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Religions in Asia
Hinduism
              Three main Gods




  Brahma          Vishnu            Shiva
the Creator    The Preserver    The Destroyer!
One True God
Brahman
    - Means Ultimate Reality
 - Ultimate essence of material that cannot be realize
through senses but only through self knowledge (atm
                        jnana)
 - Not to be confused with Hindu preists known
                 as “Brahmins”


All three gods were manifestation of one true God
Caste System
                              Priests and Scholars


Warriors and       Brahmin
 Leaders          Kshatriya
                                 Farmers, Artisans,
                   Vaishya           Traders
 Slaves
                   Sudra

                 Untouchables
Karma
 Karma
    - Moral consequences of a person’s actions




Hindus believe in a cycle of rebirth. Upon death,
  the soul is transformed to a higher, or lower
  category of being depending on their Karma
Moksha and Nirvana
Moksha
 - End of the cycle of rebirth
Nirvana
 - When the soul attains true peace and happiness


A person’s goal is to achieve good karma in order to
                 avoid reincarnation
   Moksha and Nirvana are achieved when one’s
      sould is completely pure and united with
                      Brahman
Buddhism
Origin
- Emerged In India as a protest to Hinduism
- Founded by Siddharta Gautama Buddha
- Buddha opposed the caste system
Siddharta Gautama
                   Buddha
           - Son of a wealthy king in Nepal
     - Forbidden to leave his kingdom by his parents
- Prophesy said he would either be a king or a sage
- Upon seeing the real world, he decided to leave his
     kingdom to live a life of piety and asceticism
   - Meditated under a Bodhi tree for 49 days and
             experienced enlightenment
Division
Mahayana Buddhism              Theravada Buddhism

 Buddha = GOD                    Buddha = Teacher


        Later on, Buddhism was divided into
Jainism
Vardhamana/Mahavira
- A contemporary of Buddha
- Also opposed caste system
- Also left his family
- Became a beggar
 - Meditated silently for 12 years under a Sala
                       Tree
- Achieved “Kevala” in the 13th year
Jainism

Also believes in reincarnation and karma

Kevala can be attained through right conduct

It is forbidden to use force in Jainism

Peaceful action and non violence = Ahimsa

All life on earth is sacred, thus it i forbidden to
eat meat.
Sikhism



        QuickTime™ and a
        GIF decompressor
are needed to see this picture.
Guru Nanak

Founder of Sikhism

First Guru of sikhism

Guru - Descent of divine guidance to mankind
through the Ten Enlightened Masters

Born in Talvandi, now called Nankana Sahib
which is in Lahore, Pakistan
God
The God of the Sikh - niranker or formless.

God - akal or eternal.

He is the creator, sustainer and destroyer

God cannot be human and cannot be
understood by mortals.

God can be understood through his revelation,
his creations.

God is everywhere
Sikhism

Goal of man = destroy the cycle of rebirth and
unite with God

If a person overcomes the five cardinal vices,
he will be saved

5 cardinal vices - Sexual desire, anger, greed,
pride, hedonism

Sacred scripture - Guru Grant Sahib
Judaism
Judaism

Religion of the Jews/Israelites

First monotheistic religion

God = Yahweh

Yahweh’s teachings are in the Torah/ First
Five books of the bible

Chief Leader of Jews - Moses
Yahweh
Yahweh told the Jews, through Moses, that
Canaan was their promised land.

Yahweh gave them a covenant, through
moses, called the ten commandments.

Yahweh told the Jews to obey his teachings or
they would be punished

Jews do not believe that Jesus Christ is their
lord and savior.
Christianity
Jesus Christ

Founded Christianity

Believed by his followers to be the messiah

Born in bethlehem

Taught people, performed “miracles”

Crucified, resurrected after 3 days.
Christianity

Jesus Christ is the essence of Christianity

Holy book - Bible

Jesus is the son of God and was sent to the
world to live in suffering and poverty and to die
for the sake of mankind only to ressurect and
ascend to the Father.
Islam
Muhammad
One of the prophets of islam

Used to visit a cave to meditate

Realized the mysteries of faith, concerning
good and evil.

Allah is the only one who should be
recognized, praised and thanked.

