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A LEVEL
MEDIA STUDIES
Delivery Guide
Audiences and Institutions:
The Film Industry
August 2015
Media Studies
2 Copyright © OCR 2015
CONTENTS
Introduction 											Page 3
Curriculum Content										Page 4
Thinking conceptually										Page 5
Thinking contextually										Page 6
Learner Resources											Page 15
A Level Media Studies
Delivery Guide
3 Copyright © OCR 2015
Delivery guides are designed to represent a body of
knowledge about teaching a particular topic and contain:
•	 Content: A clear outline of the content covered by the
delivery guide;
•	 Thinking Conceptually: Expert guidance on the key
concepts involved, common difficulties students may
have, approaches to teaching that can help students
understand these concepts and how this topic links
conceptually to other areas of the subject;
•	 Thinking Contextually: A range of suggested teaching
activities using a variety of themes so that different
activities can be selected which best suit particular
classes, learning styles or teaching approaches.
If you have any feedback on this Delivery Guide or
suggestions for other resources you would like OCR to
develop, please email resourcesfeedback@ocr.org.uk.
KEY
Click to view associated resources
within this document.
Click to view external resources
Introduction
4 Copyright © OCR 2015
As part of the AS Media Studies examination learners are required to study a unit on Institutions and Audiences. The focus of
this unit can be one of six industries: Film, Music, Newspaper, Radio, Magazines or Video Games. This section of the AS course
is worth 25% of the overall AS qualification and is examined by one question worth 50 marks.
This delivery guide focuses specifically on approaches to delivering the unit through the medium of Film, but many of the
activities and methods found here can be applied to any of the above mentioned areas of study.
Required skills
Learners should be familiar with:
•	 the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice;
•	 the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing;
•	 the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and
exchange;
•	 the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences;
•	 the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences;
•	 the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global
institutions;
•	 the ways in which the candidates’own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of
audience behaviour.
Curriculum Content
5 Copyright © OCR 2015
Approaches to teaching the content:
The activities in the delivery guide are focused on the required
skills in the specification, specifically exploring the processes
of production, methods of distribution and exchange, as well
as patterns of consumption and the relationship between
the institutions and their audiences. The activities within this
delivery guide are structured in a way that ensures that the
learners will cover all of the areas of the unit confidently. It is
intended that the activities in the delivery guide can be used
to explore a range of different case studies. Some examples
of case studies are given but more up to date examples are
always encouraged.
Although this delivery guide is focusing on Film many of the
activities can be used to explore one of the other areas of
study in this unit.
Common difficulties:
There are two potential difficulties that learners may have
when exploring this unit: the first is their confidence in
recognising and using the key terminology and phrases of
the unit. Learners can be put off by language in the exam
question that they find challenging, such as the use of
the terms cross-media-convergence and synergy. Being
confident in using these terms in their writing and being able
to recognise examples of these terms from the case studies
is crucial.
The second possible difficulty is their ability to construct an
‘argument’within their exam answers. Exploring the strengths
and weaknesses of the case studies in relation to the seven
prompts is central to this. It is the intention of this delivery
guide to provide ideas and activities to help with these
two issues.
Conceptual links to other areas of the specification:
If learners use the same media for their Foundation Portfolio
as they are studying in this unit then it is possible to make
some strong links between this unit and the evaluation
that they are required to produce. The evaluation requires
knowledge of media institutions and the process of marketing
to an audience. Section 1 of this unit can also be used as an
introduction to A Level practical work and to prepare learners
for the Foundation Portfolio.
Thinking Conceptually
6 Copyright © OCR 2015
ACTIVITIES
The following activities are designed to be flexible. They focus on the concepts and ideas that learners will be examined on and
can be used in isolation or can form the basis of a scheme of work that addresses the required skills.
It is the intention of this delivery guide to situate as much of the unit content as possible within a practical approach, as a way
of helping learners to understand the processes involved in the film chain by having a go themselves first. It is hoped that by
experiencing some of the practices involved in producing films that learners will have a better understanding when they look at
case study material.
The specification makes suggestions as to possible case study approaches when exploring film. This delivery guide is based on
the approach that compares a large mainstream blockbuster film from a well-known production company with a smaller low-
budget British independent film. These texts form the basis of exploration of the required skills in this unit.
Sections
This delivery guide will be split into three sections:
Section 1 – Learner as prosumer
Section 2 – Exploring real examples
Section 3 – Constructing an argument using case studies
Thinking Contextually
7 Copyright © OCR 2015
SECTION 1: LEARNER AS PROSUMER
Lesson Activities
The activities in this first section all focus on the learners as prosumers, using the key language of the unit as a scaffold for exploring the processes
involved in making films. All the key terms found in Learner Resource 1.0 are drawn from the Specification.
Thinking Contextually
Activities Resources
Lesson activity - key terms and phrases with approaches to unfamiliar vocabulary
This unit contains many terms and phrases that learners will be unfamiliar with. Learner Resource 1.0 is a structured activity that
is a useful starting place for exploring the unit.
•	 In pairs learners try to work out the meanings of some of the key terms and phrases in this unit (Learner Resource 1.0).
•	 After feedback and teacher intervention, learners identify which of the phrases or terms was the easiest and which was the
hardest to understand. Teacher records these for later reference.
•	 Using the flashcards learners test each other on their understanding of the key terms and phrases.
Creating a swede - introductory activities to studying the film industry
The following activities are intended as a way of helping to familiarise learners with many of the processes involved in getting
a film made and out to its audience. These activities are a way of introducing the learners to the basics of the production,
distribution and exchange processes involved in the film industry. Through this learners will become familiar with many of the
terms used within these processes.
A swede is a comedic remake of an iconic film in around two minutes, using home-made props. Films that make good swedes include
Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Speed, and Star Wars IV: A New Hope. The swede can be produced using mobile phones and
access to Youtube or a similar video-sharing site.
Learner Resources
1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4
will be useful for
this activity. See
page 8 for links to
these resources.
Learner
Resource
1.0
8 Copyright © OCR 2015
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 1 - research, planning and production of a swede
Place learners in small groups of three or four and set the brief (Learner Resource 1.1) to research, plan, film and edit a swede.
Minimum equipment is needed as this can be done using mobile phones/tablets if access to video cameras is difficult.
Signpost for learners the stages of production that they are going to model through this activity, such as production processes
and the use of digital technology.
The free downloadable resource http://www.launchingfilms.info/step-step-guide/ is a useful document to use with learners to
explain the process of a film being made.
Lesson activity 2 - creating a marketing campaign for a swede
•	 Set learners the task of creating a marketing campaign for their finished swede (Learner Resource 1.2).
•	 Learners will model processes followed by the film industry by getting their completed swede out to their target audience.
They will do this through a variety of different methods of advertising and marketing, which could include: an online/viral
marketing campaign using social media platforms, basic poster campaign with an explanation of where the posters will be
placed and why, trailer, radio interviews, and press coverage. Learners must release their finished swede online as part of their
marketing campaign.
•	 Signpost for learners the stages of production that they are going to model through doing this activity such as using
cross-media convergence and synergy in the distribution and exchange processes, use of technology in the marketing and
exchange processes and targeting audiences.
Lesson activity 3 - evaluating and presenting the swede
•	 Set learners the task of evaluating and presenting all stages of the swede production. Scaffold this activity around the
processes of production, marketing, distribution, and exchange (Learner Resource 1.3). This can be recorded on a blog to
develop skills that learners could use later in the course when they evaluate their Foundation Portfolio production.
Thinking Contextually
Learner
Resource
1.1
Learner
Resource
1.2
Learner
Resource
1.3
9 Copyright © OCR 2015
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 4 - applying the experience of being a prosumer to the key exam terminology and phrases
This activity can link to Learner Resource 1.0. Learners will apply a series of key words and phrases from the unit to their own
experiences of being media producers.
•	 	Using the flash cards from Learner Resource 1.0, in groups learners be given four or five of the key terms/phrases and will
have to find at least one example from the swede production that relates to the key term or phrase (Learner Resources 1.4).
