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PREPARED BY:-
SUPRIYA MAJUMDER (28A-11)
JAYANTA SARMA (29A-11)
DIPANKAR SARKAR (34A-11)
SOURAV CHOUDHURY (43A-11)
PRIYAJOY...
contents
Introduction
Origin & History
Botanical description
Important Varieties
Climatic reqiurments
Pests & Diseas...
INTRODUCTION
 Potatoes are a member of the Order Solanaceae which
includes tobacco and tomatoes,as potatoes are
actually ...
ORIGIN & HISTORY
Originated in South America in
Andean region
Europeans introduced potato in India
during late 16th cent...
Current Scenario
India is producing 41.3 m tons (2011-12) from 1.9 m ha at
an average productivity of 22.1 t/ha.
Potato ...
0
20
40
60
80
100
China, mainland Russian Federation India Ukraine Bangladesh USA Poland
Area (Lakh ha)
Production (Millio...
Potato productivity in major potato
producing states
8.8
19.4
29.7
19.8
14.3
10
12
25 24.9
28.9
14.9
23.7
0
10
20
30
40
Varietal development – Developed 49 high yielding varieties
for all regions and seasons.
Establishment of Indigenous see...
BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION
 It is vegetatively propagated by
means of tubers
 The leaves are alternate &
compound
 The root ...
CLASSIFICATION
The cultivated potato belongs to the species
Solanum tuberosum & 154 wild species are
generally recognised....
Potato varieties developed during last 5 years (8)
Adapted to North
Indian plains Yield
potential of 40 t/ha
Resistance to...
Kufri Frysona
Adapted to North
Indian plains
Yield potential of 40
t/ha
Resistance to late
blight and wart,
suitable for m...
Agro-Climatic Requirement
Growing season Cool season crop
Temperature for germination and
vegetative growth
Between 17 and...
Soil Suitability
• Deep, well-drained, sandy loam soils
• pH 5 - 6.5(acidic soil)
• Stone free soils
• Light, sandy soils
Grading of seed
 Seed potatoes are graded into 2 sizes
35 – 45mm
45 – 55mm
35 – 45mm seeds are spaced at 20 – 25cm apart ...
Seed and Sowing
 As the size of the seed increases, the number of ‘eyes’
increases.
 Each eye grows into an individual p...
Sowing potatoes
Potato with ‘eyes’ Planting potatoes by hand
Cropping System
 Being a short duration crop it fits well in many
intensive crop rotation.
 Some of the important rotati...
Field Preparation
 The field should be ploughed once 20-25 cm
deep with soil turning plough.
 Thereafter, two to three c...
Fertiliser Requirements
 Apply 20-30 tonnes FYM 2 weeks before planting.
 Usual rates of NPK applied are:
- Nitrogen: 18...
Potato yield and quality can be reduced by
both under and over-irrigation.
Water requirements of potato varies from 350
...
EARTHING UP
 Proper earthing up is necessary for proper
development of tubers as depends upon
aeration, moisture availabi...
Weed Management in Potato
 The weed control in potato crop is normally done
by manual labour.
 Weeds can be controll ind...
IMPORTANTDISEASESANDPESTSOF
POTATOANDITS MANAGEMENT
A]LATE BLIGHT OF POTATO
 C.O-Phytophthora infestans
SYMPTOMS-
1.Start from tip of the leaf margin
As small black areas wh...
C.O-Alternaria solani
SYMPTOMS-
1.Appearence of target like
Or concentric ring type on
leaf and stem.
2.The canker may cau...
C.BROWN ROT OF POTATO
 C.0-Ralstonia solanacearum
 SYMPTOMS-
 1.Sudden wilting of the plant.
 2.Affected plants show d...
 C.O-Synchytrium endobioticum
 SYMPTOMS-
 1.The chief symptoms of the disease is
the appearance of tumours or warts of
...
Potato wart
Synchytrium endobioticum
Brown rot
Ralstonia solanacearum
Scab
Streptomyces scabies
Late blight
Phytophthora i...
 Black Leg - Erwinia carotovora
 Dry rot - Fusarium oxysporium
 Wilt-fusarium solani.
 Golden nematode-heterodera rost...
IMPORTANT INSECTS OF POTATO
Aphids
Potato tuber moth Symptoms made by potato tuber moth
Aphid
A. B.
C. D.
Symptoms made by...
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT INSECTS
WIREWORM SLUG
WHITE GRUB
Wireworm: use poison baits
Slugs: use slug pellets
Aphids: use insecticides or ladybirds
Potato cyst nematode: Employ crop...
Harvesting
 Earlies are harvested from early June onwards
 Early crops (new potatoes) have low yield but
get high price....