All of Muhammad’s intuitions, experiences
were recorded by his spouse, Khadija, and his
followers. This became the Sunnah/Hadith
Islam

Literally means Peace or surrender

Followers are called Muslims

Sacred Scripture - Qur’an/Koran

The doctrine of Islam is based on five pillars

Muslims believe In Jesus Christ as a prophet
Five Pillars
1. Shahada - There is one God, Allah, and
Muhammad is his messenger.

2. Salat - Pray five times a day

3. Zakat - Being charitable

4. Sawn - The Ramadan

5. Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in
a life of a Muslim.
Zoroastrianism
Zoroastrianism
Founded by Zoroaster/ Zarathustra

Sacred Book - Zend Avesta

There are 2 forces; Good and Bad.

God of goodness: Ahura Mazda

God of evil: Angra Mainyu/ Ahriman

THERE IS ONE WAY TO FIGHT EVIL,
DOING GOOD
Confucianism
Confucianism
Founded By Confucius (chinese- Kong fu-tzu,
Kongfuzi, meaning - Master Kung)

Confucius wanted to find solutions to solve
society’s problems.

Everyone should have good virtues like:
1. Jen - Benevolence
2. Yi - Righteousness, Right conduct
3. Li - Ritual, Propriety

Teachings of Confucius are contained in Five
Classics
Five Classics
1. Classic of Changes - originally used for
divination

2. Book of History - collection of speeches and
discussions

3. Classic of Odes - odes and folk songs

4. Classic of Rites - discussion of principles of
conduct and description of courtly and private
ceremonials

5. Spring and Autumn Annals - Chronicle of
the state of Lu
Taoism
Taoism
Founded by Lao Tze/ Laozi/ Lao Zi/ Lao Tzu

According to some accounts, Lao Zi did not
exist. He was made up by Taoist scholars to
have a founder for Taoism.

Sacred Scripture - Dao De Jing/ Tao Te Ching

Taoists believe that nature has its own course
and path and humans should just go with the
flow
Taoism
The purpose of Taoism is to attain balance in
the world. It is symbolized by the yin yang

Yin - represents females: soft and calm

Yang - represents males: hard and energetic

Taoists believe that immortality can be obtained
by meditating, dieting, yoga, and alchemy

Taoists believe that nature is inhabited by Gods

They regard Buddha as one of their Gods
Legalism
Legalism
Confucianism and Taoism failed to end the
chaos during the Zhou Dynasty thus Legalism
emerged.

It is the anti-thesis of Confucianism

Focused on strengthening state and widening
its power.

Came from the ideas of Shang yang and Han
Feizi
Legalism

State is the most important

Strict laws and heavy punishment are
necessary

Adopted as a state religion by Qin Dynasty

Shi Huang Di embraced legalism and ordered
to burn all confucian books and execution of
confucian scholars
Zen Buddhism

Japanese sect of Buddhism

Came from an Indian monk: Bodhidharma.
Later it spread to Japan

Emphasis of zen is the attainment of
enlightenment through meditation and self
discipline. These characteristics appealed to
the Samurai.
Tibetan
 Buddhism/Lamaism
from the word “lamas” meaning the superior

Lamas refers to Tibetan monks

Tibet is a theocracy, Dalai Lama is the spiritual
and political leader. Every time a Dalai Lama
dies, Tibetans search for the next Dalai Lama
who is believed to be the reincarnation of the
previous.
Shinto
Shinto
Indigenous religion of Japan

In Japanese, it means kami no michi or way of
the gods

In shinto, kami or sacred spirits are
worshipped

kami inhabit nature

kami can also refer to dead emperors, leaders,
samurai and ancestors
Shinto

Ameterasu, the sun-goddess, is whom the
shintoists worship and regard her as their
progenitor

Untill the end of WWII, the emperor of Japan
was worshipped as a god

Buddha was also regarded as a kami
Shamanism
Shamanism
Religion of the ancient Mongols and particularly
during the time of Genghis Khan

Shaman - Expert who serves intermediaries
between humans and gods. They cure the sick
and exorcise the evil spirits

god of the ancient Mongols - Tengri; symbolizes
blue sky

They also worship guardian spirits, or spirits that
inhabit nature

Upon the death of Genghis Khan, He was
regarded as Tengri
Animism
Animism
Anima - soul spirit

The world is inhabited by spirits living in
stones, trees, rivers, mountaine and other
objects of nature

There are good and bad spirits

Philippines - anito and diwata

Myanmar - nat

Phi - Laos
Animism

Prayers and offerings to these spirits will bless
the people.

Earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, and
other calamities are the result of the anger of
the spirits

In addition to natural spirits, Ancestral spirits
are also worshipped

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Major Religions of Asia

  • 2. Hinduism Three main Gods Brahma Vishnu Shiva the Creator The Preserver The Destroyer!
  • 3. One True God Brahman - Means Ultimate Reality - Ultimate essence of material that cannot be realize through senses but only through self knowledge (atm jnana) - Not to be confused with Hindu preists known as “Brahmins” All three gods were manifestation of one true God
  • 4. Caste System Priests and Scholars Warriors and Brahmin Leaders Kshatriya Farmers, Artisans, Vaishya Traders Slaves Sudra Untouchables
  • 5. Karma Karma - Moral consequences of a person’s actions Hindus believe in a cycle of rebirth. Upon death, the soul is transformed to a higher, or lower category of being depending on their Karma
  • 6. Moksha and Nirvana Moksha - End of the cycle of rebirth Nirvana - When the soul attains true peace and happiness A person’s goal is to achieve good karma in order to avoid reincarnation Moksha and Nirvana are achieved when one’s sould is completely pure and united with Brahman
  • 8. Origin - Emerged In India as a protest to Hinduism - Founded by Siddharta Gautama Buddha - Buddha opposed the caste system
  • 9. Siddharta Gautama Buddha - Son of a wealthy king in Nepal - Forbidden to leave his kingdom by his parents - Prophesy said he would either be a king or a sage - Upon seeing the real world, he decided to leave his kingdom to live a life of piety and asceticism - Meditated under a Bodhi tree for 49 days and experienced enlightenment
  • 10. Division Mahayana Buddhism Theravada Buddhism Buddha = GOD Buddha = Teacher Later on, Buddhism was divided into
  • 12. Vardhamana/Mahavira - A contemporary of Buddha - Also opposed caste system - Also left his family - Became a beggar - Meditated silently for 12 years under a Sala Tree - Achieved “Kevala” in the 13th year
  • 13. Jainism Also believes in reincarnation and karma Kevala can be attained through right conduct It is forbidden to use force in Jainism Peaceful action and non violence = Ahimsa All life on earth is sacred, thus it i forbidden to eat meat.
  • 14. Sikhism QuickTime™ and a GIF decompressor are needed to see this picture.
  • 15. Guru Nanak Founder of Sikhism First Guru of sikhism Guru - Descent of divine guidance to mankind through the Ten Enlightened Masters Born in Talvandi, now called Nankana Sahib which is in Lahore, Pakistan
  • 16. God The God of the Sikh - niranker or formless. God - akal or eternal. He is the creator, sustainer and destroyer God cannot be human and cannot be understood by mortals. God can be understood through his revelation, his creations. God is everywhere
  • 17. Sikhism Goal of man = destroy the cycle of rebirth and unite with God If a person overcomes the five cardinal vices, he will be saved 5 cardinal vices - Sexual desire, anger, greed, pride, hedonism Sacred scripture - Guru Grant Sahib
  • 19. Judaism Religion of the Jews/Israelites First monotheistic religion God = Yahweh Yahweh’s teachings are in the Torah/ First Five books of the bible Chief Leader of Jews - Moses
  • 20. Yahweh Yahweh told the Jews, through Moses, that Canaan was their promised land. Yahweh gave them a covenant, through moses, called the ten commandments. Yahweh told the Jews to obey his teachings or they would be punished Jews do not believe that Jesus Christ is their lord and savior.
  • 22. Jesus Christ Founded Christianity Believed by his followers to be the messiah Born in bethlehem Taught people, performed “miracles” Crucified, resurrected after 3 days.
  • 23. Christianity Jesus Christ is the essence of Christianity Holy book - Bible Jesus is the son of God and was sent to the world to live in suffering and poverty and to die for the sake of mankind only to ressurect and ascend to the Father.
  • 24. Islam
  • 25. Muhammad One of the prophets of islam Used to visit a cave to meditate Realized the mysteries of faith, concerning good and evil. Allah is the only one who should be recognized, praised and thanked. All of Muhammad’s intuitions, experiences were recorded by his spouse, Khadija, and his followers. This became the Sunnah/Hadith
