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Theorist cards.docx

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Theorist cards.docx

  1. 1. Dick Hebdige (1979) Theory: • Studies British Youth Subcultures (Late 1970’s) • Focused on the reality of youth cultures • Subcultures = Youths to express themselves and to challenge hegemony (mostly through style) Representation of youth: • Hebdige argues that the representation of youths is very limited. Either shown as trouble or fun, there is no in between. Suggests media representation of youths is not reality Effects of these representations: • This would effect the representation of youths dramatically. Due to them either being shown in two different ways of being trouble or having fun in the media it suggests that we never get to see the good and hard working teens of society who fade into the background (which is then seen by the media as boring) Role of media representations in society: • By looking at this theory we are able to see that the media in society tends to ignore the good representations of teens and focuses on the negative. This therefore portrays them to adults as all youths behave in this manner.
  2. 2. David Gauntlett (2002) ‘How we form our identities using media texts’ • He studied the role of media in self-identity and self expression and the making and sharing of digital media Old Media • The ‘media gods’ • Passive Audience • ‘Appointment to view’ • Expensive • Separate platforms • Centralised • Wasted time/Cognitive • Surplus New Media • Web 2.0 • User generated • Cross platforms • Inexpensive to produce • Decentralised • Social • ‘Making is connecting’ • He proposed in 2008, ‘the Make and Connect agenda’, in an attempt to rethink audience studies in the context of media users as producers as well as consumers of media material. • He argues that there is a shift from a ‘sit back and be told culture’ to a ‘making and doing culture’, and that harnessing creativity in both Web 2.0 and in other everyday creative activities will play a role in tackling environmental problem.
  3. 3. Tajfel &Turner (1979) Theory: • Becoming a part of different groups and how membership to these groups helps construct our identities. • They suggested that people have an inbuilt tendency to categorise themselves into one or more in-groups, building a part of their identity on the basis of membership of that group and enforcing boundaries with other groups. Categorisation: • The way in which people put others (and ourselves) into categories. We label one another based on interest, ethnicity, gender, occupation and other factors. Identification: • Your collective identity becomes your in-group. This could be your family, a friendship group or classmates. A group or individual that poses as a threat to your in-group is called the out-group. Comparison: • People compare themselves and their groups with other groups, seeing a favourable bias towards the group in which they belong. Nowadays, we see youths dividing themselves into social groups or subcultures based on clothing, music or other interests. Can you think of some examples? Henri Tajfel
  4. 4. Charles Acland (1995) Theory: • Media representations – Delinquent youths = enhance authority • Done by ideal of ‘Norm’ adult and youth behaviour = contrasts deviant youth behaviour = unacceptable Representation of youth: • Media representations of young people = allows state to control them (E.g. ASBO’s) • This is known as ‘ideology of protection’ Idea that youths need to be constantly watched = Youth is the time where they learn about social roles/values State needs to confirm these values Effects of these representations: • This therefore effects the representations as the adults see youths as being reckless and they have to keep enforcing that these actions are bad. This is to enforce the hegemony of how they should not behave when it comes to adulthood. This means that there will be more negative stories in the media Role of media representations in society: • From this theory we are able to see that adults believe it is necessary to show youths in such a disastrous way. This is so they can tell youths how to and how not to act so they can enforce middle class hegemony.
