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Examining Privately-led Extension Approaches Targeting Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries: Preliminary Findings

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Examining Privately-led Extension Approaches Targeting Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries: Preliminary Findings

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A presentation given at the MEAS Private-Public Extension Event during the 2015 MEAS Symposium, by Miguel Gomez, Benjamin Mueller, and Mary Kate Wheeler

A presentation given at the MEAS Private-Public Extension Event during the 2015 MEAS Symposium, by Miguel Gomez, Benjamin Mueller, and Mary Kate Wheeler

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Examining Privately-led Extension Approaches Targeting Smallholder Farmers in Developing Countries: Preliminary Findings

  1. 1. Examining  Privately-­‐led  Extension  Approaches   Targe9ng  Smallholder  Farmers  in  Developing   Countries:  Preliminary  Findings*   Miguel  I.  Gómez,  Cornell  University   Benjamin  Mueller,  University  of  Illinois   Mary  Kate  Wheeler,  Cornell  University   A  Modernizing  Extension  and  Advisory  Services  Event  Washington  D.C.,    June  2  2015     *  The  authors  are  grateful  to  Romane  Viennet,  Maria  Jones,  Oliver  Ferguson,  Cayla   Mar>n,  Andrea  Bohn,  and  Paul  McNamara  for  their  valuable  contribu>on  to  this  work.          
  2. 2. Outline 1.  Context and justification 2.  Research Approach 3.  Preliminary results 4.  Key takeaways and questions
  3. 3. •  Rapid transformation in agri-food industries has generated global supply chains capable of linking small farmers in to high value markets (Reardon et al. 2009) •  Declining role of public programs to support small farmers through research and extension (Anderson and Feder 2004) •  Public, private and civil society actors share an interest in understanding how global changes in food value chains and public services affect smallholder farmers (Gomez et al. 2011) Context
  4. 4. Context: Dynamic forces shape the provision of extension services: New extension arrangements, delivery modes and services New agri-food supply chains can link small farmers to high value markets Reduced funding and political have weakened public extension systems Evolving definition of “extension and advisory services" Rising consumer demand for food safety, quality and traceability
  5. 5. Motivation •  Over 400 million farmers operate on less that 2 hectares of land (Nagayets 2005) •  Almost 75% of the world's poor are subsistence farmers (Huivo, Kola and Lundström 2005) •  Smallholder agricultural systems are increasingly managed by women (Saito et al. 1994) •  Agriculture is "a driver of growth and poverty reduction” in rural areas (World Bank 2007) •  Modern value chains offer opportunities to meet consumer demand while addressing development goals (Reardon et al. 2009)
  6. 6. Critical Questions §  Can private sector activities in developing countries reduce poverty and food insecurity by improving conditions for small farmers? §  How do new arrangements involving the private sector influence provision of information and advisory services to small farmers? §  How might partnerships among public, private and civil society actors support private sector engagement with small farmers while ensuring that development objectives are realized for all?
  7. 7. 1.  Characterize emerging extension models led by private organizations, including their objectives, strategies, tactics, and outcomes. 2.  Use the findings to identify important features of successful extension programs that involve both private sector actors and small farmers. Research Objectives
  8. 8. Contribution Previous conceptual work has focused on: •  Extension as a public vs. private good •  Changing role of government in supporting extension •  Private company motivations to engage with small farmers Case studies document successes/challenges to privately- led extension programs Our empirical approach complements previous work by comparing private sector extension models across regions and sectors
  9. 9. Methodology Survey Design Implementation •  Contacted over 400 organizations by email •  Posted announcements on MEAS and GFRAS websites •  Analysis based on 78 completed surveys •  Received 101 completed surveys to date Survey Components: 1.  Organizational structure 2.  Partnership arrangements 3.  Extension activities 4.  Extension educator training 5.  Objectives & outcomes 6.  Open-ended questions: •  Mission statement •  Keys to success •  Barriers to success •  Future opportunities •  Financial sustainability •  Scaling up
  10. 10. Results: Organizational Characteristics 45%   37%   7%   5%   5%   1%   Organiza9onal  Type   Private  Business   Non-­‐profit   Organiza9on   Farmer  Based   Organiza9on   Social  Enterprise   Research  Ins9tu9on   Public  Organiza9on   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America   &  Caribbean   Organiza9onal  Type  by   Region  
  11. 11. Results: Organizational Characteristics 28%   47%   25%   Organiza9onal  Scope   Sub-­‐na9onal   Na9onal   Interna9onal   0   5   10   15   20   25   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America   &  Caribbean   Organiza9onal  Scope  by   Region  
