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X-ray diagnostic methods.pptx

  2. All methods of X-ray examination are divided into general and special. The general methods include techniques designed to study any anatomical areas and performed on general-purpose X-ray machines. Private techniques include those that allow you to obtain an image on special installations designed for the study of certain organs and areas (mammography, orthopantomography, etc.).
  3. The special techniques also include a large group of X- ray contrast studies, in which the image is obtained using artificial contrast (bronchography, angiography, excretory urography, etc.).
  4. Fluoroscopy is a research technique in which an image of an object is obtained on a luminous (fluorescent) screen in real time. The patient is placed on a special tripod. X-rays, passing through the patient's body, hit the screen and cause it to glow - fluorescence. The fluorescent screen glow is very weak, so fluoroscopy was performed in the dark. The image on the screen was poorly visible, fine details were not differentiated, and the radiation exposure was high.
  5. As an improved method of fluoroscopy, X-ray television transmission is used using an X-ray image amplifier - an electron-optical converter and a closed-circuit television system.
  6. The X-ray image on the display can be viewed in an illuminated room. The radiation exposure to the patient and medical personnel is significantly less. In fluoroscopic examination, a positive planar black and white image is formed in real time.
  7. Disadvantages of fluoroscopy: 1. The radiation exposure is high. 2. The technique has a low ability to see and evaluate small details.
  8. Radiography. This is a technique of X-ray examination, in which a static image of an object is obtained, recorded on any information carrier: X-ray film, photographic film, digital detector. Any anatomical area can be captured on radiographs. Pictures of the entire anatomical region (head, chest, abdomen) are called overview. Pictures showing a small part of the anatomical area are called sighting pictures.
  9. Some organs are clearly visible in the images due to natural contrast (lungs, bones), others (stomach, intestines) are clearly visible on radiographs only after artificial contrast. Passing through the object of study, X- rays are delayed. Where the radiation is delayed more, shading areas are formed. Where there is less - enlightenment.
  10. X-ray images can be positive and negative. In a negative image, bones appear light, air appears dark, and in a positive image, vice versa.
  11. Advantages of radiography over fluoroscopy: 1. High resolution. 2. Possibility of evaluation by many researchers of the retrospective study of the image. 3. Possibility of long-term storage and comparison of images with repeated images in the process of dynamic observation of patients 3. Reducing the radiation exposure to the patient.
  12. Disadvantages of radiography: increased material costs, obtaining the desired image not immediately, but after a certain time. The X-ray technique is available to all hospitals and is used everywhere. X-ray machines of various types make it possible to perform radiography not only in an X-ray room, but also outside it, in non-stationary conditions.
  13. The main advantages of digital radiography over traditional ones: speed of image acquisition, wide possibilities of its post-processing, absence of a photolaboratory process, and electronic archiving of images. Computerization of X-ray equipment allows you to quickly transfer images over long distances without loss of quality, including to other medical institutions.
  14. Fluorography - photographing an X-ray image from a fluorescent screen onto photographic film of various formats. Such an image is always reduced. In terms of information content, fluorography is inferior to radiography, but when using large- frame fluorograms, the difference between these techniques becomes less significant.
  15. The main purpose of fluorography, associated with the speed of its implementation, is mass examinations to identify latent lung diseases (prophylactic fluorography). Fluorographic devices can be transported, therefore it makes it possible to carry out mass examinations in areas where there is no X-ray diagnostic equipment. Currently, film fluorography is being replaced by digital. Digital fluorography has all the advantages of digital radiography.