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Designing instruction laying the foundation

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Designing instruction laying the foundation

  1. 1. Tuesday January 13th 2015 9:00 am – 4:00 pm University of Albany Instructional Design Workshop Kathleen Stone Director of Curriculum and Instructional Design SUNY Empire State College Kathleen.Stone@esc.edu
  2. 2. Designing Instruction: Laying the Foundation Morning Session Goals, Objectives, Instructional Design Models
  3. 3. Workshop Goals and Objectives  A goal of this workshop is to increase participants awareness of instructional design.  Objectives: At the end of this workshop you will be able to:  Write learning goals and measureable objectives for a learning opportunity.  Apply an instructional design model towards the creation of a learning opportunity.  Determine appropriate learning activities for a learning opportunity.  Determine engagement and motivational strategies for a learning opportunity.  Determine assessment strategies for a learning opportunity.
  4. 4. Goals and Objectives  Language – Goals, Objective, Outcomes  Why are they important?  tell students what is important  alignment with assessments  help students gain metacognitive skills  are covered under standard 14 of the middle states accreditation requirements (new standard 5 starting 2017)  When will you be writing learning goals and objectives?
  5. 5. Goals  Goals are broad statements that describes the ultimate purpose of the instruction.  Learning goals are not typically written to be measurable, but provide the framework for designing learning experiences. A goal of this workshop is to increase participants awareness of instructional design.
  6. 6. Practice 1. Write one goal right now that you have for this workshop. 2. Write one goal that you have for students in a learning opportunity you are designing (course, lesson, LibGuide)
  7. 7. Basics of Objectives  Who (learner)  How (action verb - measurable)  What (content)  Conditions and Criteria (if applicable) The participants will write a measurable objective. Given a list of verbs, the participants will write a measureable objective in 10 minutes. ABCD Method: Audience, behavior (action verb), condition, degree
  8. 8. Domains of Learning (revised Bloom’s Taxonomy)  Cognitive  Remembering, Understanding, Applying, Analyzing, Evaluating, Creating  Factual, Conceptual, Procedural, Metacognitive  Affective  Feelings, values, motivations, attitudes, etc.  Psychomotor  Physical movement, motor skills, etc.
  9. 9. Activity  Divide into groups of 2 or 3  Choose one goal to use as a starting point for creating measurable learning objectives.  Write a measurable learning objective for each level of the cognitive domain (six total)  Write two measurable learning objectives that address two levels of the affective domian.  Write one measurable learning objective that addresses the psychomotor domian.
  10. 10. Overview of Instructional Design Models  Why use an ID Model?  Common Models  ADDIE  Backward design  Universal Design for Learning  Kemp design model  Dick and Carey  Adapt!
  11. 11. Basic ADDIE Model  Analysis Phase: Instructional problem, overall goals, environment, learners, timeline - etc  Design Phase: Plan out the instruction - learning objectives, types of activities, assessments  Development Phase: Create the content, activities, assessments  Implementation Phase: Delivery - carry out instruction  Evaluation Phase: Evaluate the effectiveness of the instruction
  12. 12. Backward Design  Identify Learning Goals  What do you want students to know?  What do you want students to be able to do?  Why is this difficult for them to know/do on their own?  Determine acceptable evidence  How will you know that they got it?  How will you assess that they got it?  What counts as understanding in your class or field?
  13. 13. Backward Design  Plan learning activities and instruction  What activities will you use to make sure that they got there?  How are these activities connected to students’ understanding? What is Backward Design? By Kristine Kershaw
  14. 14. Universal Design for Learning  Principle 1 - Provide multiple means of representation  Principle 2 – Provide multiple means of action and expression  Principle 3 – Provide multiple means of engagement UDL at a Glance by CAST
  15. 15. Kemp Model
  16. 16. Dick and Carey Model
  17. 17. Activity  Develop your instructional design plan for a lesson, course, LibGuide etc.  First – Read over the steps.  Next - Complete Steps 1a, 1b and 2a on pages 11 and 12.  Create 2 goals, and 4 objectives  Try to identify at least one affective learning objective.
  18. 18. Quick Check Please answer each question in 1‐2 sentences. What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? What question(s) remain upper‐most in your mind as we end this session?
  19. 19. Afternoon Session Assessing Learning, Resources & Activities, Motivation Developing Instructional Activities
  20. 20. Assessing learning  Summative assessment measures the learning that was described in the learning objectives.  Often occurs at the end of a learning experience, but can occur during at specific intervals (lesson, unit, topic).  Summative assessments are useful for collecting data and reporting on our student’s achievement.  They should ALIGN with the goals and objectives of the course.
  21. 21. Assessment Alignment Example Given a list of verbs, the participants will write a measureable objective in 10 minutes. How could I assess this objective? What evidence would I need to prove the learner achieved this objective successfully?
  22. 22. Think-Pair-Share First, think about the questions for 1-2 minutes on your own. Then share your thoughts with one other person.  What kind of summative evaluations have you used or taken?  How effectively do they measure learning and at what levels?  What kind of information do they provide the instructor and student?
