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Problem Solving & Critical Thinking:   How to Build These Vital Capabilities              Karen Martin                Webi...
“Most people spend more time andenergy going around problems than in trying to solve them. ”                — Henry Ford  ...
Rule #1Embrace Problems                   3
Problems are not“opportunities for Improvement.”                     4
Rule #2Insist on Cross-Functional        Involvement                             5
Problems Nearly Always Extend Outside theFunctional Silos in Which They’re Discovered                                     ...
Rule #3Follow PDSA Fanatically                    Develop                   hypothesis      Refine                     Con...
“It takes a different kind of thinking tosolve a problem than the kind of thinking    that produced the problem.          ...
Clarifying the PDSA Cycle               Phase                             Detailed Steps                                  ...
Nailing the Plan phase of        PDSA is the most      important step in theentire problem-solving process.               ...
Critical ThinkingThinking that questions assumptions     Why? What if? Why not?Relies on set of values:     Clarity, p...
Lack of Clarity    Lack of Focus       Lack of Discipline            Lack of Engagement                                 12
Rule #4Don’t Look Away. Ever.                         13
Minding the StoreMUST have a process owner3-5 KPIs for every major processFrequent measurementVisual display of the re...
DevelopingProblem-Solving  Capabilities                  15
Building mastery takes  10,000 hoursof deliberate practice                         16
Ways to “Deliberately Practice”• A3 Management (Shook) • Quick & Easy Kaizen (Bodek)• Toyota Kata (Rother)   • Plain Old P...
What is A3?• The core of Toyota’s renowned management  system.• A structured method for applying the PDSA  (plan-do-study-...
The A3 Report• A concise “story board” that reflects  the problem solver’s discoveries &  thought process along the way.  ...
The A3 Report is a Communication,                Consensus-Building and Learning Tool  The A3 report is a    story board t...
Sample A3 Report     Plan                 Do, Study, Adjust21
Benefits of the A3• Creates consistency in how  organizations go about solving  problems, managing projects, and  making d...
Benefits of the A3 (continued)• Ownership role drives accountability and reduces risk of  “it’s everything else’s problem....
A3 Roles & Responsibilities• Problem owner  – Individual who’s accountable both for    the results and the process for    ...
Socratic Questions to Instill Critical Thinking While Solving Problems                      Appendix, The Outstanding     ...
For Further Questions   Karen Martin, Principal  7770 Regents Road #635    San Diego, CA 92122       858.677.6799    ksm@k...
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Clarifying the PDSA Cycle Phase Detailed Steps New   1.  Define and break down the  Problem Solving & Critical Thinking

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Clarifying the PDSA Cycle Phase Detailed Steps New   1.  Define and break down the  problem. Problem   2.  Grasp the current condition. Develop 80% Plan Hypothesis   3.  Set a target condition.   4.  Conduct root cause & gap analysis. Continuous   5.  Identify potential countermeasures. Improvement   6.  Develop & test countermeasure(s) Conduct  Do   7.  Refine and finalize countermeasure(s). Experiment   8.  Implement countermeasure(s). Evaluate  Study   9.  Measure process performance. Results 10. Refine, standardize, & stabilize the process. Refine  Adjust Standardize  11. Monitor process performance. Stabilize 12.  Reflect & share learning. 9

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