, which resulted in the persecution and killing of Jews
in political Europe, including Europe, North Africa (pro-Nazi Vichy -North Africa and
This genocide, in which approximately six million Jews were methodically exterminated,
is known as the Holocaust or the Shoah (Hebrew term). In Poland, three million Jews
were murdered in gas chambers in all concentration camps combined, with one million
at the Auschwitz camp complex alone.
Palestine, which had been under a British mandate since 1920, saw large waves
of Jewish migration before and during the Holocaust.
After the mandate expired in 1948, David Ben-Gurion proclaimed on May 14
the establishment of a Jewish state in Eretz Israel to be known as the State of
Immediately afterwards all neighbouring Arab states attacked, yet the newly
formed Israel resisted. In 1949 the war ended and the state of Israel started
building the state and absorbing massive waves of hundreds of thousands of
Jews from all over the world.
As of 2020, Israel is a parliamentary democracy with a population of 9.2 million
people, of whom 6.7 million are Jewish. The largest Jewish communities are in
Israel and the United States, with major communities in France, Canada,
Argentina, Russia, United Kingdom, Australia, and Germany.