•	 Scaffold this activity by drawing attention to the required skills.
•	 Learners individually answer an essay question.
Lesson activity 5 - reflecting on the experience of the film chain
This final activity in the Section 1 asks learners to place what they’ve produced and experienced within the film chain, using key
terms learned.
•	 Ask learners to individually brainstorm all the stages of the processes involved in each stage of film chain that they recognise
and have experienced through creating their swede.
•	 Using their brainstorms, learners write about how their experience of the production, distribution and exchange of a media
product can be used to illustrate how the film value chain works (Learner Resource 1.5).
•	 Encourage learners to use as many of the new terms and phrases as they can, and to highlight these in their writing when
they review it at the end of the activity.
Thinking Contextually
Learner
Resource
1.0
Learner
Resource
1.4
Learner
Resource
1.5
10 Copyright © OCR 2015
SECTION 2: EXPLORING REAL EXAMPLES
Section 2 moves the focus away from the learners themselves and towards real examples. It is the intention that these activities are tackled after
Section 1, although the order of the activities in Section 2 can be changed to suit the learners and the time available.
Thinking Contextually
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 6: patterns in audience behaviour and consumption – the UK Market
Using the Film Distributors Handbook (published yearly via their website www.launchingfilms.com) learners explore audience
patterns of behaviour and consumption in British cinemas. This can be supplemented by looking at local cinema releases for
both independent and multiplex cinemas for that week.
•	 	In pairs, learners conduct research into the tastes of British cinema audiences (Learner Resource 2.0).
•	 	Learners compare their own cinema going habits with those covered in the data in the FDA handbook (Learner Resource 2.1)
and from their own research into local cinemas if used.
•	 	A discussion in class can draw out the main similarities and differences between the two groups and what this may tell you
about cinema going habits.
•	 	Signpost key terms used during this discussion, such as national, local and global audiences, mainstream and niche audiences,
process of exchange, digital technology, cross-media convergence and synergy.
Learner
Resource
2.0
Learner
Resource
2.1
11 Copyright © OCR 2015
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 7: researching the launch of a mainstream Hollywood blockbuster and a small independent British film
Use the Launching Films website (www.launchingfilms.com) to select two current or forthcoming films. One should be a
saturated wide release film produced by a large well known film production company, for example Spectre, released in October
2015. The more well known the film the more information available and the easier it will be for learners to complete the research.
A film that is linked to a conglomerate will allow for interesting discussions around ownership, is likely to make good use of
cross-media convergence and synergy in its distribution campaign, is likely to have used technology in interesting ways and will
allow for discussion around audience that is easily accessible for learners. It’s important that this example allows for learners to
recognise and identify examples of all the key terms and phrases that they should now be becoming familiar with. The second
example should be a small budget British film, for example Honeytrap, released May 2015, with a restricted release and a small-
scale marketing campaign. It should be more challenging for learners to be able to find out information about this film. The
intention with this activity is for learners to be able to see, for example, how budget affects the various stages of the film chain,
through a comparison between the two very different case studies.
While it is possible for learners to pick their own examples, this could lead to difficulties when they analyse and compare the case
studies later on. Learners should, however, be encouraged to pick a third case study of their own which can be used for further
comparison later on and provides an opportunity for an extension activity.
Ask learners to reflect back on the experience of being a prosumer through the production of the swede. Remind learners of the
process that they went through when they created their product.
A suggestion would be to explore the mainstream film first, completing the following activities. Then move on to the low budget
film to allow for a more straightforward comparison.
•	 	In pairs or small groups (or can be completed individually) learners research the mainstream, big budget, Hollywood film
using the Internet (Learner Resource 2.2).
•	 	Learners collect together this research, continuing it as part of their homework to allow for more extensive research
outside of the classroom, and present it digitally so that it can be used as a resource for revision and further reference later
in the term.
•	 	Repeat the activities for the low budget film, slightly adapting Learner Resource 2.2.
Thinking Contextually
Learner
Resource
2.2
12 Copyright © OCR 2015
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 8: organising research into the production, distribution, marketing and exchange process
The following activities can be repeated for both the mainstream and the low budget film. The intention here is to help learners
to understand how their research can be categorised.
•	 Put learners into groups of four. Each learner presents one of the four areas of PDME to the rest of their group. Learners can
add to their own research this way using Learner Resource 2.3.
•	 Each group presents two facts from each of the four areas back to a class discussion that the teacher records.
•	 After repeating this for the second case study film, ask learners to identify what they think some of the main differences are
between the two case study films. Encourage learners to use key terminology when doing this. Extend the discussion to
begin thinking about‘why’these differences are evident and link this back to the required skills in the specification.
•	 	Reference can be made to learner’s own experiences as prosumers as a point of comparison.
Lesson activity 9: applying case study texts to the key terms and phrases
This activity requires the flash cards found in Learner Resource 1.0. The activity can be repeated for each case study film. It
extends upon the discussion in the previous activity but can be completed as a stand alone if the discussion did not take place.
Using key terms or phrases from the flashcards learners identify at least three examples from the case study film and record this
onto Learner Resource 2.4. Reference should be made here to the learners’own experiences of the PDME process when making
their swede, if they completed a swede.
Thinking Contextually
Learner
Resource
2.3
Learner
Resource
1.0
Learner
Resource
2.4
13 Copyright © OCR 2015
SECTION 3: COMPARISON AND PREPARING FOR THE EXAM
One possible difficulty with this unit, as outlined above, is the ability to use the case study material to construct an‘argument’in response to an exam
question. The key to being able to do this confidently is to compare the case study films in a way this is scaffolded using the key terms and phrases.
Thinking Contextually
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 10: comparing case study texts
The ability to identify similarities and differences between case study films is key to being able to formulate an argument in the
exam. Learners need to be able to see clearly, for example, where the differences are in terms of funding and the implications for
this throughout the film chain, in order to be able to avoid simply regurgitating information about the films without answering
the question properly. The place to start is to do a direct comparison that is semi-structured.
Learner Resource 3.0 is a simple grid that requires a direct comparison between the two case studies.
•	 	Individually, learners gather together examples from both case studies that explore all of the required skills set out in the
specification. Encourage learners to begin thinking about the implications of the differences between the two case studies,
for example how a low budget for a film may affect cross-media convergence, or how much of an impact synergy has on the
marketing of the films when you look at the success in the box office compared to the budget.
•	 	Elicit through class discussion the similarities and differences between the process of producing a swede or other prosumer
activity and a real film.
Identify where the key terms and phrases are appearing in the grid and the class discussion.
Learner
Resource
3.0
14 Copyright © OCR 2015
Activities Resources
Lesson activity 11: answering exam questions using key terminology and case study texts
Learner resource 3.1 gets learners to focus on past exam questions by identifying the key terms and phrases used, identifying
the focus of the question and formulating an argument. The activity sheet can be adapted to any previous exam question and
can leave our the prompts at the top, instead requiring learners to identify key terms. June 2014 has been modeled for use.
•	 	Individually or in pairs learners look at Summer 2014’s exam question and identify elements from their case study texts
to use in a response. This will form the basis of an essay plan that learners should then write up under timed conditions
(45 minutes).
•	 	Peer marking of the essays is a useful way of learners learning how they could have approached the essay differently.
Lesson activity 12: revising
The unit requires some memory recall as learners will be expected to know some facts and figures about their case studies and
the film industry in general. Use Learner Resource 3.2 to bring together relevant information for the case study texts that is easy
to refer to for revision purposes.
•	 	Learners brainstorm the key facts and figures from their case study films and record them in a quick comparison grid that
they can use to create a revision mind-map resource.
Thinking Contextually
Learner
Resource
3.1
Learner
Resource
3.2
15 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.0 Key Terms and Phrases
•	 	The study of this unit is centred on seven key ‘prompts’ that link to an exam question.
•	 	The exam question might not be exactly the same as each of the‘prompts’so it is useful to define,
understand and learn the key words and phrases
•	 	Learning these key words and phrases will help you to understand what the exam question is asking you,
and which examples from your case studies you will need to talk about.
