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Presentation on literature review

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Presentation on literature review

  1. 1. WELCOME TO THIS PRESENTATION SESSION 4/22/2014 1
  2. 2. By: Karna Bahadur Chongbang MPhil in Education 13th Batch At: Tribhuvan University Faculty of Education Office for MPhil Program Dillibazaar, ktm 4/22/2014 2
  3. 3. What is a Literature?  Literature is a term which is used to describe written or spoken material. Broadly speaking, literature is used to describe anything from creative writing to more technical or scientific works.  Literature means writings and a body of literature refers to all the published writings in a particular style on a particular subject.  In research, a body of literature is a collection of published information and data relevant to a research question.  Literature is an authentic intellectual product, property and legacy which contributes to the development of a certain body of knowledge that leads to the formation of a knowledge society. 4/22/2014 3
  4. 4. What is meant by a Literature Review? Some definitional perspectives.  “A review of literature is a summary, analysis and interpretation of the theoretical, conceptual and research literature related to topic or theme.” (Anderson, 1998, p.76)  “A literature review is a written summary of journals, books and other documents that describes the past and current state of information on the topic of research study. A good review might also contain other information drawn from conference papers, books and government documents.” (Creswell, 2012,p. 80)  “A literature review is the presentation, classification and evaluation of what other researchers have written on particular subject. A literature review may form a part of a research thesis, or may stand alone as a separate document.” (Txt_lit_review.pdf)  “A literature review is text written by someone to consider the critical points of current knowledge including substantive findings, as well as theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.” ( Wikipedia.) 4/22/2014 4
  5. 5. Place of Literature Review in Research  Theoretical, perspectival and disciplinary ground of a researcher  An essential preliminary task of a researcher  Continuous process during the research journey  In quantitative research: an extensive review at the beginning, and a separate section titled “ Review of the Literature”.  In qualitative research: less emphasis on literature review at beginning, no separate section, more emphasis at the end of the research to support and integrate the findings. 4/22/2014 5
  6. 6. Purposes of Reviewing Literature  To convey the background of a specific field  To provide with information to the researchers to complete their study  To ensure the newness of the research  To avoid unnecessary duplication  To define and limit the problem  To evaluate promising research methods  To locate the agreement, disagreement and gaps in the previous works 4/22/2014 6
  7. 7. Approaches to Literature Review  Different perspectives on nature of literature review:  Positivist Model: - employs the processes of synthesizing, summarizing and drawing together across inter disciplinary issues - emphasizes on developing normative conceptual framework/ value free  Post-positivist Model: -intends to explore literature and review strand, - records reflection strands  Critical Theory Model: - analyzes the literature from a particular ideological position i.e. Feminist, Marxist etc. - sees the materials as value laden. 4/22/2014 7
  8. 8. Seven Steps Model of Literature Review  Step 1: Identifying research question - A researchable research question emerges from literature review.  Step 2: Reviewing discipline styles -Each discipline has own style for writing literature review .  Step3: Searching the literature -Identify the key authors and their i.e. books, journals, research reports, web sites, theses etc.  Step 4: Managing reference and avoiding plagiarism -A review must contain accurate and consistent style of references. -Citing reference accurately is a key way to avoid being accused of plagiarism.  Step 5: Critically analyzing and evaluating the information  Step 6: Synthesizing the findings -The findings or information are compared, contrasted, combined and synthesized into a coherent whole.  Step 7: Write the review 4/22/2014 8
  9. 9. Guidelines for Writing Literature Review  Review APA guidelines  Cite all relevant references  Indicate why some studies are more important  Justify comments such as ‘no studies were found’  Cite separately for the inconsistent or varying results of the studies  Distinguish between research findings and other sources of information  Write the argument coherently According to Caully(1992),  Compare and contrast different authors’ view  Group authors who draw similar conclusion  Criticize the aspects of methodology  Note areas of disagreements  Highlight gaps in researches  Show how your study relates to previous studies  Show how your study relates to the literature in general  Conclude by summarizing what the literature says 4/22/2014 9
  10. 10. Literature review is not just a shopping list, nor a description only. Then , what may be?  Comparing and contrasting different views  Grouping the authors who have drawn similar conclusions  Criticizing the aspects of methodology  Identifying disagreements  Highlighting gaps in research  Showing relation among the studies 4/22/2014 10
  11. 11. Trends of Literature Review  Theoretical Literature Review/Framework  Empirical Literature Review  Conceptual Framework  Critical/Analytical Framework 4/22/2014 11
  12. 12. Theoretical Literature Review/Framework  Theoretical literature is ideas-based literature.  Theoretical frame work is a collection of related concepts that guides research, determines what things one will need to measure and/or what statistical relationship to look for.  It is used in deductive, theory-testing studies.  Theoretical reviews compare how different theories address an issue.  Scholarly writing that helps researcher to build and sharpen the conceptual focus.  The sources of theoretical literature review prepare the conceptual framework. 4/22/2014 12
  13. 13. Empirical Literature Review  Literature which contains observed data or collected data is called empirical literature.  Empirical literature is the literatures, or previous studies that relate or argue positively with studies, hypothesis and variables.  It is systematic identification, location and analysis of documents containing information related to a research problem under investigation.  The review encompasses research question, objectives, methodologies and findings the previous studies. 4/22/2014 13
  14. 14. Conceptual Framework  Conceptual framework is a mental construct of a researcher based on literature review that guides researcher’s own activities.  Emerges out from comprehensive theoretical literature review.  Occurs when a researcher links concepts from literature to establish evidence to support the research question.  Reveals the variables involved in the research problem 4/22/2014 14
  15. 15. Critical/Analytical Framework  Logical organization of information obtained from literature.  Critical literature review provides opportunity to establish researcher’s own expertise.  Critical/analytical literature review compares and contrasts the theories or aspects of studies.  It justifies the linkage of research with previous studies and further contribution to the knowledge advancement.  Presents the interactive position of dependent and independent variables 4/22/2014 15
  16. 16. Conclusion  Literature is the background of any new research activity.  Literature review is a systematic process.  Literature review is an interwoven process along with research work.  Research question, objective, methodology and other aspects of a research are directed by the review of previous literature.  Conceptual or analytical framework of research is derived from theoretical and empirical literature review. 4/22/2014 16
  17. 17. References  Anonymous ( n. d.). Classic literature. Retrieved from Classclit.about.com/ o d / literary terms /g/aa_whatsliter.htm. on April 4,2014.  Anonymous ( n. d.). Literature review. Retrieved from En.wikipedia.org/wiki/Literature _ review. on April 4,2014.  Anonymous ( n. d.). The review of literature for research. Retrieved from www..uncp.edu/home/…/LitReview.html on April 7, 2014.  Anonymous( n. d.). Seven steps to producing a literature review: introduction. Retrieved from www.Librarydevelopment.group.shef.ac.u. on April 6, 2014  Anderson, G.(1998). Fundamentals of educational research( 2nd edition).Suite; USA: Palmer Press; Taylor & Francis Group.  Birnigham City University( n. d.). How to write literature review. Center for Academic Success ; Study Guide: Writing. Retrieved from Library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.04.htm on April 16, 2014.  Creswell, John W.(2012). Educational research. New Jersey, USA: Pearson Education  Kumar, R.(2005). Research methodology. New Delhi: Pearson Education 4/22/2014 17
  18. 18. Post Presentation Session Comments, Suggestions, Feedback and Integration 4/22/2014 18
  19. 19. Thank You 4/22/2014 19

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