  23. 23. Assessing learning  Formative assessments are given during learning to determine the progress of the students. They can be a learning experience  They allow the instructor to adapt to the students needs.  They allow the student to learn about their own learning and to give feedback on the learning experience.  Formative assessments include a very diverse range of techniques that can be used to assess learning from basic knowledge to higher level critical thinking skills.
  24. 24. Classroom Assessment Techniques  CATs – Classroom assessment techniques are formative assessments that can help inform your teaching and your students learning.  They are usually ungraded and sometimes anonymous  learner centered  teacher directed  mutually beneficial
  25. 25. Classroom Assessment Techniques  Using the CAT handout and your goals and objectives developed this morning, pick three CATs that you may want to use in your instruction  Depending on what you are designing, you may not use all three of the CATs.  If you are teaching online, creating a LibGuide, or incorporating technology in some other way, think of ways that you may adapt a CAT for the technology you are using. To learn more about CATs – please refer to Angelo, T. A. and Cross, K. P. (1993). Classroom Assessment Techniques. (2nd ed.). San Francisco, Jossey-Bass Inc. Older edition is available full-text ERIC Number: ED317097
  26. 26. Learning activities  Content Delivery  Readings, audio, video, web search, flipped classroom  CATs! - CATs that focus on learning content or metacognition are learning activities for the students.  Self-assessment quizzes  Discussion, debate, group work, case studies, jigsaw activities, role playing, peer assessments  Experiential learning, service learning, problem- based learning
  27. 27. Group Activity  In groups of 2 or 3 brainstorm to create a list of potential learning activities that you have used or may want to use.  Select one group member to be the spokesperson to share the activities.  Keep in mind –  Activities provide the student with the ability to meet the stated learning objectives.  Consider the learning environment, resources, and time available.
  28. 28. Motivation: ARCS Model Attention Relevance Confidence Satisfaction
  29. 29. Attention  Incongruity and Conflict: Use contradictions, play "devil’s advocate"  Concreteness: Use visual representations, anecdotes and biographies  Variability: Change—tone of voice, movements, instructional format, media, layout & design of instructional material, and interaction patterns  Humor: Use puns, humorous analogies & anecdotes, and jokes (w/moderation)  Inquiry: Use problem-solving activities and constructive practices  Participation: Use games, simulations, role-playing, etc.
  30. 30. Stop  Take 2 minutes to look at the attention section of the motivation handout.  Check at least two attention strategies you will use in your instructional plan.
  31. 31. Relevance  Experience: Tell learners how new learning will use existing skills. Relate to learner interests  Present Worth: Explicitly state the current value of instruction  Future Usefulness: Relate instruction to future goals (have students participate in this)  Need Matching: Give students the opportunity to achieve, exercising responsibility, authority, and influence  Modeling: Use enthusiasm, peer-modeling, etc.  Choice: Provide choices for students, let them choose
  32. 32. Stop  Take 2 minutes to look at the relevance section of the motivation handout.  Check at least two relevance strategies you will use in your instructional plan.
  33. 33. Confidence  Learning Requirements: Advise students of requirements (goals & objectives).  Difficulty: Sequence activities in increasing difficulty w/continual but reasonable challenge.  Expectations: Use metacognition to forecast outcomes based upon effort; set realistic goals.  Attributions: Encourage students to internalize locus of control by attributing success to themselves  Self-Confidence: Foster using confidence strategies
  34. 34. Stop  Take 2 minutes to look at the confidence section of the motivation handout.  Check at least two confidence strategies you will use in your instructional plan.
  35. 35. Satisfaction  Natural Consequences: Allow students to use newly acquired skills in realistic, successful settings  Unexpected Rewards: Include student expectation of extrinsic reward (for boring tasks) or use a surprise reward  Positive Outcomes: Provide feedback—praise, personal attention, motivation—immediately  Avoidance of Negative Influences: Don’t use threats, surveillance practices and total external evaluation  Scheduling: Repeat reinforcement at fluctuating, non-predictable intervals
  36. 36. Stop  Take 2 minutes to look at the satisfaction section of the motivation handout.  Check at least two satisfaction strategies you will use in your instructional plan.
  37. 37. ARCS Motivation  Look back at the motivation strategies  Did this workshop attempt to use something in all four groups?  What strategies did I use?  What strategies should I have used?
  38. 38. Completing The Instructional Plan  We have discussed:  Goals and objectives  Domains of learning  Instructional design models  Summative and formative assessments  Learning activities  Motivation
  39. 39. Logistics  Room set-up and climate  Classroom rules and expectations  Technology use  Accessibility, training, ease of use  Website design  Blended and online course
  40. 40. Completing the Instructional Plan  You completed steps 1 and 2a of your plan  Wrote your goals  Identified characteristics of your learners  Wrote measurable learning objectives based on your goals  Now complete steps 2b, 3a and 3b.  Make sure you include summative assessments to measure your objectives, CATs, learning activities and motivational strategies you will use.  Then you will trade your plan with someone else and they will give you feedback in 4a.
  41. 41. Quick Check Please answer each question in 1‐2 sentences. What was the most useful or meaningful thing you learned during this session? What question(s) remain upper‐most in your mind as we end this session?
  42. 42. Thank you! Contact me Email:Kathleen.Stone@esc.edu Twitter: KathleenAStone Linkedin: Kathleen Stone