  12. 12. Results: Organizational Characteristics 0   5   10   15   20   25   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America   &  Caribbean   Value  Chain  Role  by  Region   13%   21%   30%   36%   Value  Chain  Role   Upstream:   supplier  to   farmers   Downstream:   buyer  of  farm   products   Both  upstream   and  downstream   Suport:  provider   of  other  services  
  13. 13. Results: Partnership Arrangements Yes   69%   No   31%   Public  Private     Partnership  (PPP)   0   10   20   30   40   50   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America  &   Caribbean   PPP  by  Region   Yes   No  
  14. 14. Public NGO FBO Private (For Profit) 2 3 11 20 2 4 1 8 42 1 Results: Partnership Arrangements Institutional Arrangements for Implementation §  No examples of shared public-private implementation without NGO or FBO involvement. §  High representation of private-only implementation strategies §  High heterogeneity in implementation strategies
  15. 15. Results: Partnership Arrangements Institutional Arrangements for Funding Public NGO FBO or Farmer Fees Private (For Profit) 5 3 9 12 2 8 7 6 122 3 3 §  More public- private collaboration on funding compared to implementation §  About half of partnerships are completely funded by private sector
  16. 16. Results: Extension Activities  -­‐          500,000      1,000,000      1,500,000      2,000,000     Africa   La9n  America  &  Caribbean   Asia  &  Pacific  Islands   #  Farmers   Total  Extension  Reach  
  17. 17. Results: Extension Activities
  18. 18. Results: Extension Activities
  19. 19. Results: Extension Activities
  20. 20. Results: Extension Activities
  21. 21. Results: Extension Activities
  22. 22. Results: Extension Activities
  23. 23. Results: Extension Activities 0%   20%   40%   60%   80%   100%   printed  handouts   moble  phones  (tex9ng,  apps)   radio   print  media  (newspaper,  magazine)   internet  (blogs,  websites)   email   television   social  media   Prevalence  of  Communica9on  Technologies  
  24. 24. Results: Extension Educator Training Educa-on  Level   1  =  Primary  School   2  =  Secondary  School   3  =  Technical/Voca9onal   4  =  College   5  =  Graduate  School   1   2   3   4   5   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America  &   Caribbean   Educa-on  Level   Average  Educa9on  Level  by  Region  
  25. 25. Results: Extension Educator Training Training  Frequency   1  =  Rarely   2  =  Annually   3  =  Monthly   4  =  Biweekly   5  =  Weekly   1   2   3   4   5   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America  &   Caribbean   Training  Frequency   Average  Training  Frequency  by  Region  
  26. 26. Results: Extension Educator Training 1.0   1.5   2.0   2.5   3.0   agronomy  &  produc9on   communica9on  and  adult  educa9on   sustainable  agriculture  &  natural  resource  management   community  organizing   business  management  &  entrepreneurism   working  with  marginalized  groups   research  skills   Average  Importance  of  Extension  Educator  Skills   1  =  low;  2  =  medium;  3  =  high  
  27. 27. Results: Evaluation & Outcomes 45%   44%   5%   6%   Internal  vs  External  Evalua-on   programs  are   evaluated   internally   both  internal   and  external   programs  are   evaluated   externally   other   29%   21%   50%   Evalua-on  Process   formal  evalua9on   process   informal   evalua9on  process   both  formal  and   informal   92%  of  respondents  indicate  that  evalua9on  includes  farmer  feedback  
  28. 28. Results: Evaluation & Outcomes
  29. 29. Results: Evaluation & Outcomes 1   2   3   4   5   increase  produc9vity   reliable  supply  of  agricultural   product   increase  product  quality   increase  market  access  for  farmers   promote  technology  adop9on   improve  quality  of  life  for  farmers   improve  farm  business   management   improvements  for  marginalized   groups   reduce  poverty   Average  Performance  Scores  by  Region   1  =  poor;  5  =  excellent   Africa   Asia  &  Pacific   Islands   La9n  America   &  Caribbean  
  30. 30. Results: Evaluation & Outcomes 1   2   3   4   5   increase  produc9vity   reliable  supply  of  agricultural  product   increase  product  quality   increase  market  access  for  farmers   promote  technology  adop9on   improve  quality  of  life  for  farmers   improve  farm  business  management   improvements  for  marginalized  groups   reduce  poverty   Average  Performance  Scores  by  Organiza-onal  Type   (1  =  poor;  5  =  excellent)   Private  Business   or  Social   Enterprise   NGO  or  FBO  
  31. 31. Results: Preliminary Observations from Econometric Models Associa9on  between  Extensions  Tac9cs  and  Outcomes   Type  of  Outcome   Extension  Tac-cs   Increased  produc9vity   Financial  services  (++);  farmer-­‐to-­‐buyer  networking   (+)   Improved  product  quality   Financial  services  (++);  farmer-­‐to-­‐buyer  networking  (+ +);  business  development  (+);  informa9on  and   communica9on  technologies  (+)   Increased  market  access   Financial  services  (++);  strengthen  producer  groups   (+)   Improved  livelihoods   ?   Alleviate  poverty   Farmer  field  schools  (+)   Improve  env.  management   Demonstra9on  plots  (+);  farmer  field  schools  (+)   Build  management  capacity   Lead  farmer  approach  (+)  
