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Potatoes are a member of the Order Solanaceae which
includes tobacco and tomatoes,as potatoes are
actually swollen underground stems or tubers.
It is the third most important food crop just after rice &
It is an economical food as it contains 20.6%
carbohydrate,2.1% protein & 0.3% fat
It is a rich source of starch,vitamins (C, B1) & some
essential amino acid like
Nearly 236 tuber bearing species
ORIGIN & HISTORY
Originated in South America in
Europeans introduced potato in India
during late 16th century or early 17th
By late eighteen to early nineteenth
century are established in Northern
hills of India with some common
names like Phulwa,Gola,Satha
India is producing 41.3 m tons (2011-12) from 1.9 m ha at
an average productivity of 22.1 t/ha.
Potato contributes about 2.48% of the total agricultural
output from only 1.07% of the total cropped area in the
2.8 m tons (7.5%) of the produce is processed.
2.96 m tons (8.5%) of the produce is used as seed.
0.1 m tons are exported
Post harvest losses are nearly 16% of the total produce.
China, mainland Russian Federation India Ukraine Bangladesh USA Poland
Area (Lakh ha)
Production (Million Tonne)
India ranks third in area and second in
production in the world (Av. 2010-12)
Potato productivity in major potato
Varietal development – Developed 49 high yielding varieties
for all regions and seasons.
Establishment of Indigenous seed production system –
Seed production shifted from the hills to the northern plains
to cater to the large demand of seed.
Growth in cold stores capacity – Helped in storing and
maintaining the supply chain in off season across the country.
Major factors that contributed to
the growth of potato in India
It is vegetatively propagated by
means of tubers
The leaves are alternate &
The root is adventitious,arising from
the base of a sprout
The root growth is restricted upto
The flower of the potato are in
terminal cluster which contain five
stamens,two celled pistil,five sepals
& five petals
The cultivated potato belongs to the species
Solanum tuberosum & 154 wild species are
generally recognised.The commercial potato
generally belongs to two species:
(1)Solanum tuberosum:It is more common thicker
leafs & wider leaflets
(2)Solanum andigenum:It is not very common
with long stem & narrow leaflets
Potato varieties developed during last 5 years (8)
Adapted to North
Indian plains Yield
potential of 40 t/ha
Resistance to early
and late blight, early
bulker, suitable for
Adapted to UP
potential of 40
to late blight,
Adapted to Indo-
gangetic plains and
Yield potential of 35
Field resistant to late
Adapted to North
Indian plains Yield
potential of 40 t/ha
Perform well under
of fertilizers )
Kufri SadabaharKufri Khyati TABLE VARIETIES (4)
Adapted to North
Yield potential of 40
Resistance to late
blight and wart,
suitable for making
Adapted to Hills
Yield potential of 35
t/ha Resistance to late
blight and wart
Potato varieties developed during last 5 years…contd.
PROCESSING VARIETIES (2)
Adapted to Indian
Hills Yield potential of
35 t/ha Extreme
resistance to late
blight (Joseph et al.,
Yield potential of
30 t/ha Resistance
to early blight, late
blight and cyst
DISEASE RESISTANT VARIETIES (2)
Growing season Cool season crop
Temperature for germination and
Between 17 and 25ºC
Temperature for tuberization Between 17 and 19ºC
Crop duration Short (80-90 days)
Photoperiod Potato need long day condition
during growth and short day
condition during tuberization
Grading of seed
Seed potatoes are graded into 2 sizes
35 – 45mm
45 – 55mm
35 – 45mm seeds are spaced at 20 – 25cm apart giving
about 60,000 seeds/ha
45 -55mm seeds are spaced at 30 – 35cm apart giving
about 40,000 seeds/ha
Seed and Sowing
As the size of the seed increases, the number of ‘eyes’
Each eye grows into an individual plant.
Sown 10cm below the surface of the ridge.
Potato seeds can be sprouted prior to planting by
placing in shallow boxes and placing them in
greenhouses or well lit sheds.
Commercially seeds are sown using an automatic or
Planting by hand can be done in small areas.
Potato with ‘eyes’ Planting potatoes by hand
Being a short duration crop it fits well in many
intensive crop rotation.
Some of the important rotations are given
The field should be ploughed once 20-25 cm
deep with soil turning plough.
Thereafter, two to three cross harrowing or
four to five ploughings with local plough
should be done.
One or two planking are also needed to
make the surface smooth and well levelled.
Enough moisture is essential at the time of
Apply 20-30 tonnes FYM 2 weeks before planting.
Usual rates of NPK applied are:
- Nitrogen: 180-200 kg/ha
-Phosphorous: 100-150 kg/ha
-Potassium: 100-150 kg/ha
Too much nitrogen leads to high yields which have
poor eating quality
Application is usually decided on after soil tests
Fertiliser is broadcast onto the soil before planting
Potato yield and quality can be reduced by
both under and over-irrigation.
Water requirements of potato varies from 350
to 550 mm depending on crop duration,
atmospheric conditions , soil type and variety
8-12 irrigations are necessary in potato for
obtaining high yield.