Hinweis der Redaktion

  • The difference between objectives and outcomes is frame of reference. Outcomes are what the students actually accomplished. Outcomes seem to be the least understood. The term is sometimes used to represent broad statements and at other times as measurable, detailed, specific statements. According to Harrell (2013), “Learning outcomes are broadly stated and focus on the program or course as a whole” (p.58). In this case, she is describing what is often thought of as a goal. Suskie (2009) uses the term a little differently, but still in a broad sense: “Learning outcomes are the knowledge, skills, attitudes, and habits of mind that students take with them from a learning experience” (p.117). Suskie uses learning outcomes as interchangeable with the term learning goals. However, outcomes should be measurable and specific. They are in essence a learning objective that is student-centered.

    From Middle States revised standards: Assessment of student learning and achievement demonstrates that the institution's students have accomplished educational goals consistent with their program of study, degree level, the institution's mission, and appropriate expectations for institutions of higher education.

  • 5 Minutes
  • One easy way is to begin your outcome with “you will be able to” and then add an action verb
    You will be able to identify the parts of a cell.

    There are several websites that divide action verbs into blooms taxonomy. This is a good way to check that you are assessing information from higher levels as well as knowledge comprehension levels.

    SMART
    Specific, measurable, attainable, relevant, time
    ABCD
    Audience, behavior (action verb), condition, degree
  • What kind of knowledge do you want them to gain? Is it factual, procedural, conceptual, metacognitive? At what level should they learn it? Do we want them to remember, understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, create? These are all questions that relate to the cognitive domain of learning. The psychomotor domain of learning, which involves the physical act of doing something as part of the learning process, and the affective domain, which focuses on students’ attitudes, feelings, values, and beliefs. The affective domain can be challenging to assess, but is critical for designing effective instruction. Satisfaction, retention, engagement, and motivation are tied to affective domain and all are critical for student success (Stenzel, 2006).
  • Pass out ABCD/Bloom’s verbs handout
    May use any of the goals previously written
    May use more than one of the goals
  • Provide a roadmap
    Help ensure alignment
    Continuous improvement

  • http://youtu.be/3Xzi2cm9WTg
    2:30
  • http://youtu.be/3Xzi2cm9WTg
    2:30
  • 4:36
    http://youtu.be/bDvKnY0g6e4
  • The model is comprised of nine key elements - instructional problems, learners characteristics, task analysis, instructional objectives, content sequencing, instructional strategies, designing the message, instructional delivery, and evaluation instruments. 


    Instructional problems - in this element, instructional problems are identified, and the goal(s) for designing the instructional program are specified.
    Learner characteristics - in this element, any learner characteristics that should receive attention during planning are identified. 
    Task analysis - in this element, the subject content is identified and the task components related to the stated goal(s) and purpose(s) are determined. 
    Instructional objectives - in this element, the learners instructional objectives are stated.  
    Content sequencing - in this element, the content for each instructional unit is sequenced for logical learning.
    Instructional strategies - in this element, instructional strategies are developed so each learner can master the instructional objectives.
    Designing the message - in this element, the instructional message is planned/designed.
    Instructional delivery - in this element, how the instruction will be delivered is determined. 
    Evaluation instruments - in this element, evaluation instruments to assess the instructional objectives are developed. 
  • Benefits of the Dick & Carey Model are 1) that it provides guidance through the design phase of instruction 2) provides emphasis on sequencing and organizing content 3) can be applied in almost any content 4) can adjust well for any changes in both theory and/or technology 5) has been around for a long time. Disadvantages include 1) that learning is non-linear 2) presumes that learning can be predictable and reliable 3) does not allow for mistakes, too rigid 4) includes a lot of steps/stages.

