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Religion ppt

  1. 1. Religions in Asia
  2. 2. Hinduism Three main Gods Brahma Vishnu Shiva the Creator The Preserver The Destroyer!
  3. 3. One True God Brahman - Means Ultimate Reality - Ultimate essence of material that cannot be realize through senses but only through self knowledge (atm jnana) - Not to be confused with Hindu preists known as “Brahmins” All three gods were manifestation of one true God
  4. 4. Caste System Priests and Scholars Warriors and Brahmin Leaders Kshatriya Farmers, Artisans, Vaishya Traders Slaves Sudra Untouchables
  5. 5. Karma Karma - Moral consequences of a person’s actions Hindus believe in a cycle of rebirth. Upon death, the soul is transformed to a higher, or lower category of being depending on their Karma
  6. 6. Moksha and Nirvana Moksha - End of the cycle of rebirth Nirvana - When the soul attains true peace and happiness A person’s goal is to achieve good karma in order to avoid reincarnation Moksha and Nirvana are achieved when one’s sould is completely pure and united with Brahman
  7. 7. Buddhism
  8. 8. Origin - Emerged In India as a protest to Hinduism - Founded by Siddharta Gautama Buddha - Buddha opposed the caste system
  9. 9. Siddharta Gautama Buddha - Son of a wealthy king in Nepal - Forbidden to leave his kingdom by his parents - Prophesy said he would either be a king or a sage - Upon seeing the real world, he decided to leave his kingdom to live a life of piety and asceticism - Meditated under a Bodhi tree for 49 days and experienced enlightenment
  10. 10. Division Mahayana Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Buddha = GOD Buddha = Teacher Later on, Buddhism was divided into
  11. 11. Jainism
  12. 12. Vardhamana/Mahavira - A contemporary of Buddha - Also opposed caste system - Also left his family - Became a beggar - Meditated silently for 12 years under a Sala Tree - Achieved “Kevala” in the 13th year
  13. 13. Jainism Also believes in reincarnation and karma Kevala can be attained through right conduct It is forbidden to use force in Jainism Peaceful action and non violence = Ahimsa All life on earth is sacred, thus it i forbidden to eat meat.
  14. 14. Sikhism QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  15. 15. Guru Nanak Founder of Sikhism First Guru of sikhism Guru - Descent of divine guidance to mankind through the Ten Enlightened Masters Born in Talvandi, now called Nankana Sahib which is in Lahore, Pakistan
  16. 16. God The God of the Sikh - niranker or formless. God - akal or eternal. He is the creator, sustainer and destroyer God cannot be human and cannot be understood by mortals. God can be understood through his revelation, his creations. God is everywhere
  17. 17. Sikhism Goal of man = destroy the cycle of rebirth and unite with God If a person overcomes the five cardinal vices, he will be saved 5 cardinal vices - Sexual desire, anger, greed, pride, hedonism Sacred scripture - Guru Grant Sahib
  18. 18. Judaism
  19. 19. Judaism Religion of the Jews/Israelites First monotheistic religion God = Yahweh Yahweh’s teachings are in the Torah/ First Five books of the bible Chief Leader of Jews - Moses
  20. 20. Yahweh Yahweh told the Jews, through Moses, that Canaan was their promised land. Yahweh gave them a covenant, through moses, called the ten commandments. Yahweh told the Jews to obey his teachings or they would be punished Jews do not believe that Jesus Christ is their lord and savior.
  21. 21. Christianity
  22. 22. Jesus Christ Founded Christianity Believed by his followers to be the messiah Born in bethlehem Taught people, performed “miracles” Crucified, resurrected after 3 days.
  23. 23. Christianity Jesus Christ is the essence of Christianity Holy book - Bible Jesus is the son of God and was sent to the world to live in suffering and poverty and to die for the sake of mankind only to ressurect and ascend to the Father.
  24. 24. Islam
  25. 25. Muhammad One of the prophets of islam Used to visit a cave to meditate Realized the mysteries of faith, concerning good and evil. Allah is the only one who should be recognized, praised and thanked. All of Muhammad’s intuitions, experiences were recorded by his spouse, Khadija, and his followers. This became the Sunnah/Hadith
  26. 26. Islam Literally means Peace or surrender Followers are called Muslims Sacred Scripture - Qur’an/Koran The doctrine of Islam is based on five pillars Muslims believe In Jesus Christ as a prophet
  27. 27. Five Pillars 1. Shahada - There is one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. 2. Salat - Pray five times a day 3. Zakat - Being charitable 4. Sawn - The Ramadan 5. Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in a life of a Muslim.
