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PetSystems1.ppt

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PetSystems1.ppt

  1. 1. Petroleum Systems (Part One) Source, Generation, and Migration GEOL 4233 Class August, 2011
  2. 2. Petroleum Systems Source Rock Migration Route Reservoir Rock Seal Rock Trap Elements Generation Migration Accumulation Preservation Processes
  3. 3. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration • Trap • Reservoir
  4. 4. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen) – Host rock (Shales and Coals) Kerogen Types Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic
  5. 5. Siljan ‘Ring’ Inorganic Gas Prospect Drilled to ~22,000’ in 1987 Found abiogenic methane, but no poro-perm
  6. 6. Sedimentary Rocks – Where the Action Is
  7. 7. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen Types) Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic Host rock (Shales and Coals)
  8. 8. Types of Petroleum Oil and gas are formed by the thermal cracking of organic compounds buried in fine-grained rocks. Algae = Hydrogen rich = Oil-prone Wood = Hydrogen poor = Gas-prone
  9. 9. Kerogen Types Type 1 Type 2 Type 3
  10. 10. From the Paleontological Research Institute <http://www.priweb.org/ed/pgws/history/pennsylvania/pennsylvania.html>
  11. 11. Ganges Deltaic Sediments
  12. 12. Modern Mahakam Delta Plain East Kalimantan, Indonesia (A Rich Source of Kerogen)
  13. 13. Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments Arkoma Basin in Oklahoma
  14. 14. Source Material Non-Biogenic Origins Biogenic (Kerogen Types) Type I – Algal (oil prone) sapropelic Type II – Mixed Type III – Woody (gas prone) humic Host Rock (Shales and Coals)
  15. 15. The Origin of Petroleum Organic-rich Source Rock Thermally Matured Organic Matter Oil
  16. 16. Source Rock for Petroleum Organic-Rich Thin Laminae 3.39 378 Total Organic Carbon LOMPOC Quarry Sample Monterey Formation, CA Hydrogen Index 1 Inch
  17. 17. Woodford Shale (Oklahoma)
  18. 18. Channel-Fill Sandstone Resting on Marine Shale Red Fork (Oklahoma)
  19. 19. Coals and Coaly Shales San Juan Basin (New Mexico)
  20. 20. Source rock kerogen can be correlated to oil/gas found in carrier beds and reservoirs
  21. 21. T.O.C. Total Organic Carbon Basinal Summary Chart
  22. 22. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration • Trap • Reservoir
  23. 23. The Petroleum Kitchen Temperature-Pressure-Time Geothermal Gradient: (thermogenic hydrocarbons) Range: <1 to 11 degrees F per 100’ Typical Sedimentary Basins: 1.0-1.7 degrees F per 100’ Good average 1.2 Oil window of ~ 120-300F (50-150C), or about 5,000-20,000’ In practice, oil below 15,000’ rare Gas – no practical limit to stable depth Cracking of oil to gas controlled by source kerogen and temperature Deep basins mostly gas Practical limits related to maturity of source – not reservoir
  24. 24. Hydrocarbon Occurrence & Thermal Maturity
  25. 25. Oklahoma Geologic Provinces
  26. 26. Map of Oklahoma Oil and Gas Fields; Distinguished By GOR and Coalbed Methane Production. From Boyd (2002) (GOR Cutoffs: Oil <5,000; Oil and Gas 5,000-20,000; Gas > 20,000)
  27. 27. Schematic Cross-section of the Anadarko Basin Modified from Witt and others (1971).
