• Value-Add (VA) - any operation or activity the
customer values and is (or would be) willing to
pay for if he/she knew the incremental cost of
• Non-Value-Add (NVA) - any operation or activity
that consumes time and/or resources but does
not add value to the service provided or product
sold to the customer.
– Necessary – regulatory requirements, etc.
– Unnecessary – everything else
© 2011 Karen Martin & Associates