  5. 5. John Fiske (Genre Theory) Theory Genre as 'Convenience' for Producers and Audiences “Attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convince of both producers and audiences” Audience Theory: Focus = We all create a context for what we are seeing through intertextual referencing In my words: If a movie series already has a set genre and you announce a new movie in that series, the audience will instantly assume its of the same genre, and will follow a similar plot because that is what they're expecting of that series. Personal example Year 12’s film ‘The Wish List’ is all about a girl who completes her bucket list, so it follows through what you expect from the film title. Niche example The film ‘Gone Too Far’, you expect it to be your typical hoodie horror, with guns and drinking and partying 24/7, when in fact it’s an innocent comedy with young people acting in an adolescent way. Mainstream example "With X-Men Origins: Wolverine, a familiar action adventure formula is developed (hybridized with Science Fiction and the Superhero genre) which serves to ensure 20th Century Fox target a market who have expectations in terms of conventions"
  6. 6. Henry Jenkins (Genre Theory/Collective identity) Theory Genre constantly 'Breaks Rules' e.g. evolving hybridization: "Hybridization is now commonplace to maximize audience appeal but also to offer a unique selling point by appearing to break the rules In my words: Combining two opposite genres into one, to appeal to a wider audience “We need to interact in order to form our identity” -or interact with media representations -participating in an event(in reality or virtually) with people with whom we feel affinity helps us to form collective identity Strengthening elements of your own identity through solidarity with others Clothes, hair, drugs, lifestyle, films, books, music –cultural texts that alter opportunity for solidarity with others who have similar tastes Especially valuable to those who feel like outsiders already In my words: The people and environment we live in. forms who we are and who the people are we spend our time with Personal example In high school, if ‘Populars’ start wearing a trendy piece of clothing, other students might start copying that certain style to fit in or become ‘Popular’ Niche example Zombieland: Horror/Comedy ALS ICE BUCKET CHALLEGE Mainstream example Submarine is both social realist in format but using comedy conventions typical for a rites of passage film Kylie Jenner's lips influenced thousands of girls to plump and enhance their lips
  7. 7. Louis Althusser (Marxist theory) Theory -1969 Identity theory: Focus = Interpellation “Represents the imaginary relationship of individuals to their real conditions of existence” This means that Althusser believes that ideology are circulated by agencies(The Media) and help to construct peoples identities. But because this is so subtle and covert, members of society don’t realise this is happening. In my words: The media have gradually engraved extreme stereotypes into our heads , making us prejudge people unconsciously Personal example Walking home from school late, not walking through alleys or quiet streets, in case of bumping into gangs of hoodies. Niche example Teens in hoodies: chavs, Thugs Men/women in suits: Good, Hardworking Mainstream example The Riots: The hoody is the material existence of the representation of teenagers and symbolises moral decline of a generation who pose a threat to the Capitalist system because they may be unemployable.
  8. 8. • Theory • Genre as 'Convenience' for Producers and Audiences • “Attempts to structure some order into the wide range of texts and meanings that circulate in our culture for the convince of both producers and audiences” • Audience Theory: Focus = We all create a context for what we are seeing through intertextual referencing • In my words: If a movie series already has a set genre and you announce a new movie in that series, the audience will instantly assume its of the same genre, and will follow a similar plot because that is what they're expecting of that series. • Personal example • Year 12’s film ‘The Wish List’ is all about a girl who completes her bucket list, so it follows through what you expect from the film title. • Niche example • The film ‘Gone Too Far’, you expect it to be your typical hoodie horror, with guns and drinking and partying 24/7, when in fact it’s an innocent comedy with young people acting in an adolescent way. • Mainstream example • "With X-Men Origins: Wolverine, a familiar action adventure formula is developed (hybridized with Science Fiction and the Superhero genre) which serves to ensure 20th Century Fox target a market who have expectations in terms of conventions" John Fiske (Genre Theory)
  9. 9. • Cultivation theory – Gerbner studied the effect of television and found that media overestimates crime. News reports/TV dramas/ Films = lots of crime and this influences the perception of the world. • MSM – Daily Mail and Fox news like fear • Niche – Essex Chronicle very negative all crime • Personal – can you think of one? Are you scared of walking around Peckham at night? Gerbner
  10. 10. • Contemporary ‘Hoodie Cinema’ reflects middle class anxiety about the threat of the working class. • MSM – The Guardian article “Hoodies strike fear in British cinema.” Media link social classes with strong stereotypes, anyone below middle class is a hooligan. • Niche – Essex Chronicle article “Teens hurl large rock from bridge at car on A12” Linking the incident with youth however there is no proof that teenagers committed the crime however the paper links it with teens because the people running away matched the teenage stereotype. • Personal – There was an article I read and I believed it. This makes me anxious of hoodies Greg Philo
  11. 11. • “A star is an image not a real person that is constructed (as any other aspects of fiction is) out of a range of materials (e.g. advertising, magazines etc. as well as film, Music) • MSM – Any music video abides by this theory because they want to sell their artist. • Niche – This theory doesn’t really apply to a niche audience however someone like tobuscus a YouTuber is a niche star, This is because he is only known to a select group. • Personal – My love for David Beckham Richard Dyer
  12. 12. MSM The mass media such as newspapers and news TV programmes broadcasted a stereotype of all teenagers who wear hoodies as hooligans such as David Cameron's press for his ‘Hug a hoodie’ campaign, leading to teenagers seeing the stereotype so much that they conform to it. This ultimately caused the London riots. Niche Personal When I started to what The Only Way Is Essex I started to pick up the language that they were using like “babe” in my everyday speech without me realising. This can be applied to al platforms.
