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Chapter 3 PPT.ppt

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Chapter 3 PPT.ppt

  1. 1. The Reformation Chapter 3
  2. 2. • The Protestant Reformation, started by Martin Luther, was a period beginning in the early 1500s that brought widespread intellectual and religious changes. • A movement called Christian Humanism, or Northern Renaissance humanism, was led by Desiderius Erasmus and designed to reform the Catholic Church. • The need for reform came after a period of widespread corruption in the Church. Religious Impact of the Renaissance
  3. 3. Erasmus had strong faith in the power of education. This belief extended to the idea that a proper education could be used to mold peaceful minds, free from impure appetites. Holbein surrounded his subject with objects related to his interests. Erasmus studied Greek texts, including the Greek version of the Christian Bible. He also edited the works of Jerome, a medieval figure known as one of the fathers of the Catholic Church, who published a Latin version of the Bible. Dutch theologian and humanist Desiderius Erasmus was one of the greatest intellectuals of his time. He promoted the humanist belief that people could better themselves by studying the classics. Through his writings, such as The Praise of Folly, Erasmus encouraged reform within the Church by calling out ecclesiastical abuses and comparing them to practices from the past.
  4. 4. • Martin Luther’s break from the Catholic Church to begin the Protestant Reformation was based on the idea that people received salvation through faith instead of good works to help others. • Luther’s ideas were written in his Ninety-five Theses and made public in 1517. • Luther broke with the Catholic Church over issues such as baptism, the Eucharist, and the rules keeping clergy celibate and unmarried. • After Martin Luther was excommunicated from the Church and sent into hiding, his religious views became the Lutheran religion, the first Protestant religion. Martin Luther
  5. 5. Martin Luther Disagrees with the Church • The Catholic Church stressed achieving salvation through both good works and faith. Luther believed that good works could result in righteousness but not salvation. • In the Ninety-five Theses, Luther criticized the selling of indulgences. • These disagreements eventually led Luther to break completely with the Catholic Church and create the first Protestant church.
  6. 6. • The Holy Roman emperor, Charles V, saw Luther’s movement as a disruption to political and social order. • Charles V wanted to keep his empire Catholic, but his rivalry with Francis I of France led to wars. • Religious warfare lasted many years, until the Peace of Augsburg. As a result, German states were allowed to choose whether their subjects would follow Catholicism or Lutheranism. Political Impact of the German Reformation
  7. 7. The Peace of Augsburg • The treaty formally recognized the division of religion in Germany. • It allowed German states to choose between Catholicism and Lutheranism. • It held that a political ruler, but not subjects, could determine a state’s religion. • It called for Lutheran and Catholic states to share the same legal rights. In 1555 the peace of Augsburg ended religious warfare in Germany.
  8. 8. John Calvin and Calvinism • Converted to Protestantism • Fled from his native France to Switzerland • Published Institutes of the Christian Religion, which established him as a leading thinker in Protestantism • Believed in the all-powerful nature of God and predestination • Like Martin Luther, believed salvation was justified by faith alone • Calvinism replaced Lutheranism as most important form of Protestantism John Calvin (1509–1564)
  9. 9. John Calvin on Predestination “All are not created on equal terms, but some are preordained to eternal life, others to eternal damnation; and, accordingly, as each has been created for one or other of these ends, we say that he has been predestinated to life or to death.” — from John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, 1536
  10. 10. The Zwinglian Reformation • Ulrich Zwingli was an influential priest in the Swiss city of Zürich. • Zwingli persuaded the Zürich city council to introduce religious reforms. • He supported a new church service that featured scripture reading, prayer, and sermons. • He sought an alliance with Martin Luther and the German reformers. • Zwingli was killed in a war between Protestant and Catholic states in Switzerland.
  11. 11. Anabaptists • Advocated for complete separation of church and state • Members would not participate in government. • Members were not baptized until they reached adulthood. • Declared ultimate church authority should rest with the local community of believers • Each church chose its own minister from the community. Why were Anabaptists considered dangerous radicals by both Catholics and Protestants?
  12. 12. Reformation and Society • Family placed at the center of community life; clergy could marry • Anti-Semitism common o Martin Luther hostile to Jews, urged that synagogues be destroyed o Establishment of ghettos in the Papal States • Role of women was to obey husband and bear children What was European society like during the Reformation?
  13. 13. Catholic Reformation • The Catholic Reformation was a revitalization of the Catholic Church. It was also known as the Counter-Reformation. • Ignatius of Loyola founded the Society of Jesus, or Jesuits. o Members of the Jesuit order vowed obedience to the pope. o The Jesuits used education to spread their message. o They were successful in missionary work.

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