Task 1
Complete the following activity:
For each of the words below, look up a definition and write it down next to the word.
Key word or phrase Definition – what does it mean?
media consumption
audience behaviour
media ownership
technologies
audiences
national
local
national audience
local audience
institution
international
global
international institution
global institution
hardware
content
convergence
cross media convergence
technological convergence
synergy
proliferation
issues
See
page 7
16 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.0 Key Terms and Phrases
Task 2
Answer the questions below:
•	 	Which words or phrases are the easiest to understand?
•	 	Which are harder to understand and why do you think this is?
•	 What can you do to help you learn the words and what they mean so you understand them if they are used in the exam?
Task 3
Complete the following activity:
Now you have defined the key words and phrases, and hopefully have an understanding of what they might mean, in pairs or small
groups, test each other with the laminated flash cards.
How many you can define without looking at your notes?
Revise these key words and phrases regularly, you will be expected to use them
in the lessons when talking about film and the film industry.
See
page 7
17 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.0 Flash Cards
media consumption
audience behaviour
media ownership
technologies
audiences
national audience
local audience
institution
international
global
international institution
global institution
hardware
content
cross media convergence
technological convergence
synergy
proliferation
issues
See
page 12
See
page 9
18 Copyright © OCR 2015
The Film Industry
Making a swede
A swede is basically a‘naff’remake of a film. It has key scenes, poor acting, homemade props and silly sound.
In order to begin to understand the film chain, you are going to be the producers and distributors of your own swede. You will need
to choose a film to‘swede’, you will decide on the key scenes, props you wish to use and how you will make the music.
You will then produce (film and edit) the swede and upload your completed version to YouTube (distribution). You will then create a
marketing campaign to generate interest in your swede on YouTube, with the aim of achieving as many hits as possible.
Your group will be expected to record the process on your blog. You will talk through your production and marketing campaign in a
group presentation, which your teacher will assess.
Preparing for the production
Task 1 – Some Research into swedes
•	 Either as a class or in groups, you will watch some swedes on YouTube. Find one or two that you like most and post them on your
blog with some explanation of why you like them.
•	 Before you leave the lesson, you need to decide which film you are going to swede.
Task 2 – Preparation for making your swede next week:
•	 Watch clips from the film you have chosen to swede and note down some key lines you could use
•	 Decide which key scenes from the film you could use
•	 Think about music – will you‘da da da’the song or use some other sound?
•	 Gather props you’ll need for your swede and make sure you bring them in to next lesson.
Remember to post all of your ideas to your group blog.
Learner resource 1.1 Research, planning and
production of a swede
See
page 8
19 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.2 Creating a Marketing Campaign
The Film Industry
Creating a Marketing Campaign
For your homework you need to start an ad campaign for the film you are making.
This will form part of a presentation that you will give to the rest of the class.
You need to BLOG all aspects of your ad campaign.
Everybody in the group is required to produce an advert using Photoshop.
Your ad campaign might include some of the following:
•	 	A trailer – posted on YouTube
•	 	Facebook page
•	 	#twitter
•	 	TV interview with the stars or director of your film
•	 	Radio interview
•	 	Radio ad
•	 	Poster campaign (bus, billboard, cinema)
•	 	Viral marketing campaign
•	 	Website or blog
•	 	Webpage banner
Also anything else you can think of!
Tasks should be divided between the group, as well as each person producing an individual newspaper/magazine advertisement.
The film should be treated as a real online release – which it will be! It will be uploaded to YouTube and (like a real online film release) we want you to
get the biggest audience you can for it. Therefore you will need to use every marketing device and strategy available to you.
See
page 8
20 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.3 Evaluating and Presenting
your swede
It is important to reflect on the process of making and distributing your swede so that you can start to think about
how to apply the key terms and phrases that this unit centred on.
Your group must reflect on all the stages of production listed below and bring this together in a presentation.
Choose an electronic method of presentation so that you can refer back to it at a later date.
Production
•	 	Planning
•	 	Props
•	 	Actors/stars
•	 	Scripting
•	 	What technologies did you use?
•	 	Filming
•	 	Editing
•	 	Post production
Marketing
•	 	Cover all the different marketing methods you used
•	 	Did you use synergy in your marketing?
•	 	Did you have a target audience in mind for your swede?
•	 	Show how your marketing spread with the use of the internet
•	 	Have you had any audience participation in the marketing? (eg twitter)
Distribution
•	 	How did your film literally get from your hard drive to the audience? Discuss how useful you found the internet to showcase your
work.
Exhibition
•	 	How many viewers did you get on all the different platforms?
•	 	Did you get any comments?
Finally
•	 	What have you learned about the film industry from this experience?
You will be marked on your contribution to this presentation and on the work that you have
produced towards the project
See
page 8
21 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.4 Applying own production
experience to key terms and phrases
•	 	In groups, you will select a number of flash cards which contain key terms or phrases taken from the seven spec
prompts for the exam.
•	 	For each key term / phrase that you select, write it down in the grid below and then think of at least one example from
your swede production that relates to the key word or phrase.
•	 	If you can, also try and note down which part of the film chain the example relates to: production, distribution,
marketing or exchange.
Key word / Phrase Example(s) from Swede Production
digital technology •	 	Production: Use of DV cameras, flip cameras and still cameras
•	 	Distribution: Use of the Internet to upload and digitally distribute
Swede on Youtube
•	 	Marketing: Use of the internet and social media sites to create a
Facebook page to promote the swede to target audience
•	 	Exchange: use of the internet to view the swede on Youtube
See
page 9
22 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.4 Applying own production
experience to key terms and phrases
Essay question:
How important was the use of digital technology in all stages of the production of your swede?
Refer to key terms and phrases in your answer:
See
page 9
23 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.5 Reflecting on own experience
of the film chain
•	 	In producing, distributing and marketing your own swede, you have become involved in the film chain and
will have exchanged your product through YouTube to reach your intended audience.
•	 	In the exam, you will be required to write about the film chain and the process of production, distribution, marketing and
exchange. In order to help you prepare for this, you will now reflect on your own experience of the film chain.
•	 	In the box below, explain how the film chain works, with examples of the work you produced, and try to incorporate
the words at the bottom of the page into your explanation.
•	 	You are a PROSUMER (the consumer of a film and the producer of the swede that refers to it)
•	 	You have used different DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY to become PRODUCERS
•	 	You have the TECHNOLOGY to DISTRIBUTE because of the internet/YouTube
•	 	You did this OUTSIDE the Film Industry (you are an INDEPENDENT producer)
•	 	You have used CONVERGENT technologies
•	 	You have reached an AUDIENCE
•	 	You have created a SYNERGOUS campaign			
•	 	You might have used CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE
See
page 9
24 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 1.5.1 Film Chain diagram
THE FILM
CHAIN
PRODUCTION
EXCHANGE
DISTRIBUTION
MARKETING
See
page 9
25 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.0 Patterns in audience behaviour and consumption
Task:
We are going to research into the tastes of British film audiences and look at some statistics and findings:
Which days do audiences go to the cinema?
Which genre is the most popular?
Which were the top films for each of these genres in
(*insert year*)
How do audiences hear about films?
How much money is spent on advertising?
Do audiences prefer UK, USA or other films?
Do audiences like 3D films?
What do audiences prefer – the Cinema or Home cinema?
The cinema?
Video?
On Demand?
Online?
Who do audiences go to the cinema with?
When and where are people most likely to go to the
cinema in the UK?
Some conclusions:
•	 	How similar is your own viewing habits to those of the wider British audience?
•	 	What is your favourite genre?
•	 	When do you go to the cinema and who with?
•	 	How do you prefer to watch films?
•	 	Do you enjoy 3D films?
•	 	Would you choose a Hollywood production over a British or non-English language film?
See
page 10
26 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.1 Comparison between student and cinema-goer
viewing habits
Cinema Going Habits of AS Media Students Vs National Stats:
Interview a member of your class to find out their own cinema going habits. You will be asked to report back this information to the rest of the class.