Furrow irrigation is most common and popular
method of irrigating potato in plains.
Water management in potato
Proper earthing up is necessary for proper
development of tubers as depends upon
aeration, moisture availability and proper soil
Earthing up also protect the crop from light. Light
exposure causes greening of tubers and leads to
alkaloids (poisonous) forming skins.
Earthing up should be done when the plants are
15 - 22cm high or generally it is done at the time
of top dressing of nitrogenous fertilisers.
Weed Management in Potato
The weed control in potato crop is normally done
by manual labour.
Weeds can be controll indirectly by crop rotation
and stubble cleaning.
Deep ploughing also buries weeds.
Earthing up also helps in weed control.
Alachlor (lasso) may also be used as pre-
A]LATE BLIGHT OF POTATO
1.Start from tip of the leaf margin
As small black areas which may
extend and kill the foliage.
2.The affected tubers show light
brown patches on the surface.
1.Foliar spray with RIDOMIL,
2.Use of resistant varieties such
as kufri jyoti ,kufri navtal.
1.Appearence of target like
Or concentric ring type on
leaf and stem.
2.The canker may cause
Wilting of the plant also.
1.Removal the crop debries
and destroy them by burning
2.Spray fungicides such as
ZINEB @ 2glt.
B.EARLY BLIGHT OF POTATO
C.BROWN ROT OF POTATO
1.Sudden wilting of the plant.
2.Affected plants show droopy
appearance and the branches
gradually turn bronzy and die.
1.The seed tuber should be treated
with Aretan 0.5% or 0.2%
streptocyclin solution for 15 to 20
1.The chief symptoms of the disease is
the appearance of tumours or warts of
2.infection of wart appears on the eyes
of the tubers.
1.Wart affected tubers should not be
2.Quarantine legislation should be
D.WART DISEASE OF POTATO
Black Leg - Erwinia carotovora
Dry rot - Fusarium oxysporium
Golden nematode-heterodera rostochinensis.
Leaf roll- leaf roll virus
Scab - Streptomyces Scabies
Sclerotium rot - Sclerotium rolfsii
Root knot-Meloidogyne incognita.
Charcoal rot - Macrophomina phaseolina
OTHER IMPORTANT DISEASES
IMPORTANT INSECTS OF POTATO
Potato tuber moth Symptoms made by potato tuber moth
Symptoms made by aphid
SOME OTHER IMPORTANT INSECTS
Wireworm: use poison baits
Slugs: use slug pellets
Aphids: use insecticides or ladybirds
Potato cyst nematode: Employ crop rotation
Pest And Control
Earlies are harvested from early June onwards
Early crops (new potatoes) have low yield but
get high price.
Maincrop are harvested in late September or
October at full maturity.
Haulms are killed off 3 weeks before
harvesting. Use contact herbicide.
In these 3 weeks skin on tuber hardens leads to
less bruising and scratching on harvesting
Maincrop (average) 30 -40 tonne /ha
First earlies, yield can be as low as 7 – 10 tonne / ha
Buildings for storage should be:
Frost proofdiscourage rotting
Well ventilated- Less risk of sprouting and rotting
Forced draught ventilation systems are needed where
stacks exceed 1.8m in height
Easy access for tractors and trailers
Strong, reinforced walls
Potatoes to be sold after February 1st should be treated
with sprout inhibitor or else refrigerated
POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
Potato being a semi-perishable commodity need
very stringent post-harvest mangement.
Potato chips,French fries, flakes and several other
frozen products are the major processed products.
Out of 36.6 milion tonnes of potato production in
India during 2009-10,2.67 million tonnes were
utilised as raw material by the pocessing industries.
Potato –processing industries can uplift the rural
economy and provide employment to youth.
True Potato Seed Technology :-
True Potato seed is very effective & cheap source
of planting material.The shortage of good quality
seed tubers, high cost of seed, transportation
problem, virus infiltration in seed tubers are some
of the problems associated with the use of seed
tubers as planting material. The concept of raising
potato crop from true potato seeds (TPS) or
botanical seeds was conceived in India in the early
fifties by Dr. S. Ramanujan, the founder director
Paired-row concept for Cultivation of
True Potato Seed :-
Paired-row concept for cultivation of True
Potato Seed (TPS) is the innovation in
which TPS are sown in narrow inter space
of 10 cm ×10 cm with 5 cm for plant-to-
plant distance. A total of 100 plants per
m2 were maintained in all cases.
This innovation is less laborious than a
single row system, which need more time.
Very high level of seedling maintenance
is the major utility of this concept.
Advantages of using True Potato Seeds as
100 grams is sufficient to cover one hectare instead
of planting 2-2.5 tons of Potato seed tuber.
Being hybrid capable of giving more production.
No cold storage facility is required for storing T.P.S.
Comparatively more resistance to pests and
Net profit is more as cost of cultivation is less and
also as per hectare production is much more.
The seed tubers being utilized could be otherwise
used for consumption.
Some varieties of true potato seeds:-
Some of the important true potatoes seeds
(TPS) varieties are-
HPS 1/13, HPS II/63, TPS C-3, 92-PT-27 etc