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Media Use: Impairing Sleep in Children

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What is the impact of media use on sleep in children?

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Media Use: Impairing Sleep in Children

  1. 1. MEDIA USE: IMPAIRING SLEEP IN CHILDREN BY: KATHERINE BABAYAN PHOTO SOURCE: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS "CHILDREN AT SCHOOL" 
  2. 2. "NOWADAYS TECHNOLOGY IS DEEPLY EMBEDDED IN CHILDRENS' LIVES" (SMAHEL, WRIGHT, AND CERNIKOVA, 2015) PHOTO SOURCE: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS "LENOVO G500S LAPTOP-2903" PHOTO SOURCE: PIXABAY "CELL, PHONE" PHOTO SOURCE: PIXABAY "DIGITAL, TABLET" PHOTO SOURCE: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS "DUALSHOCK 4" Children are constantly engaged with their digital devices, even when they are not actively using them (KING'S COLLEGE LONDON, 2016)
  3. 3. EVIDENCE-BASED BENEFITS OF DIGITAL AND SOCIAL MEDIA USE EARLY LEARNING EXPOSURE TO NEW IDEAS AND KNOWLEDGE INCREASED OPPORTUNITIES FOR SOCIAL CONTACT AND SUPPORT NEW OPPORTUNITIES TO ACCESS HEALTH PROMOTION MESSAGES AND INFORMATION PHOTO SOURCE: WIKIMEDIA COMMONS  "BLACKLIT KEYBOARD"  (CHASSIAKOS, RADESKY, CHRISTAKIS, MORENO, & CROSS, 2016) 1 2 3 4
  4. 4. PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR  "006 - STUDENTS USING TECHNOLOGY" BY BRAD FLICKINGER BUTWHATDOCHILDRENREALLYTHINK ABOUTTHEIMPACTOFDIGITALMEDIA ONTHEIRHEALTH?
  5. 5. EXCESSIVE DAYTIME FATIGUE  SHORTER SLEEP DURATION SLEEPING LATE AT NIGHT NIGHTMARES   AFTER MEDIA USE WITH VIOLENT CONTENT DIFFICULTY WAKING INCREASED SLEEP ONSET LATENCY INCREASED MEDIA USE BEFORE SLEEP USE LEADS TO: CHILDREN REPORT THAT... (SMAHEL, WRIGHT, & CERNIKOVA, 2015)
  6. 6. HOW ELSE DOES MEDIA USE AFFECT SLEEP? Current research suggests that blue light emitted from screens negatively impacts patterns of sleep Blue light emissions cause suppression of endogenous melatonin, which is an essential hormone for sleep regulation PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "CELL PHONE'S LIGHT" BY KOHEI 314 (CHASSIAKOS, ET AL., 2016) (CHANG, 2016)
  7. 7.                             OF CHILDREN HAVE AT LEAST ONE ELECTRONIC DEVICE IN THEIR BEDROOM, FURTHER PROMOTING EVENING USE 28% 72% 72% PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR ".8 APPLE-ESQUE*" BY JOHAN LARSSON (KING'S COLLEGE LONDON, 2016)
  8. 8. MEDIA USE AT SCHOOL SHIFTING FROM TEXTBOOKS DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "COMPUTER LAB - 4TH GRADE" BY WOODLEYWONDERWORKS
  9. 9. RESEARCH SHOWS THAT... Students comprehend less when they read on a screen compared to reading on paper Why? Screen-based reading is more physically and mentally draining  Students scored lower on a reading comprehension exam via computer compared to those completing it on paper and  reported greater levels of stress and fatigue  (JABR, 2013) PHOTO SOURCE: PIXABAY "MAC"
  10. 10. EASTWAY UNIVERSITY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES WWW.EUSS.EDU HOW MUCH TIME SHOULD CHILDREN BE SPENDING ON DIFFERENT ONLINE ACTIVITIES AT SCHOOL IN ORDER TO REDUCE DAYTIME FATIGUE AND PREVENT FURTHER SLEEP IMPAIRMENT? 