  28. 28. Geologic Time Scale Modified From Harland (1990) and Hansen (1991). DIVISIONS OF GEOLOGIC TIME Eon Era Period Epoch Age (approx.) in millions of years Cenozoic Mesozoic Paleozoic Phanerozoic Carboniferous Pennsylvanian Mississippian Tertiary Quaternary Cretaceous Jurassic Triassic Permian Devonian Silurian Ordovician Cambrian Holocene Pleistocene Pliocene Miocene Oligocene Eocene Paleocene Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early Late Early Late Middle Early Late Early Late Middle Early Late Early Late Middle Early Late Middle Early 0.010 1.6 5 23 35 57 65 97 146 157 178 208 235 241 245 256 290 303 311 323 345 363 377 386 409 424 439 464 476 510 517 536 570
  29. 29. Regional Stratigraphic Cross-Section (Hung from Top of Booch) Oklahoma Arkoma Basin (Booch) (Present burial depth not necessarily maximum burial depth)
  30. 30. Arkoma Basin Estimated Overburden Removal
  31. 31. Petroleum System Summary • Source (Material and Rocks) • Generation (Maturation) • Migration (Expulsion) • Trap • Reservoir
  32. 32. Source Rock for Petroleum Organic-Rich Thin Laminae LOMPOC Quarry Sample Monterey Formation, CA 1 Inch
  33. 33. Migration Pathways • Hydrocarbon Expulsion • Vertical vs. Horizontal Migration • Residual Saturations
  34. 34. GEOGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Present-Day STRATIGRAPHIC EXTENT OF PETROLEUM SYSTEM Petroleum accumulation Top of oil window Bottom of oil window Trap Trap Trap Seal Reservoir Source Underburden Overburden A A’ Magoon and Dow, 1994 Present-Day Petroleum System
  35. 35. Inferred Middle Booch Depositional Environments Arkoma Basin in Oklahoma
  36. 36. Spill Point Spill Point Seal Rock (Mudstone) Reservoir Rock (Sandstone) Migration from ‘Kitchen’ 1) Early Generation 2) Late Generation Gas displaces all oil Gas beginning to displace oil Displaced oil accumulates Petroleum System
  37. 37. The Leaky Trap
  38. 38. Petroleum System Processes 24803 Petroleum System Elements Petroleum System Elements 120° F 120° F 350° F 350° F Generation Generation Migration Migration Seal Rock Seal Rock Reservoir Rock Reservoir Rock Oil Oil Water Water Gas Cap Gas Cap Entrapment Entrapment Accumulation Source Rock
  39. 39. Schematic Migrational Pathways From Basin to Shelf
  40. 40. Asphalt Seep Viola Limestone (Oklahoma) The End of the Road
  41. 41. On to the Trap
  42. 42. One More Thing……. Basin Assignments • North American • San Juan Michigan • East Texas Appalachian • Gulf Coast Big Horn • Anadarko Salina • Arkoma Pedregosa • Powder River Denver • Wind River Forest City • Green River • Williston • Delaware • Midland • Black Warrior • Fort Worth • Others………..
  43. 43. Facts to Consider Basin Location, Size, Maximum Depth, Age (from basement to outcrop + max subsidence), Stratigraphy Other items; eg - Structure (extensional, compressional) Petroleum System Source Rocks: Name(s), kerogen type(s), TOC, depth to top of oil window, kitchen location Migration Pathways: Carrier bed(s), faults, distance (vertical and horizontal) Traps: Structural, Stratigraphic, Combination (dominant type) Reservoirs: Names, Rock types (both reservoir and seal) Representative Fields (The biggest ones) OOIP, OGIP, RF, Cum Prod Other notable Facts – anything else you want to add (history, technology, companies, etc) Powerpoint presentation: 10-12 slides (or more), approach as management presentation in which object is to highgrade future exploration opportunities for your company. For any answers you cannot find, treat as source of increased risk of entry.
  44. 44. Map of Selected Sedimentary Basins 1-Williston Basin 2-Powder River Basin 3-Denver Basin 4-Salina Basin 5-Forest City Basin 6-Kennedy Basin 7-Big Horn Basin 8-Wind River Basin 9-Laramide Basin 10-Washakie-Red Desert B. 11-Green River Basin

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