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Dr. Rajib Subba, DIG, Nepal Police, Nepal Earthquake Session | SotM Asia 2017

  1. Social Media, Crowd Sourcing & Crisis Response Experiences and Lessons Learned Rajib Subba, PhD Deputy Inspector General of Police Director of Communication Directorate Nepal Police Headquarters, Naxal Kathmandu, Nepal State of the Map Asia 2017 Kathmandu
  2. The EQ Day • Communication Directorate staffs converged at the designated place. • Established Comm Center asap. • Communication had no issues except in Gorkha, and Sindhupalchwok. Radios: • HF/VHF/UHF • Digital Trunking Phone: • Mobile, PSTN & Sat Phones Information Systems
  3. Foundational Backgrounds DisasterInformational Convergence Personal Convergence Resources Convergence When a disaster strikes, spontaneous and massive movement of people, information and assets take place toward the disaster site (Fritz and Mathewson, 1957).
  4. Foundational Backgrounds Interactions Convergence Behaviors Crisis Communication Practices Returnees Anxious Helpers Curious Exploiters Supporters Mourners Detectives (Fritz and Mathewson, 1957; Kendra and Witchendorf 2005; and Subba and Bui 2010). Broadcast Information Broadcast Warning Encourage Behavior Appeal for Information Fighting Rumors (Ehnis and Bunker, 2012 & 2013) Institutional Elements Institutional Elements Scott (2008) Expectations, Profile, Protocols, Mission, Norms, Roles, Jobs etc
  5. Foundational Backgrounds Interplay between Physical and Cyber world EQ in Nepal Anxious worldwide Responders on-line Responders on ground Rules, regulations Adhoc The Detectives The Exploiters Authorities Online forums, SM Brigade Volunteeris m Plan SOPs Subba and Bui, 2010
  6. Nepal Police Response Online GIS Mapping Missing Persons Data and Infographics Relief & Rescue Information Emergency Numbers
  7. Social Media and Crowd Sourcing 25th April: First post after the first quake: @4:59 pm “request for information on quake damages.” SMS service was started on 26th April. SMS:[Plz help us . 200 people are trapped in Miteri bridge near Khasa boarder due to earthquake. Old help.] 4/26/2019 22:34:36 Social Media Project 2013: Consolidation work was quickly mobilized with existing Facebook page along with newly stared SMS and twitter services (@NepalPoliceHQ) to minimize the risk as time passes. 1,295,230 people like this 455277 followers
  8. SM for Response: Crisis Convergence Behaviors The Returnees: The Anxious: Fritz, C. E., & Mathewson, J. H. (1957) @xxxxxxxxxxxxx Area police personnel came to our area to assess the damages but returned while saying that this is not their area @NepalPoliceHQ @nepalpolicehq Activity of Police #HQ in Twitter is really good, the Police personnel who went back earlier returned, said that help will come do not worry, also collected data. @nepalpolicehq while returning they were grumbling who is the one who informed Kathmandu about this trivial matter. I kept quite B-) The Helpers The Curious: @xxxxxxxxxx @nepalpolicehq How long is the lake? Is village submerged? How long is hazardous area from the river? The Supporters: @xxxxxx Assistance of @NepalPoliceHQ through social media during crisis is a highly appreciable work. Lets thank together. Lets follow ☺ The Mourners Kendra, J. and Wachtendorf, T., (2003)
  9. SM for Crisis Response: Convergence Behaviors, Crisis Communication Practices and Institutional Elements Information on Controlling Exploitation Communication exists between EROs (Police and public) when public expectations are matched by ERO’s obedience to duty. Institutional elements interacting with CBs & CCP. Detective Behavior This bus has moved from Pokhara to Kathmandu. It charged Rs 500 extra for every luggage. Travelling fee is extra. @NepalPoliceHQ @NepalPoliceHQ Based on your information the bus with license# 4519 has been fined Rs 1000. EXPECTATION S OBDIENCE TO DUTY Subba and Bui, 2017
  10. ✓A Facebook SOS message: ✓People stranded due to landslides at Dolakha were rescued immediately after receiving information via FB messenger. ✓Police Chowki at Boz under Dolakha District Police rescued Ms. Bhakta Kumari Lama and her team. Social Media Helps in Rescue Experiences & Lessons Learned