YIELD
 Maincrop (average) 30 -40 tonne /ha
 First earlies, yield can be as low as 7 – 10 tonne / ha
STORAGE
Buildings for storage should be:
 Leak proof
 Frost proofdiscourage rotting
 Well ventilated- Less risk of spro...
POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
IN POTATO
Potato being a semi-perishable commodity need
very stringent post-harvest mangement.
P...
TPS Technology
True Potato Seed Technology :-
True Potato seed is very effective & cheap source
of planting material.The shortage of good...
Paired-row concept for Cultivation of
True Potato Seed :-
Paired-row concept for cultivation of True
Potato Seed (TPS) i...
Advantages of using True Potato Seeds as
planting material:-
100 grams is sufficient to cover one hectare instead
of plant...
Some varieties of true potato seeds:-
 Some of the important true potatoes seeds
(TPS) varieties are-
HPS 1/13, HPS II/63...
Thank You
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potato

  1. 1. PREPARED BY:- SUPRIYA MAJUMDER (28A-11) JAYANTA SARMA (29A-11) DIPANKAR SARKAR (34A-11) SOURAV CHOUDHURY (43A-11) PRIYAJOY KAR (44A-11)
  2. 2. contents Introduction Origin & History Botanical description Important Varieties Climatic reqiurments Pests & Diseases True Potato Seed Technology Post harvest management
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION  Potatoes are a member of the Order Solanaceae which includes tobacco and tomatoes,as potatoes are actually swollen underground stems or tubers.  It is the third most important food crop just after rice & wheat  It is an economical food as it contains 20.6% carbohydrate,2.1% protein & 0.3% fat  It is a rich source of starch,vitamins (C, B1) & some essential amino acid like leucine,tryptophane,isoleucine  Nearly 236 tuber bearing species
  4. 4. ORIGIN & HISTORY Originated in South America in Andean region Europeans introduced potato in India during late 16th century or early 17th century By late eighteen to early nineteenth century are established in Northern hills of India with some common names like Phulwa,Gola,Satha
  5. 5. Current Scenario India is producing 41.3 m tons (2011-12) from 1.9 m ha at an average productivity of 22.1 t/ha. Potato contributes about 2.48% of the total agricultural output from only 1.07% of the total cropped area in the year 2007-08. 2.8 m tons (7.5%) of the produce is processed. 2.96 m tons (8.5%) of the produce is used as seed. 0.1 m tons are exported Post harvest losses are nearly 16% of the total produce.
  6. 6. 0 20 40 60 80 100 China, mainland Russian Federation India Ukraine Bangladesh USA Poland Area (Lakh ha) Production (Million Tonne) India ranks third in area and second in production in the world (Av. 2010-12)
  7. 7. Potato productivity in major potato producing states 8.8 19.4 29.7 19.8 14.3 10 12 25 24.9 28.9 14.9 23.7 0 10 20 30 40
  8. 8. Varietal development – Developed 49 high yielding varieties for all regions and seasons. Establishment of Indigenous seed production system – Seed production shifted from the hills to the northern plains to cater to the large demand of seed. Growth in cold stores capacity – Helped in storing and maintaining the supply chain in off season across the country. Major factors that contributed to the growth of potato in India
  9. 9. BOTANICAL DESCRIPTION  It is vegetatively propagated by means of tubers  The leaves are alternate & compound  The root is adventitious,arising from the base of a sprout  The root growth is restricted upto 20-25 cm  The flower of the potato are in terminal cluster which contain five stamens,two celled pistil,five sepals & five petals
  10. 10. CLASSIFICATION The cultivated potato belongs to the species Solanum tuberosum & 154 wild species are generally recognised.The commercial potato generally belongs to two species: (1)Solanum tuberosum:It is more common thicker leafs & wider leaflets (2)Solanum andigenum:It is not very common with long stem & narrow leaflets
  11. 11. Potato varieties developed during last 5 years (8) Adapted to North Indian plains Yield potential of 40 t/ha Resistance to early and late blight, early bulker, suitable for early planting. Adapted to UP and adjoining areas Yield potential of 40 t/ha Resistance to late blight, early bulker. Kufri Garima Adapted to Indo- gangetic plains and plateau region Yield potential of 35 t/ha Field resistant to late blight Kufri Gaurav Adapted to North Indian plains Yield potential of 40 t/ha Perform well under sub-optimal doses of fertilizers ) Kufri SadabaharKufri Khyati TABLE VARIETIES (4)