What was the last film you saw at the cinema?
How often do you go to the cinema?
How many times do you visit the cinema in a year?
Do you tend to go to the cinema on any particular day of the week?
What is your favorite genre of film?
How do you hear about new films? (eg: trailers, texts, posters,
advertising on buses, internet advertising, through magazines,
word of mouth etc etc
When you go to the cinema, do you buy refreshments?
What do you buy?
Are you persuaded to see movies because they feature particular
film stars? If so, who?
Do you prefer to watch Hollywood movies at the cinema, or films
from elsewhere (like British films or Bollywood films)?
How many movies have you seen at the cinema in 3D?
Are your more or less interested in movies if they are 3D?
What’s better – home cinema or The Cinema?
Did you see your favourite film of all time at the cinema?
Have you ever bought a DVD of a film you have seen at the cinema?
Do you watch films online? And do you pay for online movies?
With how many people do you usually visit the cinema?
See
page 10
27 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.1 Comparison between student and cinema-goer
viewing habits
Write down four points in conclusion here:
1
2
3
4
This grid could now be used to answer the exam question‘How does your own experience of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends
of audience behaviour?’
See
page 10
28 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.2 Researching Case Study Film
In the exam, you will be required to answer the film industry question using your knowledge of two case study films.
We will study the films in depth over the next few weeks and find out everything there is to know about them.
Your first case study film is:
For the first half of the lesson, you will research into case study film 1 and post everything you can find about its production,
distribution, marketing and exhibition on your group blog, with the relevant information, videos and images underneath each
heading. You might want to delegate an aspect of the film chain for each group member to ensure that you have enough examples.
Some things that you will need to find out are listed below, but try to find out as much as possible about the film and not just what
is listed here:
•	 	Who produced the film?
•	 	Who owns this production company and what other films have they produced?
•	 	Who directed the film?
•	 	What other films have they directed?
•	 	What was the budget?
•	 	Who stars in it?
•	 	What other films have they been in?
•	 	What technology has been used to make the film? (What cameras did they use? How was the film edited? What CGI was involved?)
•	 	How was the film marketed? Which different marketing tools were used?
•	 	What examples of synergy with other products/merchandise can you find?
•	 	What examples of cross media convergence can you find?
•	 	What examples of technological convergence can you find?
•	 	Where and when was Guardians of the Galaxy released (nationwide, worldwide) and in what cinemas?
•	 	What formats was it available in (digital / 3D etc…)?
•	 	Who is the target audience?
Make your research as visually interesting as possible with images and videos.
After the research activity, you will be expected to identify examples that link to the key terms and phrases in the exam, so your
research needs to be as detailed and as thorough as possible.
See
page 11
29 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.3 Organising research into the film chain
CASE STUDY OF A FILM
•	 	Now you have researched into the recent release of a case study film which is:
•	 	In groups, present your research findings back to each other and, using the table below, organise your answers into the relevant part of the
film chain: production, distribution, marketing or exchange.
•	 	Aim to bring together as much information as you can, with as many examples as possible, for each part of the film chain.
Production – studio; producer; director; idea; budget; main cast; crew;
locations; technologies used to make the film etc…
Distribution – distribution company and relationship to studio; type
of release wide or restricted; global or national distribution; distribution
format; technologies used to distribute (e.g. digital) etc…
Marketing – budget for marketing campaign; online and offline
marketing strategies; timings for the campaign, target audience; global
or national campaign; technologies used to market the film etc…
Exchange – date of release; wide or restricted release; number of
screens; type of theatres exhibiting (multiplex or independent);
technologies used to exhibit (3D / IMAX/ 2D) weekend box office figures;
ancillary windows; other types of exchange etc…
See
page 12
30 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 2.4 Application of key terms and
phrases to case study text
KEY WORDS and PHRASES – Case Study Film: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Applying your research of the PDME of your case study film to the key exam terms and phrases:
•	 	In groups, you will select a number of key terms or phrases taken from the seven spec prompts for the exam.
•	 	For each key term / phrase that you select, write it down in the grid below and then think of at least three examples from the
case study film that relates to the key term or phrase.
•	 	For each example, note down which part of the film chain the example relates to: production, distribution, marketing or
exchange.
Key word / Phrase Example(s) from case study film
See
page 12
31 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 3.0 Comparing the Case Study films
Case study 1 Case Study 2 Comment/comparison
Institutions/production companies
behind the films
Budgets
Where did the money come from?
How can you watch the films?
List four types of merchandise
What OOH advertising have you
seen?
See
page 13
32 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 3.0 Comparing the Case Study films
Case study 1 Case Study 2 Comment/comparison
What free social media advertising
did you find?
What commercial/ paid for online
websites/ advertising did you find?
Who is the audience for the films?
Which cameras were used to shoot
the films?
List four examples of SYNERGY.
List two examples of cross media
convergence
What critical reception has the film
had?
See
page 13
33 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 3.1 Using case studies to answer
exam questions
The increase in hardware and content in media industries has been significant in recent years.
Discuss the effect this has had on institutions and audiences.
What are the key words in the question? Increase / Hardware / content.
What is the question asking me to do? To discuss the impact it has had on the film industry for the people who make films and
audiences for films.
What is my argument – what do I think in response to the question? The increase in hardware and software has had a significant
impact on institutions and audiences from how a film is made and distributed and marketed by the producer to how it is consumed
by the audience. It has also blurred some of the distinctions between the film chain.
Paragraph no. Paragraph topic
(what themes or issues you want
the paragraph to be about to
help develop your answer)
Content of paragraph
(what can you talk about in
the paragraph)
Examples to use in the
paragraph from the case
study films
1 Introduction State the argument in response to
the question / Say which films you
are going to look at / Briefly say what
you are going to say about them
Just the names, dates and directors
– you might also want to mention
the production company (is it a
conglomerate or mainstream
production?)
2
3
4
5
6
7
See
page 14
34 Copyright © OCR 2015
Learner resource 3.1 Using case studies to answer
exam questions
Evaluate the role of digital technologies in the marketing and consumption of products in the media
area you have studied.
What are the key words in the question?
What is the question asking me to do?
What is my argument – what do I think in response to the question?
Paragraph no. Paragraph topic
(what themes or issues you want
the paragraph to be about to
help develop your answer)
Content of paragraph
(what can you talk about in
the paragraph)
Examples to use in the
paragraph from the case
study films
1 Introduction State the argument in response to
the question / Say which films you
are going to look at / Briefly say what
you are going to say about them
Just the names, dates and directors
– you might also want to mention
the production company (is it a
conglomerate or mainstream
production?)
2
3
4
5
6
7
See
page 14
35 Copyright © OCR 2015
This exam unit requires you to use facts and figures about each film to support your answer to the question.
Go back to your research into the Film Industry which you might well have recorded in the form of blogs and look
through your research findings, organise your research findings for each film into the relevant areas in the grid below:
Case study 1: Hollywood blockbuster Case study 2: independent British film
Produced (made) by
Type of Ownership
(conglomerate or Independent)
Other films the producers have
made
Main cast and crew
Locations
Budget
Distributor(s)
Theatrical Release date
Type of release (wide, restricted,
multiplex, art house etc…) and
number of screens
Number of weeks at Box Office
Money made at Box Office to
date
Format(s) available
Merchandise available
Learner resource 3.2 Revising the Case Study Films
See
page 14
36 Copyright © OCR 2015
This exam unit requires you to use facts and figures about each film to support your answer to the question.
Go back to your research findings on the film industry and case study films and organise this research for each
film into the relevant areas in the grid below:
Case study 1: Hollywood blockbuster Case study 2: independent British film
Advertising and marketing
methods used
(list all of them including
traditional and those using new
technology)
Example(s) of synergy
Example(s) of cross-media
convergence
Use of technology in the
production of this film
Type of audience – Global,
national or local audience?