  • 26. Islam Literally means Peace or surrender Followers are called Muslims Sacred Scripture - Qur’an/Koran The doctrine of Islam is based on five pillars Muslims believe In Jesus Christ as a prophet
  • 27. Five Pillars 1. Shahada - There is one God, Allah, and Muhammad is his messenger. 2. Salat - Pray five times a day 3. Zakat - Being charitable 4. Sawn - The Ramadan 5. Hajj - Pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once in a life of a Muslim.
  • 29. Zoroastrianism Founded by Zoroaster/ Zarathustra Sacred Book - Zend Avesta There are 2 forces; Good and Bad. God of goodness: Ahura Mazda God of evil: Angra Mainyu/ Ahriman THERE IS ONE WAY TO FIGHT EVIL, DOING GOOD
  • 31. Confucianism Founded By Confucius (chinese- Kong fu-tzu, Kongfuzi, meaning - Master Kung) Confucius wanted to find solutions to solve society’s problems. Everyone should have good virtues like: 1. Jen - Benevolence 2. Yi - Righteousness, Right conduct 3. Li - Ritual, Propriety Teachings of Confucius are contained in Five Classics
  • 32. Five Classics 1. Classic of Changes - originally used for divination 2. Book of History - collection of speeches and discussions 3. Classic of Odes - odes and folk songs 4. Classic of Rites - discussion of principles of conduct and description of courtly and private ceremonials 5. Spring and Autumn Annals - Chronicle of the state of Lu
  • 34. Taoism Founded by Lao Tze/ Laozi/ Lao Zi/ Lao Tzu According to some accounts, Lao Zi did not exist. He was made up by Taoist scholars to have a founder for Taoism. Sacred Scripture - Dao De Jing/ Tao Te Ching Taoists believe that nature has its own course and path and humans should just go with the flow
  • 35. Taoism The purpose of Taoism is to attain balance in the world. It is symbolized by the yin yang Yin - represents females: soft and calm Yang - represents males: hard and energetic Taoists believe that immortality can be obtained by meditating, dieting, yoga, and alchemy Taoists believe that nature is inhabited by Gods They regard Buddha as one of their Gods
  • 37. Legalism Confucianism and Taoism failed to end the chaos during the Zhou Dynasty thus Legalism emerged. It is the anti-thesis of Confucianism Focused on strengthening state and widening its power. Came from the ideas of Shang yang and Han Feizi
  • 38. Legalism State is the most important Strict laws and heavy punishment are necessary Adopted as a state religion by Qin Dynasty Shi Huang Di embraced legalism and ordered to burn all confucian books and execution of confucian scholars
  • 39. Zen Buddhism Japanese sect of Buddhism Came from an Indian monk: Bodhidharma. Later it spread to Japan Emphasis of zen is the attainment of enlightenment through meditation and self discipline. These characteristics appealed to the Samurai.
  • 40. Tibetan Buddhism/Lamaism from the word “lamas” meaning the superior Lamas refers to Tibetan monks Tibet is a theocracy, Dalai Lama is the spiritual and political leader. Every time a Dalai Lama dies, Tibetans search for the next Dalai Lama who is believed to be the reincarnation of the previous.
  • 42. Shinto Indigenous religion of Japan In Japanese, it means kami no michi or way of the gods In shinto, kami or sacred spirits are worshipped kami inhabit nature kami can also refer to dead emperors, leaders, samurai and ancestors
  • 43. Shinto Ameterasu, the sun-goddess, is whom the shintoists worship and regard her as their progenitor Untill the end of WWII, the emperor of Japan was worshipped as a god Buddha was also regarded as a kami
  • 45. Shamanism Religion of the ancient Mongols and particularly during the time of Genghis Khan Shaman - Expert who serves intermediaries between humans and gods. They cure the sick and exorcise the evil spirits god of the ancient Mongols - Tengri; symbolizes blue sky They also worship guardian spirits, or spirits that inhabit nature Upon the death of Genghis Khan, He was regarded as Tengri
  • 47. Animism Anima - soul spirit The world is inhabited by spirits living in stones, trees, rivers, mountaine and other objects of nature There are good and bad spirits Philippines - anito and diwata Myanmar - nat Phi - Laos
  • 48. Animism Prayers and offerings to these spirits will bless the people. Earthquakes, storms, volcanic eruptions, and other calamities are the result of the anger of the spirits In addition to natural spirits, Ancestral spirits are also worshipped