  11. 11. "SLEEP IS AN OFTEN UNDERVALUED BUT IMPORTANT PART OF CHILDREN'S DEVELOPMENT, WITH A REGULAR LACK OF SLEEP CAUSING A VARIETY OF HEALTH PROBLEMS." (KING'S COLLEGE LONDON, 2016) PHOTO SOURCE: WIKIPEDIA "SLEEPING ON BRAILE" (KING'S COLLEGE LONDON, 2016) "WITH THE EVER GROWING POPULARITY OF PORTABLE MEDIA DEVICES AND THEIR USE IN SCHOOLS AS A REPLACEMENT FOR TEXTBOOKS, THE PROBLEM OF POOR SLEEP AMONGST CHILDREN IS LIKELY TO GET WORSE."
  12. 12. "IF YOU CAN'T AFFORD TO HAVE A BABYSITTER COME AND YOU NEED TO GET SOMETHING DONE IN THE HOUSE, IT IS KIND OF YOUR HELPER, UNFORTUNATELY."    CHALLENGE FOR PARENTS & CAREGIVERS  (SZKLARSKI, 2016)  CHILDREN EXPERIENCE "WITHDRAWAL" DURING SCREEN-FREE MEAL-TIMES  (BIELSKI, 2013) 
  13. 13. DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY IS BECOMING A MODERN DAY PACIFIER PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "CELL PHONE BABY" BY SPARKCBC
  14. 14. MOVING FORWARD: HOW CAN WE SUPPORT SLEEP AND WELLNESS OF  CHILDREN IN THE MEDIA AGE? PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "STUDENT _IPAD_SCHOOL-124" BY BRAD FLICKINGER
  15. 15. IT IS CRUCIAL THAT TEACHERS, HEALTH CARE PROFESSIONALS, PARENTS, AND CHILDREN ARE EDUCATED ABOUT: 1. THE HARMFUL EFFECTS OF  MEDIA USE ON SLEEP 2. THE STANDARD RECCOMMENDATIONS FOR HEALTHY SLEEP IN CHILDREN  (CHANG, 2016) PHOTO SOURCE: PIXABAY "FREE VECTOR GRAPHIC: FAMILY, PARENTS, KIDS, YOUNG, YOUTH, MAN " PHOTO SOURCE: FREEPIK "MALE CARTOON POINTING TO WHITEBOARD" BY FLATICON
  16. 16. SINCE 2012, CANADIAN GUIDELINES HAVE RECOMMENDED THAT CHILDREN AGED 5-17 SHOULD LIMIT THEIR SCREEN TIME TO A MAXIMUM OF 2 HOURS PER DAY PHOTO SOURCE: PIXABAY "CHILDREN, TV, CHILD, TELEVISION, HOME, PEOPLE, BOY" (SZKLARSKI, 2016)
  17. 17. HOWEVER... WITH THE EXPLOSION OF THE INTERNET AND SOCIAL MEDIA, THE RISE IN SMARTPHONES AND TABLETS, AND GREATER ONLINE ACADEMIC INVOLVEMENT, THE 2-HOUR RULE HAS BECOME MUCH MORE CHALLENGING TO IMPLEMENT NOW, IT IS CLEAR THAT THE "ONE SIZE FITS ALL" APPROACH TO MEDIA  IS NOT EFFECTIVE FOR GUIDING PARENTS, TEACHERS, AND HEALTH CARE PROVIDERS (MCCARTHY, 2016) PHOTO SOURCE:  FLICKR "COMPUTER CIRCUIT BOARD" BY HARLAND QUARRINGTON
  18. 18. THE AMERICAN ACADEMY OF PEDIATRICS (AAP) HAS RECENTLY DEVELOPED A NEW SET OF GUIDELINES... (MCCARTHY, 2016) PHOTO SOURCE: PEXELS (NO ATTRIBUTION REQUIRED)
  19. 19. 1. TIME TO DISCONNECT 2. DEVELOP A FAMILY MEDIA PLAN 3. ENSURE CHILD MAINTAINS BALANCE: 4. SET A GOOD EXAMPLE Playtime, meal time, family time, and homework time should be screen-free Charge devices outside of the bedroom at night  (McCarthy, 2016) Include guidelines around safe use of devices - i.e.  never while driving or crossing streets (McCarthy, 2016) With sleep, exercise, and screen-free activities (McCarthy, 2016) Children always pay more attention to what we do than to what we say (McCarthy, 2016) From 2013-2014 adult media consumption increased by 21% (Robertson, 2014) RECOMMENDATIONS OF THE AAP