    This model is made up of ten stages and each one has an input and an output. All  the steps in this Instructional Systems Design should be employed in order to design, develop, evaluate, and revise instruction. The ten stages are: 1) Identify Instructional Goals 2) Conduct Instructional Analysis 3) Analyze learners and Contexts 4) Write Performance Objectives 5) Develop Assessment Instruments 6) Develop Instructional Strategy 7) Develop and Select Instructional Materials 8) Design and Conduct Formative Evaluation for Instruction 9) Design and Conduct Summative Evaluation 10) Revise Instruction.  Below is an illustration of the Dick & Carey Model adapted from The Systematic Design of Instruction.              
  • We will talk more about assessment in the afternoon. As you develop your plan ask yourself:
    How will you know that they got it?
    How will you assess that they got it?
    What counts as understanding in your class or field?

    You may work together or independently then trade your work with a partner to have them review your section before moving on to the next one.
  • Summative assessments are useful for collecting data and reporting on our student’s achievement, however they do not help our students learn since they are given at the end. In addition, looking at the revised Bloom’s taxonomy, Airasian & Miranda (2002), claim that metacognitive knowledge cannot be measured with summative assessments. Recent research has shown that testing in itself, when done frequently without extra studying or feedback can help learning (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). This has created great interest in testing for learning and not just for assessment. However, it is important to remember that this type of testing would primarily be demonstrating lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Formative assessments can be used to gain the same effect but at higher levels of learning.

    Formative assessments are given during learning to determine the progress of the students, enabling the teacher to adjust instruction as needed (Alexander, 2006). Formative assessments include a very diverse range of techniques that can be used to assess learning from basic knowledge to higher level critical thinking skills.
  • Notice how easy these questions were answered by having a well written learning objective.
  • Summative assessments are useful for collecting data and reporting on our student’s achievement, however they do not help our students learn since they are given at the end. In addition, looking at the revised Bloom’s taxonomy, Airasian & Miranda (2002), claim that metacognitive knowledge cannot be measured with summative assessments. Recent research has shown that testing in itself, when done frequently without extra studying or feedback can help learning (Roediger & Karpicke, 2006). This has created great interest in testing for learning and not just for assessment. However, it is important to remember that this type of testing would primarily be demonstrating lower levels of Bloom’s taxonomy. Formative assessments can be used to gain the same effect but at higher levels of learning.

    Formative assessments are given during learning to determine the progress of the students, enabling the teacher to adjust instruction as needed (Alexander, 2006). Formative assessments include a very diverse range of techniques that can be used to assess learning from basic knowledge to higher level critical thinking skills.
    Formative assessments have been shown to be an important tool for informing instruction (Eckert, Bower, Stiff, Hinkle, & Davis, 1997). Eckert et al., (1997) found that the background knowledge students entered with was much less than what instructors thought, causing them to adjust instruction to cover what they considered more remedial level content. Are we overestimating what our student’s know? This is one reason that CATs are an important tool for helping to guide instruction. Others believe that using formative assessment techniques can improve scores on summative assessments. Chizmar & Ostrosky (1998) used the CAT called the “One-Minute Paper” in a study and showed that it increased learning for economic students.
  • usually ungraded and anonymous
    • learner centered
    • teacher directed
    • mutually beneficial
    • formative
    • context‐specific
    • ongoing

    Find out what and how your
    students are thinking
    • Clarify your goals for your course
    or class session
    • Obtain information for class
    session design
    • Get feedback to make mid‐course
    corrections
    • Become exposed to how students
    learn your discipline and identify
    means to respond to different
    learning styles
    • Increase active and cooperative
    Learning

    Change the classroom norms for
    asking questions and admitting
    deficiencies in understanding
    • Help students become self‐aware
    of their learning
    • Allow students to make mid‐
    course corrections
    • Push students to take their
    knowledge further
    • Leave behind a trail of
    information that can be use for
    post‐course improvement (for
    students and teacher)
  • http://sc.edu/cte/guide/CATs/index.shtml
  • Stop – take 2 minutes to look at the motivation handout. Check at least two attention strategies you will use.
  • Give handout on assessments

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