  32. 32. Results: Extension Mission Common Elements: • Market access: commercialization, farm business management • Productivity: technical assistance, traditional extension approaches • Social objectives: health & safety, food security & nutrition, prevent child labor • Environmental objectives: sustainable natural resource management • Innovation: technology transfer, applied research, ICTs • Collaboration: PPPs, organizational development, farmer cooperatives
  33. 33. Results: Extension Mission Common Elements: • Market access: commercialization, farm business management • Productivity: technical assistance, traditional extension approaches • Social objectives: health & safety, food security & nutrition, prevent child labor • Environmental objectives: sustainable natural resource management • Innovation: technology transfer, applied research, ICTs • Collaboration: PPPs, organizational development, farmer cooperatives Most extension efforts have multiple, overlapping objectives
  34. 34. Results: Keys to Success #1: Participatory & Contextual Approach •  Builds trust and long-term relationships with farmers •  Responsive to local conditions and farmer concerns •  Develops long-term institutional partnerships •  Emphasizes local staffing •  Encourages two-way knowledge sharing
  35. 35. Results: Keys to Success #1: Participatory & Contextual Approach •  Builds trust and long-term relationships with farmers •  Responsive to local conditions and farmer concerns •  Develops long-term institutional partnerships •  Emphasizes local staffing •  Encourages two-way knowledge sharing “There is not any extension model that we can transfer from somewhere else. We should develop the model according to the social, institutional, technical, economic, infrastructure, etc. situation of the region. We should try to use resources of the region as much as possible but in an effective way. Participation, transparency at all levels.”
  36. 36. Results: Other Keys to Success •  Technical assistance is embedded in the structure of the supply chain •  Extension activities use existing nodes of connection and communication channels to reach farmers •  Extension arrangements go beyond a single cash crop to support holistic farm management and opportunities for diversified production •  Integrated extension activities address challenges along the entire value chain •  Consistent metrics and methods for evaluating success are shared across organizations, sectors and industries
  37. 37. Results: Barriers to Success Top 3 Reported Barriers 1.  Lack of financial resources 2.  Inadequate extension coverage 3.  Low literacy and education levels among farmers
  38. 38. Results: Barriers to Success Top 3 Reported Barriers 1.  Lack of financial resources 2.  Inadequate extension coverage 3.  Low literacy and education levels among farmers “We in the past had support from various international donors, but these programs only run for about three years, and then it stops. And that is the main challenge that we have. You cannot switch development on and off like a switch. So we need longer-term partnerships and financial support from other role players.”
  39. 39. Results: Other Barriers to Success •  Lacking coordination: duplication of efforts, poor communication, conflicts between public and private organizations •  Extension is overextended with too many responsibilities •  Land tenure issues •  Gender bias against women •  Approaches that exclude the poorest farmers •  Corruption/bad business practices
  40. 40. Results: Future Opportunities Nodes of Connection •  Existing nodes of connection can be leveraged to reach farmers •  Extension activities can provide information (market intelligence) about the needs of small farmers to private suppliers •  Private suppliers can use CRM processes to gather metrics for tracking extension success Other Reported Opportunities •  Modern communication technologies •  Local processing, value-added products •  Better metrics and tracking
  41. 41. Key Takeaways Multifaceted nature of extension •  Multiple objectives and multiple approaches are common, regardless of region or organizational type Extension priorities •  Production-oriented goals tend to be prioritized (e.g. productivity, supply reliability Institutional arrangements •  Heterogeneous arrangements for funding and implementation include single-actor and multi-actor models •  More public-private collaboration in funding than in implementation
  42. 42. Self-assessment of outcomes •  More progress toward achieving farm-level goals related to production and market access •  Less progress toward achieving social (e.g. poverty alleviation) or environmental goals •  More progress in Asia and the pacific than in Africa and Latin America Extensions tactics and keys to success •  Provision of financial services appear to substantially advance several goals •  Participatory approaches are mentioned as key to success, but showed limited impact on outcomes Key Takeaways
  43. 43. Thank  you  for  your  amen9on!   Ques9ons?  Comments?     Miguel  I.  Gómez  (mig7@cornell.edu)   Benjamin  Mueller  (bmueller@Illinois.edu)      

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