Home entertainment release
date (DVD etc…)
Awards won
Any other information or trivia
that you have found out about
this film which could be useful
when thinking about ownership,
technology, marketing,
audiences and exchange?
Learner resource 3.2 Revising the Case Study Films
See
page 14
37 Copyright © OCR 2015
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Revision guide audiences and-institutions-the-film-industry

  • 1. A LEVEL MEDIA STUDIES Delivery Guide Audiences and Institutions: The Film Industry August 2015 Media Studies
  • 2. 2 Copyright © OCR 2015 CONTENTS Introduction Page 3 Curriculum Content Page 4 Thinking conceptually Page 5 Thinking contextually Page 6 Learner Resources Page 15 A Level Media Studies Delivery Guide
  • 3. 3 Copyright © OCR 2015 Delivery guides are designed to represent a body of knowledge about teaching a particular topic and contain: • Content: A clear outline of the content covered by the delivery guide; • Thinking Conceptually: Expert guidance on the key concepts involved, common difficulties students may have, approaches to teaching that can help students understand these concepts and how this topic links conceptually to other areas of the subject; • Thinking Contextually: A range of suggested teaching activities using a variety of themes so that different activities can be selected which best suit particular classes, learning styles or teaching approaches. If you have any feedback on this Delivery Guide or suggestions for other resources you would like OCR to develop, please email resourcesfeedback@ocr.org.uk. KEY Click to view associated resources within this document. Click to view external resources Introduction
  • 4. 4 Copyright © OCR 2015 As part of the AS Media Studies examination learners are required to study a unit on Institutions and Audiences. The focus of this unit can be one of six industries: Film, Music, Newspaper, Radio, Magazines or Video Games. This section of the AS course is worth 25% of the overall AS qualification and is examined by one question worth 50 marks. This delivery guide focuses specifically on approaches to delivering the unit through the medium of Film, but many of the activities and methods found here can be applied to any of the above mentioned areas of study. Required skills Learners should be familiar with: • the issues raised by media ownership in contemporary media practice; • the importance of cross media convergence and synergy in production, distribution and marketing; • the technologies that have been introduced in recent years at the levels of production, distribution, marketing and exchange; • the significance of proliferation in hardware and content for institutions and audiences; • the importance of technological convergence for institutions and audiences; • the issues raised in the targeting of national and local audiences (specifically, British) by international or global institutions; • the ways in which the candidates’own experiences of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour. Curriculum Content
  • 5. 5 Copyright © OCR 2015 Approaches to teaching the content: The activities in the delivery guide are focused on the required skills in the specification, specifically exploring the processes of production, methods of distribution and exchange, as well as patterns of consumption and the relationship between the institutions and their audiences. The activities within this delivery guide are structured in a way that ensures that the learners will cover all of the areas of the unit confidently. It is intended that the activities in the delivery guide can be used to explore a range of different case studies. Some examples of case studies are given but more up to date examples are always encouraged. Although this delivery guide is focusing on Film many of the activities can be used to explore one of the other areas of study in this unit. Common difficulties: There are two potential difficulties that learners may have when exploring this unit: the first is their confidence in recognising and using the key terminology and phrases of the unit. Learners can be put off by language in the exam question that they find challenging, such as the use of the terms cross-media-convergence and synergy. Being confident in using these terms in their writing and being able to recognise examples of these terms from the case studies is crucial. The second possible difficulty is their ability to construct an ‘argument’within their exam answers. Exploring the strengths and weaknesses of the case studies in relation to the seven prompts is central to this. It is the intention of this delivery guide to provide ideas and activities to help with these two issues. Conceptual links to other areas of the specification: If learners use the same media for their Foundation Portfolio as they are studying in this unit then it is possible to make some strong links between this unit and the evaluation that they are required to produce. The evaluation requires knowledge of media institutions and the process of marketing to an audience. Section 1 of this unit can also be used as an introduction to A Level practical work and to prepare learners for the Foundation Portfolio. Thinking Conceptually
  • 6. 6 Copyright © OCR 2015 ACTIVITIES The following activities are designed to be flexible. They focus on the concepts and ideas that learners will be examined on and can be used in isolation or can form the basis of a scheme of work that addresses the required skills. It is the intention of this delivery guide to situate as much of the unit content as possible within a practical approach, as a way of helping learners to understand the processes involved in the film chain by having a go themselves first. It is hoped that by experiencing some of the practices involved in producing films that learners will have a better understanding when they look at case study material. The specification makes suggestions as to possible case study approaches when exploring film. This delivery guide is based on the approach that compares a large mainstream blockbuster film from a well-known production company with a smaller low- budget British independent film. These texts form the basis of exploration of the required skills in this unit. Sections This delivery guide will be split into three sections: Section 1 – Learner as prosumer Section 2 – Exploring real examples Section 3 – Constructing an argument using case studies Thinking Contextually
  • 7. 7 Copyright © OCR 2015 SECTION 1: LEARNER AS PROSUMER Lesson Activities The activities in this first section all focus on the learners as prosumers, using the key language of the unit as a scaffold for exploring the processes involved in making films. All the key terms found in Learner Resource 1.0 are drawn from the Specification. Thinking Contextually Activities Resources Lesson activity - key terms and phrases with approaches to unfamiliar vocabulary This unit contains many terms and phrases that learners will be unfamiliar with. Learner Resource 1.0 is a structured activity that is a useful starting place for exploring the unit. • In pairs learners try to work out the meanings of some of the key terms and phrases in this unit (Learner Resource 1.0). • After feedback and teacher intervention, learners identify which of the phrases or terms was the easiest and which was the hardest to understand. Teacher records these for later reference. • Using the flashcards learners test each other on their understanding of the key terms and phrases. Creating a swede - introductory activities to studying the film industry The following activities are intended as a way of helping to familiarise learners with many of the processes involved in getting a film made and out to its audience. These activities are a way of introducing the learners to the basics of the production, distribution and exchange processes involved in the film industry. Through this learners will become familiar with many of the terms used within these processes. A swede is a comedic remake of an iconic film in around two minutes, using home-made props. Films that make good swedes include Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone, Speed, and Star Wars IV: A New Hope. The swede can be produced using mobile phones and access to Youtube or a similar video-sharing site. Learner Resources 1.1, 1.2, 1.3 and 1.4 will be useful for this activity. See page 8 for links to these resources. Learner Resource 1.0
  • 8. 8 Copyright © OCR 2015 Activities Resources Lesson activity 1 - research, planning and production of a swede Place learners in small groups of three or four and set the brief (Learner Resource 1.1) to research, plan, film and edit a swede. Minimum equipment is needed as this can be done using mobile phones/tablets if access to video cameras is difficult. Signpost for learners the stages of production that they are going to model through this activity, such as production processes and the use of digital technology. The free downloadable resource http://www.launchingfilms.info/step-step-guide/ is a useful document to use with learners to explain the process of a film being made. Lesson activity 2 - creating a marketing campaign for a swede • Set learners the task of creating a marketing campaign for their finished swede (Learner Resource 1.2). • Learners will model processes followed by the film industry by getting their completed swede out to their target audience. They will do this through a variety of different methods of advertising and marketing, which could include: an online/viral marketing campaign using social media platforms, basic poster campaign with an explanation of where the posters will be placed and why, trailer, radio interviews, and press coverage. Learners must release their finished swede online as part of their marketing campaign. • Signpost for learners the stages of production that they are going to model through doing this activity such as using cross-media convergence and synergy in the distribution and exchange processes, use of technology in the marketing and exchange processes and targeting audiences. Lesson activity 3 - evaluating and presenting the swede • Set learners the task of evaluating and presenting all stages of the swede production. Scaffold this activity around the processes of production, marketing, distribution, and exchange (Learner Resource 1.3). This can be recorded on a blog to develop skills that learners could use later in the course when they evaluate their Foundation Portfolio production. Thinking Contextually Learner Resource 1.1 Learner Resource 1.2 Learner Resource 1.3
