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Links to news on Facebook

presented at the ECREA Conference in Istanbul, October 2012

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#ECREA2012                            27.10.2012




     Katrin Jungnickel, TU Ilmenau
     Axel Maireder, Universität Wien



    Links to News on Facebook
    Is There a Multi-Step Flow
    of Communication?
Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder                          1
30% of online Americans receive news via SNS,
          6% via Twitter (Purcell et al., 2010)
          71% of Canadian SNS users use it
          to keep up with the news (Hermida et al., 2012)
          28% of German SNS users get informed
          about the news on SNS (BITKOM, 2011)
          34% of German tweets with link
          connect to news sites (Maireder, 2011)


Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder                          2
Two Twitter user groups: Intermediaries receive from
     news media, others from intermediaries (Wu et al., 2011)
     46% of media tweets reach users via intermediaries
     (Wu et al., 2011)

      Every media tweet gets retweeted 15 times (An et al., 2011)



Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder                     3
Two-Step-Flow online

      The Impact of Strong and Weak Ties on the communication process




     Discussion of politics often in homophilous
     groups of strong ties (Schenk, 1995)
      In SNS people are increasingly connected
      to weak ties (deZuniga & Valenzuela, 2011)
     Bridges important for diffusion of ideas (Granovetter, 1973)


Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder                       4
Is there a multi-step-flow of
          communication on Facebook?
          If yes, are weak or strong ties
          more relevant?
          Difference in interest dependent on
          content, producer, transmitter?



Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder               5
Snowball sample for
                    online survey: N=745
                    We asked respondents to
                    copy the last 5 links
                    received on Facebook, and
                    answer questions
                    connected (e.g interest in
                    content)


Katrin Jungnickel
Axel Maireder           6

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Links to news on Facebook

  • 1. #ECREA2012 27.10.2012 Katrin Jungnickel, TU Ilmenau Axel Maireder, Universität Wien Links to News on Facebook Is There a Multi-Step Flow of Communication? Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 1
  • 2. 30% of online Americans receive news via SNS, 6% via Twitter (Purcell et al., 2010) 71% of Canadian SNS users use it to keep up with the news (Hermida et al., 2012) 28% of German SNS users get informed about the news on SNS (BITKOM, 2011) 34% of German tweets with link connect to news sites (Maireder, 2011) Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 2
  • 3. Two Twitter user groups: Intermediaries receive from news media, others from intermediaries (Wu et al., 2011) 46% of media tweets reach users via intermediaries (Wu et al., 2011) Every media tweet gets retweeted 15 times (An et al., 2011) Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 3
  • 4. Two-Step-Flow online The Impact of Strong and Weak Ties on the communication process Discussion of politics often in homophilous groups of strong ties (Schenk, 1995) In SNS people are increasingly connected to weak ties (deZuniga & Valenzuela, 2011) Bridges important for diffusion of ideas (Granovetter, 1973) Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 4
  • 5. Is there a multi-step-flow of communication on Facebook? If yes, are weak or strong ties more relevant? Difference in interest dependent on content, producer, transmitter? Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 5
  • 6. Snowball sample for online survey: N=745 We asked respondents to copy the last 5 links received on Facebook, and answer questions connected (e.g interest in content) Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 6
  • 7. Respondent Sample 75% of respondents (total: 745) copied links n= 557 Facebook usage 67% several times daily Gender 52% women Country of origin 82% Germany 16% Austria Education 62% Abitur/Matura (Highschool degree) 36% University degree Students 78% Occupation related to media 42% Mean age (18-55) 25 Mean number of Facebook friends (8-2769) 249 Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 7
  • 8. 2653 Links, 2 coders Variables: - Data type - Language - Producer - Content political? - Content public issue? Inter-coder-reliability (Holsti coefficient): >.70 for all variables Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 8
  • 9. Link Sample Exclusion n percent Number of copied links 2635 100% Link was not external/ just text -186 -7% Link was dead -308 -12% Link destination was in a language -71 -2% other than German or English Total amount of analyzed links 2070 79% Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 9
  • 10. Link Sample Transmitters, Producers, Content Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 10
  • 11. Multi-Step-Flow? Producers and transmitters of links Producers Transmitters Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 11
  • 12. Link Content Transmitters and content of links Transmitters Content Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 12
  • 13. Interest in Links Main effects on interest in links Independent Variables F-Value Significance Political content *** Interest higher in 28.433 .000 poltical content Product information .721 .396 Public issue 1.553 .213 Producer 2.290 .058 Interest higher in Transmitter *** 41.054 .000 links from strong ties Language 1.496 .221 Additional information by transmitter 2.010 .156 Interest higher in text and pictures than in Data type ** video/audio/apps and homepages 5.366 .001 Multi-factorial ANOVA, Model significant (p<.001), corrected R²= .135 Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 13
  • 14. Interest in Links Interest in links depends on transmitter and political content High interest Transmitters Low interest Significant interaction effect (p< .001) of content and transmitters Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 14
  • 15. Is there a multi-step-flow of communication on Facebook? Yes! Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 15
  • 16. Are weak or strong ties more relevant? Strong ties! at least in terms of interest in the content shared Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 16
  • 17. Difference in interest dependent on content, producer, transmitter? Transmitter and political content Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 17
  • 18. Thanks! katrin.jungnickel@tu-ilmenau.de axel.maireder@univie.ac.at Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 18
  • 19. References An, J., Cha, M., Gummadi, K. P., & Crowcroft, J. (2011). Media landscape in Twitter: A world of new conventions and political diversity. Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. Retrieved from http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/~jac22/out/twitter-diverse.pdf BITKOM (2011). Soziale Netzwerk werden zum Informationskanal. Bundesverband Informationswirtschaft, Telekommunikation und neue Medien e.V., November 28, 2011. http://www.bitkom.org/70397_70419.aspx. de Zuniga, H. G., & Valenzuela, S. (2011). The Mediating Path to a Stronger Citizenship: Online and Offline Networks, Weak Ties, and Civic Engagement. Communication Research, 38(3), 397–421. Granovetter, M. S. (1973). The Strength of Weak Ties. American Journal of Sociology, 78(6), 1360–1380. Hermida, A., Fletcher, F., Korell, D. & Logan, D. (2012). Share, Like, Recommend: Decoding the Social Media News Consumer. Journalism Studies,13, 815-824. Maireder, A. (2011). Links auf Twitter - Wie verweisen deutschsprachige Tweets auf Medieninhalte? Retrieved from https://fedora.phaidra.univie.ac.at/fedora/get/o:64004/bdef:Content/get Purcell, K., Rainie, L., Mitchell, A., Rosenstiel, T., Olmstead, K. (2010). Understanding the participatory news consumer. How internet and cell phone users have turned news into social experience. Pew Internet & American Life Project. Washington, D.C. Retrieved from: http://infousa.state.gov/media/internet/docs/participatory-news-consumer.pdf Schenk, M. (1995). Soziale Netzwerke und Massenmedien. Tübingen: Mohr Siebeck. Wu, S., Hofman, J. M., Mason, W. A., & Watts, D. J. (2011). Who Says What to Whom on Twitter. WWW '11, Hyderabad, India. Retrieved from http://research.yahoo.com/files/twitter-flow.pdf Katrin Jungnickel Axel Maireder 19