  28. 28. Zoroastrianism
  29. 29. Zoroastrianism Founded by Zoroaster/ Zarathustra Sacred Book - Zend Avesta There are 2 forces; Good and Bad. God of goodness: Ahura Mazda God of evil: Angra Mainyu/ Ahriman THERE IS ONE WAY TO FIGHT EVIL, DOING GOOD
  30. 30. Confucianism
  31. 31. Confucianism Founded By Confucius (chinese- Kong fu-tzu, Kongfuzi, meaning - Master Kung) Confucius wanted to find solutions to solve society’s problems. Everyone should have good virtues like: 1. Jen - Benevolence 2. Yi - Righteousness, Right conduct 3. Li - Ritual, Propriety Teachings of Confucius are contained in Five Classics
  32. 32. Five Classics 1. Classic of Changes - originally used for divination 2. Book of History - collection of speeches and discussions 3. Classic of Odes - odes and folk songs 4. Classic of Rites - discussion of principles of conduct and description of courtly and private ceremonials 5. Spring and Autumn Annals - Chronicle of the state of Lu
  33. 33. Taoism
  34. 34. Taoism Founded by Lao Tze/ Laozi/ Lao Zi/ Lao Tzu According to some accounts, Lao Zi did not exist. He was made up by Taoist scholars to have a founder for Taoism. Sacred Scripture - Dao De Jing/ Tao Te Ching Taoists believe that nature has its own course and path and humans should just go with the flow
  35. 35. Taoism The purpose of Taoism is to attain balance in the world. It is symbolized by the yin yang Yin - represents females: soft and calm Yang - represents males: hard and energetic Taoists believe that immortality can be obtained by meditating, dieting, yoga, and alchemy Taoists believe that nature is inhabited by Gods They regard Buddha as one of their Gods
  36. 36. Legalism
  37. 37. Legalism Confucianism and Taoism failed to end the chaos during the Zhou Dynasty thus Legalism emerged. It is the anti-thesis of Confucianism Focused on strengthening state and widening its power. Came from the ideas of Shang yang and Han Feizi
  38. 38. Legalism State is the most important Strict laws and heavy punishment are necessary Adopted as a state religion by Qin Dynasty Shi Huang Di embraced legalism and ordered to burn all confucian books and execution of confucian scholars
  39. 39. Zen Buddhism Japanese sect of Buddhism Came from an Indian monk: Bodhidharma. Later it spread to Japan Emphasis of zen is the attainment of enlightenment through meditation and self discipline. These characteristics appealed to the Samurai.
  40. 40. Tibetan Buddhism/Lamaism from the word “lamas” meaning the superior Lamas refers to Tibetan monks Tibet is a theocracy, Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader. Every time a Dalai Lama dies, Tibetans search for the next Dalai Lama who is believed to be the reincarnation of the previous.
  41. 41. Shinto
  42. 42. Shinto Indigenous religion of Japan In Japanese, it means kami no michi or way of the gods In shinto, kami or sacred spirits are worshipped kami inhabit nature kami can also refer to dead emperors, leaders, samurai and ancestors
  43. 43. Shinto Ameterasu, the sun-goddess, is whom the shintoists worship and regard her as their progenitor Untill the end of WWII, the emperor of Japan was worshipped as a god Buddha was also regarded as a kami
  44. 44. Shamanism
  45. 45. Shamanism Religion of the ancient Mongols and particularly during the time of Genghis Khan Shaman - Expert who serves intermediaries between humans and gods. They cure the sick and exorcise the evil spirits god of the ancient Mongols - Tengri; symbolizes blue sky They also worship guardian spirits, or spirits that inhabit nature Upon the death of Genghis Khan, He was regarded as Tengri
  46. 46. Animism
  47. 47. Animism Anima - soul spirit The world is inhabited by spirits living in stones, trees, rivers, mountaine and other objects of nature There are good and bad spirits Philippines - anito and diwata Myanmar - nat Phi - Laos
  48. 48. Animism Prayers and offerings to these spirits will bless the people. Earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, and other calamities are the result of the anger of the spirits In addition to natural spirits, Ancestral spirits are also worshipped