  12. 12. Kufri Frysona Adapted to North Indian plains Yield potential of 40 t/ha Resistance to late blight and wart, suitable for making French fries Adapted to Hills (Processing variety) Yield potential of 35 t/ha Resistance to late blight and wart Kufri Himsona Potato varieties developed during last 5 years…contd. PROCESSING VARIETIES (2) Kufri Girdhari Adapted to Indian Hills Yield potential of 35 t/ha Extreme resistance to late blight (Joseph et al., 2010) Kufri Neelima Adapted to Southern Hills Yield potential of 30 t/ha Resistance to early blight, late blight and cyst nematode (Annual Report 2009-10, pp.107) DISEASE RESISTANT VARIETIES (2)
  13. 13. Agro-Climatic Requirement Growing season Cool season crop Temperature for germination and vegetative growth Between 17 and 25ºC Temperature for tuberization Between 17 and 19ºC Crop duration Short (80-90 days) Photoperiod Potato need long day condition during growth and short day condition during tuberization
  14. 14. Soil Suitability • Deep, well-drained, sandy loam soils • pH 5 - 6.5(acidic soil) • Stone free soils • Light, sandy soils
  15. 15. Grading of seed  Seed potatoes are graded into 2 sizes 35 – 45mm 45 – 55mm 35 – 45mm seeds are spaced at 20 – 25cm apart giving about 60,000 seeds/ha 45 -55mm seeds are spaced at 30 – 35cm apart giving about 40,000 seeds/ha
  16. 16. Seed and Sowing  As the size of the seed increases, the number of ‘eyes’ increases.  Each eye grows into an individual plant.  Sown 10cm below the surface of the ridge.  Potato seeds can be sprouted prior to planting by placing in shallow boxes and placing them in greenhouses or well lit sheds.  Commercially seeds are sown using an automatic or semi-automatic planter.  Planting by hand can be done in small areas.  Spacing-60cm*20 cm.  Seed Rate-20qt/ha.
  17. 17. Sowing potatoes Potato with ‘eyes’ Planting potatoes by hand
  18. 18. Cropping System  Being a short duration crop it fits well in many intensive crop rotation.  Some of the important rotations are given below- Maize-Potato Rice-Potato Soybean-Potato Maize-Potato-Wheat Cowpea-Potato-Wheat
  19. 19. Field Preparation  The field should be ploughed once 20-25 cm deep with soil turning plough.  Thereafter, two to three cross harrowing or four to five ploughings with local plough should be done.  One or two planking are also needed to make the surface smooth and well levelled.  Enough moisture is essential at the time of sowing.
  20. 20. Fertiliser Requirements  Apply 20-30 tonnes FYM 2 weeks before planting.  Usual rates of NPK applied are: - Nitrogen: 180-200 kg/ha -Phosphorous: 100-150 kg/ha -Potassium: 100-150 kg/ha  Too much nitrogen leads to high yields which have poor eating quality  Application is usually decided on after soil tests  Fertiliser is broadcast onto the soil before planting
  21. 21. Potato yield and quality can be reduced by both under and over-irrigation. Water requirements of potato varies from 350 to 550 mm depending on crop duration, atmospheric conditions , soil type and variety under cultivation. 8-12 irrigations are necessary in potato for obtaining high yield. Furrow irrigation is most common and popular method of irrigating potato in plains. Water management in potato
  22. 22. EARTHING UP  Proper earthing up is necessary for proper development of tubers as depends upon aeration, moisture availability and proper soil temperature.  Earthing up also protect the crop from light. Light exposure causes greening of tubers and leads to alkaloids (poisonous) forming skins.  Earthing up should be done when the plants are 15 - 22cm high or generally it is done at the time of top dressing of nitrogenous fertilisers.
  23. 23. Weed Management in Potato  The weed control in potato crop is normally done by manual labour.  Weeds can be controll indirectly by crop rotation and stubble cleaning.  Deep ploughing also buries weeds.  Earthing up also helps in weed control.  Alachlor (lasso) may also be used as pre- emergence herbicide.
  24. 24. IMPORTANTDISEASESANDPESTSOF POTATOANDITS MANAGEMENT
  25. 25. A]LATE BLIGHT OF POTATO  C.O-Phytophthora infestans SYMPTOMS- 1.Start from tip of the leaf margin As small black areas which may extend and kill the foliage. 2.The affected tubers show light brown patches on the surface. MANAGEMENT- 1.Foliar spray with RIDOMIL, MANCOZEB,ZINEB,COC @2glt. 2.Use of resistant varieties such as kufri jyoti ,kufri navtal.