  11. Experiences & Lessons Learned Take Action and Inform Make Ground Rules First Remind Norms repeatedly
  12. Fake news, Rumors, Disambiguous info and Disruptive Discussion • Volcano eruption – Asked to remove the news • More severe earthquakes are coming – People were advised not to leave their properties • Astrological prediction – Put in custody and asked not to post any prediction that may scare people more • Electronic Transaction Act – Reminded that the handle is for helping people. ETA discussion should take elsewhere. Experiences & Lessons Learned
  13. Flexibility: Aligned responses to Public needs Missing Persons Data and Infographics Experiences & Lessons Learned Relay Information Anxious in foreign countries
  14. Flexibility: Social Media 4 Public Concern After receiving information from social media users that women and infants were not getting their daily needs (baby food, diapers etc) Nepal Police mobilized its W&C Directorate for collection and distribution of relief materials. Experiences & Lessons Learned
  15. Upon receiving complains of lack of power for charging handheld devices Mobile Solar Charging stations were established. Power Matters: Mobile Solar Charging Stations Experiences & Lessons Learned
  16. Proximity Matters This is the team that provides real-time information via @nepalpolicehq. Experiences & Lessons Learned
  17. Right To Information Online Governance Bridging the Gap Good Governance I asked for help with @NepalPoliceHQ. I had no expectation for a reply, but reply came. Proud that right to information has been respected. Thank U. This @NepalPoliceHQ handle should be on even after the EQ. This is giving an impression of presence of the government. Thank you Nepal Police. Lessons Learned & Experiences Information Dissemination Nepal Police’s most appreciable work during this disaster is information dissemination by social media. Thank you @NepalPoliceHQ #NepalQuake
  18. SAT Phone SATCOM and Digital Trunking with GPS/Mapping SATCOM: Communications via satellites to transfer of data (voice, images/maps, video). Digital Trunking with GPS Mapping Lessons Learned & Experiences Power Solar
  19. Adopt new technologies sooner! Experiences & Lessons Learned UAVs RCS eLTE
  20. Adopt new technologies sooner! GIS for Crisis Response: 25 April, 2015 till 14th May 2015, 17:00 hrs Source: Nepal Police Experiences & Lessons Learned
  21. Disaster Management Information System • Prototype helps! • Not all high-end Systems are successful! Experiences & Lessons Learned
  22. Coordination and Information Sharing Online Way Forward!
  23. Disaster Management Information System Framework DRR Portal One Stop Access Multi-Disaster Management System Coordination Among Stakeholders Other Information Systems Integration MIS Backend • Documents & Photos • Person Finder • Messaging: SMS & Email • Disaster Victim Identification • Organization registry • Logistics management Weather/Flood Info Sys Geo Spatial Data DSS Decision Support System Knowledge based Portal Linkages Seismic Data Nepal Emergency Operations Center The Proposed DMIS Framework
  24. Conclusions • Physical-Virtual Convergence responses help. • Social Media could be used as an effective communication and collaboration platform between the disaster management authority and the general public, making it easier for the former to serve the community. • Aligned response with expectations for information on the status of road situations, casualties, landslides, relief and rescue operations, contacts and missing persons, helped build a collaborative relationship between the EM Organizations and the public. • Interaction Site like Twitter Handle helped highlight the difference in response priorities between the police and the general public, thus allowing the former to reconsider and adapt its planning activities. • Resilient Communication Networks and Infrastructure is must. • Free access to Data Comm and free Social Media access druing crisis helps. (Example: NCell)
  25. Any Questions? • Thank you ☺