  13. 13. MSM Kylie Jenner (find UK equivalent) and other celebrities dress and look in certain ways, making the working class believe that that is the acceptable way to look, making us believe that the people who do not conform to these norms are different. Niche Local newspapers covering young people knife crime Personal Social media websites such as Facebook control what you can and can’t see, making you people that what you see or the way that you portray your profile, creating a hegemonic ideology that people think is the only one.
  14. 14. MSM News papers such as the Daily Mail and broad casting television shows such as BBC News published stories about youths being Hooligans and used imagery of teens wearing hoodies. This created the Hoodie Horror. Niche When “BREAKING NEWS: Arsonists torch five cars in Melbourne and Newlands Spring areas of Chelmsford” hit the front page of Essex Chronicle with a big picture ofa car set on fire with the culprits being a “group of teens” as said in the article, it strikes fear into the heart of society about the youths near where the public live. This makes them fear teens. Personal Through the use of Facebook the Essex Chronicle uploads statuses and links to their websites about incidents that are to do with drugs, stabbings, etc, striking fear to people seeing the update.
  15. 15. Henry Giroux 1997 Henry Giroux 1997 Theory Empty Category: the representation of youth is determined by adults and their fears. This theory suggests that the identity of the youth is not created from real problems but instead the fears the media produce. You can apply the hypodermic theory to Giroux as the fear is created rather than a representation of real problems. Examples MSM: Top Boy (2011-2013), this channel 4 series convey the London drug scene, although the main characters are adults, the programme shows how teenagers and kids are involved in drugs and violence. Although the target audience is young people, broadcasted on channel four, the greatest influence is experience on older viewers. Niche: Essex Chronicle Teens hurl large rock from bridge at car on A12, a horrific attack on a middle
  16. 16. Stuart Hall Stuart Hall looked at the role of audience positioning in the interpretation of mass media texts by different social groups. He came up with three ways we read media texts; dominant reading, negotiated reading and oppositional reading. Personal: Instagram/twitter/facebook posts may appeal to teenagers and younger people where as older people may think differently and disagree. For example if there's a missing teenager in the area, younger people may think they are in need of help where as older people may think they deserve what they get by being bad- mannered. Niche: Essex Chronicle “Teen bailed and another released without charge after Taser incident outside Chelmsford McDonalds”. The wording of this headline shows each audience age group could take different impressions from the title. For example, older ages would go with the negative stereotype and say the article is saying teens are bad where as youths which the same age may believe the article suggests they haven't done anything wrong as they were released. Mainstream: This image is taken from a mainstream newspaper article. The title was ‘hoodies, louts, scum’. The audience may agree and think this image shows a threatening teenager (dominant reading) where as some may think he looks sad and disagree that all teenagers are ‘scum’ this is oppositional reading. Some may see both ways of the image being negotiated.
  17. 17. Giroux (1997) Giroux argues that in media representations youth becomes an ‘empty category’ because media representations of young people are constructed by adults therefore young people do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity. Personal: Teenagers are avoided by older people when out on the streets, they may cross the road to be on the opposite side to avoid trouble, but in reality the teenagers are most likely harmless and have no bad intentions. Niche: “Two teenagers arrested on suspicion” shows the stereotype being used, assuming the event had something to do with teenagers. Even if It had been because of this, it still shows the word ‘teenagers/ putting them in the ‘empty category’ Mainstream: Daily mail “British youths are ‘the most unpleasant and violent in the world’ this was written at the time of the London riots. This suggests every teenager is violent and unpleasant which is not true for everyone therefore is putting them in an ‘empty category’ as there are all seen as the most common stereotype.