  20. 20. GET INVOLVED! "Use media with your child. Learn what they enjoy and talk to them about it. The more you are involved in your child's online life the more you can help them make safe choices." (Szklarski, 2016) ADDITIONAL RECOMMENDATION BY THE CANADIAN PEDIATRIC SOCIETY OVERALL GOAL:  "TO HELP PARENTS AND CAREGIVERS UNDERSTAND THE EFFECTS OF MEDIA AND GIVE THEM PRACTICAL TOOLS THEY CAN USE"  (MCCARTHY, 2016)
  21. 21. THE CANADIAN PAEDIATRIC SOCIETY ANNOUNCES THAT A VERY SIMILAR SET OF RECOMMENDATIONS WILL BE INTRODUCED THIS YEAR IN THEIR  UPDATED  GUIDELINES  (SZKLARSKI, 2016) PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "IPHONE" BY ANTHONY KELLY
  22. 22. IF THERE ARE CLEAR DETRIMENTAL EFFECTS OF MEDIA USE ON CHILDREN'S SLEEP, THEN WHY DO WE CONTINUE TO ALLOW IT IN EXCESS? IT'S TIME TO GET INVOLVED AND EDUCATE OURSELVES.  Parents, Teachers & Health Care Professionals...
  23. 23. REFERENCES Bielski, Z. (2013). Portrait of an e-family: How they're making their hyper-digital lives work. Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/life/relationships/how-families-are-making-their-hyper-digital-lives-work/article13924931/ Chang, R. (2016). Impact of Devices on Children's Sleep a Major Concern for Researchers. The Journal: Transforming Education Through Technology. Retrieved from https://thejournal.com/articles/2016/11/02/impact-of-devices-on-childrens-sleep-a-major- concern-for-researchers.aspx Chassiakos, Y. R., Radesky, J., Christakis, D., Moreno, M. A., & Cross, C. (2016). Children and Adolescents and Digital Media. American Academy of Pediatrics, 138(5), 1-20. McCarthy, C. (2016). New expert recommendations on children and media use. Harvard Health Publications. Retrieved from http://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/new-expert-recommendations-on-media-use-and-children-2016102510564 Jabr, F. (2013). The Reading Brain in the Digital Age: The Science of Paper versus Screens. Scientific American. Retrieved from https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/reading-paper-screens/ King's College London. (2016). Bedtime use of media devices more than doubles the risk of poor sleep in children. Science Daily. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2016/10/161031111328.htm Robertson, S. K. (2014). Four ways Canadians are consuming media differently. The Globe and Mail. Retrieved from http://www.theglobeandmail.com/report-on-business/industry-news/marketing/four-ways-canadians-are-consuming- media-differently/article21949630/)/ Smahel, D., Wright, M. F., & Cernikova, M. (2015). The impact of digital media on health: children's perspectives. International Journal of Public Health, 60(2), 131-137. Szklarski, C. (2016). Canadian doctors offer tips to limit kids' screen time, after U.S. gets new set of guidelines. CBC News Health. Retrieved from Canadian doctors offer tips to limit kids' screen time, after U.S. gets new set of guidelines PHOTO SOURCE: FLICKR "080622" BY TAMAKI SONO

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