  • 9. 9 Copyright © OCR 2015 Activities Resources Lesson activity 4 - applying the experience of being a prosumer to the key exam terminology and phrases This activity can link to Learner Resource 1.0. Learners will apply a series of key words and phrases from the unit to their own experiences of being media producers. • Using the flash cards from Learner Resource 1.0, in groups learners be given four or five of the key terms/phrases and will have to find at least one example from the swede production that relates to the key term or phrase (Learner Resources 1.4). • Scaffold this activity by drawing attention to the required skills. • Learners individually answer an essay question. Lesson activity 5 - reflecting on the experience of the film chain This final activity in the Section 1 asks learners to place what they’ve produced and experienced within the film chain, using key terms learned. • Ask learners to individually brainstorm all the stages of the processes involved in each stage of film chain that they recognise and have experienced through creating their swede. • Using their brainstorms, learners write about how their experience of the production, distribution and exchange of a media product can be used to illustrate how the film value chain works (Learner Resource 1.5). • Encourage learners to use as many of the new terms and phrases as they can, and to highlight these in their writing when they review it at the end of the activity. Thinking Contextually Learner Resource 1.0 Learner Resource 1.4 Learner Resource 1.5
  • 10. 10 Copyright © OCR 2015 SECTION 2: EXPLORING REAL EXAMPLES Section 2 moves the focus away from the learners themselves and towards real examples. It is the intention that these activities are tackled after Section 1, although the order of the activities in Section 2 can be changed to suit the learners and the time available. Thinking Contextually Activities Resources Lesson activity 6: patterns in audience behaviour and consumption – the UK Market Using the Film Distributors Handbook (published yearly via their website www.launchingfilms.com) learners explore audience patterns of behaviour and consumption in British cinemas. This can be supplemented by looking at local cinema releases for both independent and multiplex cinemas for that week. • In pairs, learners conduct research into the tastes of British cinema audiences (Learner Resource 2.0). • Learners compare their own cinema going habits with those covered in the data in the FDA handbook (Learner Resource 2.1) and from their own research into local cinemas if used. • A discussion in class can draw out the main similarities and differences between the two groups and what this may tell you about cinema going habits. • Signpost key terms used during this discussion, such as national, local and global audiences, mainstream and niche audiences, process of exchange, digital technology, cross-media convergence and synergy. Learner Resource 2.0 Learner Resource 2.1
  • 11. 11 Copyright © OCR 2015 Activities Resources Lesson activity 7: researching the launch of a mainstream Hollywood blockbuster and a small independent British film Use the Launching Films website (www.launchingfilms.com) to select two current or forthcoming films. One should be a saturated wide release film produced by a large well known film production company, for example Spectre, released in October 2015. The more well known the film the more information available and the easier it will be for learners to complete the research. A film that is linked to a conglomerate will allow for interesting discussions around ownership, is likely to make good use of cross-media convergence and synergy in its distribution campaign, is likely to have used technology in interesting ways and will allow for discussion around audience that is easily accessible for learners. It’s important that this example allows for learners to recognise and identify examples of all the key terms and phrases that they should now be becoming familiar with. The second example should be a small budget British film, for example Honeytrap, released May 2015, with a restricted release and a small- scale marketing campaign. It should be more challenging for learners to be able to find out information about this film. The intention with this activity is for learners to be able to see, for example, how budget affects the various stages of the film chain, through a comparison between the two very different case studies. While it is possible for learners to pick their own examples, this could lead to difficulties when they analyse and compare the case studies later on. Learners should, however, be encouraged to pick a third case study of their own which can be used for further comparison later on and provides an opportunity for an extension activity. Ask learners to reflect back on the experience of being a prosumer through the production of the swede. Remind learners of the process that they went through when they created their product. A suggestion would be to explore the mainstream film first, completing the following activities. Then move on to the low budget film to allow for a more straightforward comparison. • In pairs or small groups (or can be completed individually) learners research the mainstream, big budget, Hollywood film using the Internet (Learner Resource 2.2). • Learners collect together this research, continuing it as part of their homework to allow for more extensive research outside of the classroom, and present it digitally so that it can be used as a resource for revision and further reference later in the term. • Repeat the activities for the low budget film, slightly adapting Learner Resource 2.2. Thinking Contextually Learner Resource 2.2
  • 12. 12 Copyright © OCR 2015 Activities Resources Lesson activity 8: organising research into the production, distribution, marketing and exchange process The following activities can be repeated for both the mainstream and the low budget film. The intention here is to help learners to understand how their research can be categorised. • Put learners into groups of four. Each learner presents one of the four areas of PDME to the rest of their group. Learners can add to their own research this way using Learner Resource 2.3. • Each group presents two facts from each of the four areas back to a class discussion that the teacher records. • After repeating this for the second case study film, ask learners to identify what they think some of the main differences are between the two case study films. Encourage learners to use key terminology when doing this. Extend the discussion to begin thinking about‘why’these differences are evident and link this back to the required skills in the specification. • Reference can be made to learner’s own experiences as prosumers as a point of comparison. Lesson activity 9: applying case study texts to the key terms and phrases This activity requires the flash cards found in Learner Resource 1.0. The activity can be repeated for each case study film. It extends upon the discussion in the previous activity but can be completed as a stand alone if the discussion did not take place. Using key terms or phrases from the flashcards learners identify at least three examples from the case study film and record this onto Learner Resource 2.4. Reference should be made here to the learners’own experiences of the PDME process when making their swede, if they completed a swede. Thinking Contextually Learner Resource 2.3 Learner Resource 1.0 Learner Resource 2.4
  • 13. 13 Copyright © OCR 2015 SECTION 3: COMPARISON AND PREPARING FOR THE EXAM One possible difficulty with this unit, as outlined above, is the ability to use the case study material to construct an‘argument’in response to an exam question. The key to being able to do this confidently is to compare the case study films in a way this is scaffolded using the key terms and phrases. Thinking Contextually Activities Resources Lesson activity 10: comparing case study texts The ability to identify similarities and differences between case study films is key to being able to formulate an argument in the exam. Learners need to be able to see clearly, for example, where the differences are in terms of funding and the implications for this throughout the film chain, in order to be able to avoid simply regurgitating information about the films without answering the question properly. The place to start is to do a direct comparison that is semi-structured. Learner Resource 3.0 is a simple grid that requires a direct comparison between the two case studies. • Individually, learners gather together examples from both case studies that explore all of the required skills set out in the specification. Encourage learners to begin thinking about the implications of the differences between the two case studies, for example how a low budget for a film may affect cross-media convergence, or how much of an impact synergy has on the marketing of the films when you look at the success in the box office compared to the budget. • Elicit through class discussion the similarities and differences between the process of producing a swede or other prosumer activity and a real film. Identify where the key terms and phrases are appearing in the grid and the class discussion. Learner Resource 3.0
  • 14. 14 Copyright © OCR 2015 Activities Resources Lesson activity 11: answering exam questions using key terminology and case study texts Learner resource 3.1 gets learners to focus on past exam questions by identifying the key terms and phrases used, identifying the focus of the question and formulating an argument. The activity sheet can be adapted to any previous exam question and can leave our the prompts at the top, instead requiring learners to identify key terms. June 2014 has been modeled for use. • Individually or in pairs learners look at Summer 2014’s exam question and identify elements from their case study texts to use in a response. This will form the basis of an essay plan that learners should then write up under timed conditions (45 minutes). • Peer marking of the essays is a useful way of learners learning how they could have approached the essay differently. Lesson activity 12: revising The unit requires some memory recall as learners will be expected to know some facts and figures about their case studies and the film industry in general. Use Learner Resource 3.2 to bring together relevant information for the case study texts that is easy to refer to for revision purposes. • Learners brainstorm the key facts and figures from their case study films and record them in a quick comparison grid that they can use to create a revision mind-map resource. Thinking Contextually Learner Resource 3.1 Learner Resource 3.2