  18. 18. Pluralism Pluralism is defined as a society where multiple people, groups or individuals share political power, an example of pluralism is a society where people with different cultural backgrounds keep their own tradition. Think of it as having a choice. Government – Legal System – Church – MEDIA (the fourth estate) Personal: Watching C4 Teens girl No More Page 3 campaign Niche: In areas in north west London there are various multi cultural communities Mainstream: Question Time
  19. 19. Daniel Chandler "Conventional theories of genre tend to be based on the notion that they constitute particular conventions of content" Daniel Chandler suggests that genres can become too restricted to all the conventions in them, not allowing them to become diverse and change. Chandler's theory suggests that a genre can be restricted to the current conventions used, however some of those people who have different beliefs in what should happen in a movie in a certain genre have their views drowned by the many other beliefs of conventions that should be included. "Conventional definitions of genre are based on the idea that they share particular convention of content e.g. themes or setting." MSM – Marvel films Niche – World cinema
  20. 20. Steve Neale’s theory of repetition and difference "Genres are instances of repetition and difference" "Difference is absolutely essential to the economy of genre" Steve Neale is saying that a film and it's genre is defined by two things: 1) How much it conforms with a genre's stereotypes and conventions. He says that a film must conform to these conventions enough that it can still qualify and be identified as a film of that genre. 2) How much a film subverts the genre's stereotypes and conventions. He says that a film must subvert these conventions enough that it is still viewed as a unique film, not just a clone. Miss Brookes says remember DISTINCT acronym if writing about genre. Setting, Theme, Icons, Narrativ, Character, Text Analysis MSM – Superhero films Niche – Indie films
  21. 21. Stuart Hall Stuart Hall at Birmingham University in the considered how texts were encoded with meaning by producers and then decoded (understood) by audiences Reception Theory - The theory suggests that: When a producer constructs a text it is encoded with a meaning or message that the producer wishes to convey to the audience. In some instances audiences will correctly decode the message or meaning and understand what the producer was trying to say. In some instances the audience will either reject or fail to correctly understand the message. Stuart Hall identified three types of audience readings (or decoding) Dominant, Preferred or Negotiated Dominant- Where the audience decodes the message as the producer wants them to do and broadly agrees with it E.g. Watching a political speech and agreeing with it Negotiated Where the audience accepts, rejects or refines elements of the text in light of previously held views E.g. Neither agreeing or disagreeing with the political speech or being disinterested Brexit Oppositional - Where the dominant meaning is recognised but rejected for cultural, political or ideological reasons E.g. Total rejection of the political speech and active opposition. Can you think of egs with reps of youth in the media? Mainstream, Niche, Personal
  22. 22. Hypodermic Needle theory 1920-30 Hypodermic Needle theory 1920-30 Theory This theory highlights how the media create fear in society, the original idea dates back to war propaganda in America. Since then the media has used this theory to manipulate consumers and indoctrinate (alter political beliefs) people. This theory can be likened to moral panic where the media create fear amongst people. Examples MSM: The fear of Britons leaving to join ISIS in Syria has been exaggerated by the media. All the news stories about dangerous websites and social media outlets that draw young people to ISIS create fear in society that anyone could be persuaded by the extremist groups. Niche: The Essex Chronicle commonly produce stories about youth violence. In March 17th 2016, the front cover shown youth arson, other stories include teenager knife crime and possession of class a drugs. The assumption that these criminals
  23. 23. Author of ‘Mediated: How the Media Shapes Your World and the Way You Live in It’ (2005) Explanation of theory: In his book he asserts that almost everything (information, values, news, role models) comes to us through some media platform (TV, print, web, magazines, films) so will undoubtedly influence our view of life and therefore our own self definition. Mediated- how the media shapes your wold and the way you live in it. When viewing a media text we are not seeing reality, but someone’s version of it. Mainstream: BBC News- an image of teenagers used but shows them looking scruffy, wearing hoodies which are deemed intimidating. Their backs are facing the camera which could represent how they are neglected as the article is about getting rid of youth services. Niche: Essex Chronicle April 12th 2016- they chose a very close up harsh image of the reality of what happened. This makes it look very serious because of the damage it caused to someone’s face. However it is unexpected that teenagers were not mentioned in the headline as in the article it states ‘Two teenage boys hurled a rock at a car from a bridge on the A12.’ Personal: De Zengotita
  24. 24. Maffesoli
  25. 25. Theodor Adorno – I like this guy! Good for the future? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4YGnPgtWhsw

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