  26. 26. C.O-Alternaria solani SYMPTOMS- 1.Appearence of target like Or concentric ring type on leaf and stem. 2.The canker may cause Wilting of the plant also. MANAGEMENT- 1.Removal the crop debries and destroy them by burning After harvest. 2.Spray fungicides such as RIDOMIL ,MANCOZEB,COC ZINEB @ 2glt. B.EARLY BLIGHT OF POTATO
  27. 27. C.BROWN ROT OF POTATO  C.0-Ralstonia solanacearum  SYMPTOMS-  1.Sudden wilting of the plant.  2.Affected plants show droopy appearance and the branches gradually turn bronzy and die.  MANAGEMENT-  1.The seed tuber should be treated with Aretan 0.5% or 0.2% streptocyclin solution for 15 to 20 minutes.
  28. 28.  C.O-Synchytrium endobioticum  SYMPTOMS-  1.The chief symptoms of the disease is the appearance of tumours or warts of the tuber.  2.infection of wart appears on the eyes of the tubers.  MANAGEMENT-  1.Wart affected tubers should not be planted.  2.Quarantine legislation should be strictly followed. D.WART DISEASE OF POTATO
  29. 29. Potato wart Synchytrium endobioticum Brown rot Ralstonia solanacearum Scab Streptomyces scabies Late blight Phytophthora infestans Potato wart Synchytrium endobioticum
  30. 30.  Black Leg - Erwinia carotovora  Dry rot - Fusarium oxysporium  Wilt-fusarium solani.  Golden nematode-heterodera rostochinensis.  Leaf roll- leaf roll virus  Scab - Streptomyces Scabies  Sclerotium rot - Sclerotium rolfsii  Root knot-Meloidogyne incognita.  Charcoal rot - Macrophomina phaseolina OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
  31. 31. IMPORTANT INSECTS OF POTATO Aphids Potato tuber moth Symptoms made by potato tuber moth Aphid A. B. C. D. Symptoms made by aphid
  32. 32. SOME OTHER IMPORTANT INSECTS WIREWORM SLUG WHITE GRUB
  33. 33. Wireworm: use poison baits Slugs: use slug pellets Aphids: use insecticides or ladybirds Potato cyst nematode: Employ crop rotation Pest And Control
  34. 34. Harvesting  Earlies are harvested from early June onwards  Early crops (new potatoes) have low yield but get high price.  Maincrop are harvested in late September or October at full maturity.  Haulms are killed off 3 weeks before harvesting. Use contact herbicide.  In these 3 weeks skin on tuber hardens leads to less bruising and scratching on harvesting
  35. 35. YIELD  Maincrop (average) 30 -40 tonne /ha  First earlies, yield can be as low as 7 – 10 tonne / ha
  36. 36. STORAGE Buildings for storage should be:  Leak proof  Frost proofdiscourage rotting  Well ventilated- Less risk of sprouting and rotting  Forced draught ventilation systems are needed where stacks exceed 1.8m in height  Easy access for tractors and trailers  Strong, reinforced walls Potatoes to be sold after February 1st should be treated with sprout inhibitor or else refrigerated
  37. 37. POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT IN POTATO Potato being a semi-perishable commodity need very stringent post-harvest mangement. Potato chips,French fries, flakes and several other frozen products are the major processed products. Out of 36.6 milion tonnes of potato production in India during 2009-10,2.67 million tonnes were utilised as raw material by the pocessing industries. Potato –processing industries can uplift the rural economy and provide employment to youth.
  38. 38. TPS Technology
  39. 39. True Potato Seed Technology :- True Potato seed is very effective & cheap source of planting material.The shortage of good quality seed tubers, high cost of seed, transportation problem, virus infiltration in seed tubers are some of the problems associated with the use of seed tubers as planting material. The concept of raising potato crop from true potato seeds (TPS) or botanical seeds was conceived in India in the early fifties by Dr. S. Ramanujan, the founder director of CPRI.
  40. 40. Paired-row concept for Cultivation of True Potato Seed :- Paired-row concept for cultivation of True Potato Seed (TPS) is the innovation in which TPS are sown in narrow inter space of 10 cm ×10 cm with 5 cm for plant-to- plant distance. A total of 100 plants per m2 were maintained in all cases. This innovation is less laborious than a single row system, which need more time. Very high level of seedling maintenance is the major utility of this concept.
  41. 41. Advantages of using True Potato Seeds as planting material:- 100 grams is sufficient to cover one hectare instead of planting 2-2.5 tons of Potato seed tuber.  Being hybrid capable of giving more production.  No cold storage facility is required for storing T.P.S.  Comparatively more resistance to pests and diseases.  Net profit is more as cost of cultivation is less and also as per hectare production is much more.  The seed tubers being utilized could be otherwise used for consumption.
  42. 42. Some varieties of true potato seeds:-  Some of the important true potatoes seeds (TPS) varieties are- HPS 1/13, HPS II/63, TPS C-3, 92-PT-27 etc
  43. 43. Thank You

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