  • 15. 15 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.0 Key Terms and Phrases • The study of this unit is centred on seven key ‘prompts’ that link to an exam question. • The exam question might not be exactly the same as each of the‘prompts’so it is useful to define, understand and learn the key words and phrases • Learning these key words and phrases will help you to understand what the exam question is asking you, and which examples from your case studies you will need to talk about. Task 1 Complete the following activity: For each of the words below, look up a definition and write it down next to the word. Key word or phrase Definition – what does it mean? media consumption audience behaviour media ownership technologies audiences national local national audience local audience institution international global international institution global institution hardware content convergence cross media convergence technological convergence synergy proliferation issues See page 7
  • 16. 16 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.0 Key Terms and Phrases Task 2 Answer the questions below: • Which words or phrases are the easiest to understand? • Which are harder to understand and why do you think this is? • What can you do to help you learn the words and what they mean so you understand them if they are used in the exam? Task 3 Complete the following activity: Now you have defined the key words and phrases, and hopefully have an understanding of what they might mean, in pairs or small groups, test each other with the laminated flash cards. How many you can define without looking at your notes? Revise these key words and phrases regularly, you will be expected to use them in the lessons when talking about film and the film industry. See page 7
  • 17. 17 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.0 Flash Cards media consumption audience behaviour media ownership technologies audiences national audience local audience institution international global international institution global institution hardware content cross media convergence technological convergence synergy proliferation issues See page 12 See page 9
  • 18. 18 Copyright © OCR 2015 The Film Industry Making a swede A swede is basically a‘naff’remake of a film. It has key scenes, poor acting, homemade props and silly sound. In order to begin to understand the film chain, you are going to be the producers and distributors of your own swede. You will need to choose a film to‘swede’, you will decide on the key scenes, props you wish to use and how you will make the music. You will then produce (film and edit) the swede and upload your completed version to YouTube (distribution). You will then create a marketing campaign to generate interest in your swede on YouTube, with the aim of achieving as many hits as possible. Your group will be expected to record the process on your blog. You will talk through your production and marketing campaign in a group presentation, which your teacher will assess. Preparing for the production Task 1 – Some Research into swedes • Either as a class or in groups, you will watch some swedes on YouTube. Find one or two that you like most and post them on your blog with some explanation of why you like them. • Before you leave the lesson, you need to decide which film you are going to swede. Task 2 – Preparation for making your swede next week: • Watch clips from the film you have chosen to swede and note down some key lines you could use • Decide which key scenes from the film you could use • Think about music – will you‘da da da’the song or use some other sound? • Gather props you’ll need for your swede and make sure you bring them in to next lesson. Remember to post all of your ideas to your group blog. Learner resource 1.1 Research, planning and production of a swede See page 8
  • 19. 19 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.2 Creating a Marketing Campaign The Film Industry Creating a Marketing Campaign For your homework you need to start an ad campaign for the film you are making. This will form part of a presentation that you will give to the rest of the class. You need to BLOG all aspects of your ad campaign. Everybody in the group is required to produce an advert using Photoshop. Your ad campaign might include some of the following: • A trailer – posted on YouTube • Facebook page • #twitter • TV interview with the stars or director of your film • Radio interview • Radio ad • Poster campaign (bus, billboard, cinema) • Viral marketing campaign • Website or blog • Webpage banner Also anything else you can think of! Tasks should be divided between the group, as well as each person producing an individual newspaper/magazine advertisement. The film should be treated as a real online release – which it will be! It will be uploaded to YouTube and (like a real online film release) we want you to get the biggest audience you can for it. Therefore you will need to use every marketing device and strategy available to you. See page 8
  • 20. 20 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.3 Evaluating and Presenting your swede It is important to reflect on the process of making and distributing your swede so that you can start to think about how to apply the key terms and phrases that this unit centred on. Your group must reflect on all the stages of production listed below and bring this together in a presentation. Choose an electronic method of presentation so that you can refer back to it at a later date. Production • Planning • Props • Actors/stars • Scripting • What technologies did you use? • Filming • Editing • Post production Marketing • Cover all the different marketing methods you used • Did you use synergy in your marketing? • Did you have a target audience in mind for your swede? • Show how your marketing spread with the use of the internet • Have you had any audience participation in the marketing? (eg twitter) Distribution • How did your film literally get from your hard drive to the audience? Discuss how useful you found the internet to showcase your work. Exhibition • How many viewers did you get on all the different platforms? • Did you get any comments? Finally • What have you learned about the film industry from this experience? You will be marked on your contribution to this presentation and on the work that you have produced towards the project See page 8
  • 21. 21 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.4 Applying own production experience to key terms and phrases • In groups, you will select a number of flash cards which contain key terms or phrases taken from the seven spec prompts for the exam. • For each key term / phrase that you select, write it down in the grid below and then think of at least one example from your swede production that relates to the key word or phrase. • If you can, also try and note down which part of the film chain the example relates to: production, distribution, marketing or exchange. Key word / Phrase Example(s) from Swede Production digital technology • Production: Use of DV cameras, flip cameras and still cameras • Distribution: Use of the Internet to upload and digitally distribute Swede on Youtube • Marketing: Use of the internet and social media sites to create a Facebook page to promote the swede to target audience • Exchange: use of the internet to view the swede on Youtube See page 9
  • 22. 22 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.4 Applying own production experience to key terms and phrases Essay question: How important was the use of digital technology in all stages of the production of your swede? Refer to key terms and phrases in your answer: See page 9
  • 23. 23 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.5 Reflecting on own experience of the film chain • In producing, distributing and marketing your own swede, you have become involved in the film chain and will have exchanged your product through YouTube to reach your intended audience. • In the exam, you will be required to write about the film chain and the process of production, distribution, marketing and exchange. In order to help you prepare for this, you will now reflect on your own experience of the film chain. • In the box below, explain how the film chain works, with examples of the work you produced, and try to incorporate the words at the bottom of the page into your explanation. • You are a PROSUMER (the consumer of a film and the producer of the swede that refers to it) • You have used different DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY to become PRODUCERS • You have the TECHNOLOGY to DISTRIBUTE because of the internet/YouTube • You did this OUTSIDE the Film Industry (you are an INDEPENDENT producer) • You have used CONVERGENT technologies • You have reached an AUDIENCE • You have created a SYNERGOUS campaign • You might have used CROSS MEDIA CONVERGENCE See page 9
  • 24. 24 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 1.5.1 Film Chain diagram THE FILM CHAIN PRODUCTION EXCHANGE DISTRIBUTION MARKETING See page 9
  • 25. 25 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.0 Patterns in audience behaviour and consumption Task: We are going to research into the tastes of British film audiences and look at some statistics and findings: Which days do audiences go to the cinema? Which genre is the most popular? Which were the top films for each of these genres in (*insert year*) How do audiences hear about films? How much money is spent on advertising? Do audiences prefer UK, USA or other films? Do audiences like 3D films? What do audiences prefer – the Cinema or Home cinema? The cinema? Video? On Demand? Online? Who do audiences go to the cinema with? When and where are people most likely to go to the cinema in the UK? Some conclusions: • How similar is your own viewing habits to those of the wider British audience? • What is your favourite genre? • When do you go to the cinema and who with? • How do you prefer to watch films? • Do you enjoy 3D films? • Would you choose a Hollywood production over a British or non-English language film? See page 10
  • 26. 26 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.1 Comparison between student and cinema-goer viewing habits Cinema Going Habits of AS Media Students Vs National Stats: Interview a member of your class to find out their own cinema going habits. You will be asked to report back this information to the rest of the class. What was the last film you saw at the cinema? How often do you go to the cinema? How many times do you visit the cinema in a year? Do you tend to go to the cinema on any particular day of the week? What is your favorite genre of film? How do you hear about new films? (eg: trailers, texts, posters, advertising on buses, internet advertising, through magazines, word of mouth etc etc When you go to the cinema, do you buy refreshments? What do you buy? Are you persuaded to see movies because they feature particular film stars? If so, who? Do you prefer to watch Hollywood movies at the cinema, or films from elsewhere (like British films or Bollywood films)? How many movies have you seen at the cinema in 3D? Are your more or less interested in movies if they are 3D? What’s better – home cinema or The Cinema? Did you see your favourite film of all time at the cinema? Have you ever bought a DVD of a film you have seen at the cinema? Do you watch films online? And do you pay for online movies? With how many people do you usually visit the cinema? See page 10
  • 27. 27 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.1 Comparison between student and cinema-goer viewing habits Write down four points in conclusion here: 1 2 3 4 This grid could now be used to answer the exam question‘How does your own experience of media consumption illustrate wider patterns and trends of audience behaviour?’ See page 10
  • 28. 28 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.2 Researching Case Study Film In the exam, you will be required to answer the film industry question using your knowledge of two case study films. We will study the films in depth over the next few weeks and find out everything there is to know about them. Your first case study film is: For the first half of the lesson, you will research into case study film 1 and post everything you can find about its production, distribution, marketing and exhibition on your group blog, with the relevant information, videos and images underneath each heading. You might want to delegate an aspect of the film chain for each group member to ensure that you have enough examples. Some things that you will need to find out are listed below, but try to find out as much as possible about the film and not just what is listed here: • Who produced the film? • Who owns this production company and what other films have they produced? • Who directed the film? • What other films have they directed? • What was the budget? • Who stars in it? • What other films have they been in? • What technology has been used to make the film? (What cameras did they use? How was the film edited? What CGI was involved?) • How was the film marketed? Which different marketing tools were used? • What examples of synergy with other products/merchandise can you find? • What examples of cross media convergence can you find? • What examples of technological convergence can you find? • Where and when was Guardians of the Galaxy released (nationwide, worldwide) and in what cinemas? • What formats was it available in (digital / 3D etc…)? • Who is the target audience? Make your research as visually interesting as possible with images and videos. After the research activity, you will be expected to identify examples that link to the key terms and phrases in the exam, so your research needs to be as detailed and as thorough as possible. See page 11
  • 29. 29 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.3 Organising research into the film chain CASE STUDY OF A FILM • Now you have researched into the recent release of a case study film which is: • In groups, present your research findings back to each other and, using the table below, organise your answers into the relevant part of the film chain: production, distribution, marketing or exchange. • Aim to bring together as much information as you can, with as many examples as possible, for each part of the film chain. Production – studio; producer; director; idea; budget; main cast; crew; locations; technologies used to make the film etc… Distribution – distribution company and relationship to studio; type of release wide or restricted; global or national distribution; distribution format; technologies used to distribute (e.g. digital) etc… Marketing – budget for marketing campaign; online and offline marketing strategies; timings for the campaign, target audience; global or national campaign; technologies used to market the film etc… Exchange – date of release; wide or restricted release; number of screens; type of theatres exhibiting (multiplex or independent); technologies used to exhibit (3D / IMAX/ 2D) weekend box office figures; ancillary windows; other types of exchange etc… See page 12
  • 30. 30 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 2.4 Application of key terms and phrases to case study text KEY WORDS and PHRASES – Case Study Film: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Applying your research of the PDME of your case study film to the key exam terms and phrases: • In groups, you will select a number of key terms or phrases taken from the seven spec prompts for the exam. • For each key term / phrase that you select, write it down in the grid below and then think of at least three examples from the case study film that relates to the key term or phrase. • For each example, note down which part of the film chain the example relates to: production, distribution, marketing or exchange. Key word / Phrase Example(s) from case study film See page 12
  • 31. 31 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 3.0 Comparing the Case Study films Case study 1 Case Study 2 Comment/comparison Institutions/production companies behind the films Budgets Where did the money come from? How can you watch the films? List four types of merchandise What OOH advertising have you seen? See page 13
  • 32. 32 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 3.0 Comparing the Case Study films Case study 1 Case Study 2 Comment/comparison What free social media advertising did you find? What commercial/ paid for online websites/ advertising did you find? Who is the audience for the films? Which cameras were used to shoot the films? List four examples of SYNERGY. List two examples of cross media convergence What critical reception has the film had? See page 13
  • 33. 33 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 3.1 Using case studies to answer exam questions The increase in hardware and content in media industries has been significant in recent years. Discuss the effect this has had on institutions and audiences. What are the key words in the question? Increase / Hardware / content. What is the question asking me to do? To discuss the impact it has had on the film industry for the people who make films and audiences for films. What is my argument – what do I think in response to the question? The increase in hardware and software has had a significant impact on institutions and audiences from how a film is made and distributed and marketed by the producer to how it is consumed by the audience. It has also blurred some of the distinctions between the film chain. Paragraph no. Paragraph topic (what themes or issues you want the paragraph to be about to help develop your answer) Content of paragraph (what can you talk about in the paragraph) Examples to use in the paragraph from the case study films 1 Introduction State the argument in response to the question / Say which films you are going to look at / Briefly say what you are going to say about them Just the names, dates and directors – you might also want to mention the production company (is it a conglomerate or mainstream production?) 2 3 4 5 6 7 See page 14
  • 34. 34 Copyright © OCR 2015 Learner resource 3.1 Using case studies to answer exam questions Evaluate the role of digital technologies in the marketing and consumption of products in the media area you have studied. What are the key words in the question? What is the question asking me to do? What is my argument – what do I think in response to the question? Paragraph no. Paragraph topic (what themes or issues you want the paragraph to be about to help develop your answer) Content of paragraph (what can you talk about in the paragraph) Examples to use in the paragraph from the case study films 1 Introduction State the argument in response to the question / Say which films you are going to look at / Briefly say what you are going to say about them Just the names, dates and directors – you might also want to mention the production company (is it a conglomerate or mainstream production?) 2 3 4 5 6 7 See page 14
  • 35. 35 Copyright © OCR 2015 This exam unit requires you to use facts and figures about each film to support your answer to the question. Go back to your research into the Film Industry which you might well have recorded in the form of blogs and look through your research findings, organise your research findings for each film into the relevant areas in the grid below: Case study 1: Hollywood blockbuster Case study 2: independent British film Produced (made) by Type of Ownership (conglomerate or Independent) Other films the producers have made Main cast and crew Locations Budget Distributor(s) Theatrical Release date Type of release (wide, restricted, multiplex, art house etc…) and number of screens Number of weeks at Box Office Money made at Box Office to date Format(s) available Merchandise available Learner resource 3.2 Revising the Case Study Films See page 14
  • 36. 36 Copyright © OCR 2015 This exam unit requires you to use facts and figures about each film to support your answer to the question. Go back to your research findings on the film industry and case study films and organise this research for each film into the relevant areas in the grid below: Case study 1: Hollywood blockbuster Case study 2: independent British film Advertising and marketing methods used (list all of them including traditional and those using new technology) Example(s) of synergy Example(s) of cross-media convergence Use of technology in the production of this film Type of audience – Global, national or local audience? Home entertainment release date (DVD etc…) Awards won Any other information or trivia that you have found out about this film which could be useful when thinking about ownership, technology, marketing, audiences and exchange? Learner resource 3.2 Revising the Case Study Films See page 14
  • 37. 37 Copyright © OCR 2015 We’d like to know your view on the resources we produce. By clicking on the‘Like’or‘Dislike’button you can help us to ensure that our resources work for you. When the email template pops up please add additional comments if you wish and then just click‘Send’. Thank you. If you do not currently offer this OCR qualification but would like to do so, please complete the Expression of Interest Form which can be found here: www.ocr.org.uk/expression-of-interest OCR Resources: the small print OCR’s resources are provided to support the teaching of OCR specifications, but in no way constitute an endorsed teaching method that is required by the Board and the decision to use them lies with the individual teacher. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the accuracy of the content, OCR cannot be held responsible for any errors or omissions within these resources. We update our resources on a regular basis, so please check the OCR website to ensure you have the most up to date version. © OCR 2015 - This resource may be freely copied and distributed, as long as the OCR logo and this message remain intact and OCR is acknowledged as the originator of this work. OCR acknowledges the use of the following content: Please get in touch if you want to discuss the accessibility of resources we offer to support delivery of our qualifications: resources.feedback@ocr.org.uk
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